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Glossary of Vert. Morph. Test 1

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The dermal appearance of a vertebrate varies depending on the animal. What are the four main things that vary in the appearance?
1. amount and complexity of skin glands ( which determines is if the skin is wet or dry)
2. kinds of epidermal specializations and modifications (hair, feathers, baleen, scales, horns, claws, etc)
3. whether bone develops in skin or not
4. thickness of epidermis and dermis


ON a fish, explain the epidermis (4 key points)
1. stratified BUT relatively THIN
2. NO keratinized (=a protein) or cornified layer
-often folded
-lots of unicellular mucous glands


What is the function of the mucous in a fish ?
-protection from microbes
-reduces friction
-reduces H2O flow thru skin

Explain the dermis of a fish.
- Dense connective tissue
-lots of blood vessels (bloody)
-***PROTEIN FIBERS MADE OF PROTEIN COLLAGEN
-contains chromatophores


Cells with pigment granules
(They are in fish but are found in other vert. too)

*It is derived from the neural crest cells


Chromatophores
Vertebrates belong to the phylum _________.
Chordata
Only ____% of living organisms belong to the chordata phylum.
3%
Protostome means ________ _________.
First Mouth
Deuterostome means ________ ________.
Second Mouth
3 examples of Protostomes are:
Arthropods, Annelids, Mollusks
List 5 examples of Deuterostomes:
1. Echinoderms
2. Hemichordates
3. Urochordates
4. Cephalochordates
5. Vertebrates



In a Protostome gastrula, the blastopore forms the ________.
Mouth
In a Deuterostome gastrula, the __________ forms the anus, and the _________ forms the mouth.
1. Blastopore
2. Invagination
Two differences between a protostome and deuterostome gastrula are:
1. _________ forms differently
2. _________ pattern different

1. Mesoderm
2. Cleavage
The Mesoderm is the ________ layer.
Middle
3 examples of Echinodermata:
1. Sand dollars
2. Sea stars
3. Sea cucumbers

An example of a Hemichordata would be:
Acorn worms
Hemichordata (Acorn worms) characteristics
1. ______-like
2. marine ________ ________
3. ________ dwellers


1. Worm
2. Filter feeders
3. Bottom

Hemichordata (Acorn worms) characteristics
Name the 3 body regions:
1. Head
2. Collar
3. Trunk

Hemichordata (Acorn worms) characteristics
1. ________ slits
2. Dorsal hollow _______ _______
3. Notochord: Yes or No


1. Pharyngeal
2. Nerve cord
3. No

Hemichordata (Acorn worms) characteristics
1. Post anal tail: Yes or No
2. Endostyle: Yes or Not

1. No
2. No
Chordate Characteristics
List the 5 main characteristics:
1. Notochord
2. Pharyngeal gill pouches and/or slits
3. Dorsal hollow nerve cord
4. Post anal tail
5. Endostyle/thyroid



The Notochord appears in the _________ below ________ _______.
1. Embryo
2. Nerve cord
The Notochord extends from _______ to ________.
1. Brain
2. Tail
The Notochord gives ________, ______-embryonic skeleton.
1. Support
2. Stiff
The Notochord is composed of __________, _________ cells surrounded by a _________ sheath.
1. Inflated
2. Living
3.Fibrous

The Notochord in most vertebrate groups is replaced by __________ and _______ of vertebrate. Exceptions are in extant jawless fishes; ________, and __________.
1. Cartilage
2. Bone
3. Hagfishes
4. Lampreys


The notochord is made of bone.
True or False?
Also, the notochord is the main structure of support. True or False?

1. False
2. True
In most vertebraes, the notochord is replaced by _______ and ___________.
1. Bone
2. Cartilage
The remnant of the notochord in the intervertebral disks is called the _______ __________.
Pulpy nucleus
The pharyngeal pouches/slits are perforations or pouches in the __________ region ___________ canal.
1. Anterior
2. Alimentary
The pharyngeal pouches/slits were initially used for _________ ________.
Filter feeding
The pharyngeal pouches/slits can also be used for _______ exchange.
Gas
In the pharyngeal pouches/slits, the ________ are on the outside, the _______ are on the inside, and a _____ is a perforation between the two structures above.
1. Groove
2. Pouch
3. Slit

The dorsal hollow nerve cord forms from the outer layer of cells of the embryo, also known as the ___________.
Ectoderm
In the dorsal region of embryo, outer cells pile up, change shape, and form a tube.
1. The process of forming this tube is called _________.
2. Also, this tube goes on to become the _______ and _______ _______.

1. Neurulation
2. Brain
2. Spinal cord

The postanal tail is an extension of body past the _____ and is primarily used for __________.
1. Anus
2. Locomotion
The Endostyle/thyroid is initially used for ___________ and __________ food. Also, in most chordates it helps regulate _________.
1. Capturing
2. Transportation
3. Metabolism

In lamprey larvae, one can see the endostyle develop into the _________.
Thyroid
Name 3 subphylum groups of the phylum Chordata
1. Urochordata
2. Cephalochordata
3. Vertebrata (Craniata)

3 examples of living organisms in the subphylum Urochordata
1. Sea squirts
2. Tunicates
3. Sea grapes

Urochordates have all 5 chordate characteristics, but only in their _______ form.
Larvae
During a Urochordates metamorphosis, the _________ disappears, and the dorsal nerve becomes a _______ _________.
1. Notochord
2. Nerve ganglion
Urochordates are ________ (means doesn't move) and _______ _______ (feeding method).
1. Sessile
2. Filter feeders
A Urochordate's outer covering is called its _______ and is composed of a ______________ that resembles cellulose.
1. Tunic
2. Polysaccharide
Urochordates are strictly ________ organisms and can be found living in _________ and ________ forms.
1. Marine
2. Solitary
3. Colonial

An example of a living organism in the subphylum Cephlachordata would be a __________.
Lancelot
Cephlachordates have chordate characteristics, but the __________ goes to the end of the _________ region.
1. Notochord
2. Anterior
In Cephlachordates, the head is typically ______ in size and these have no paired _______ organs.
1. Small
2. Sense
In Cephlachordates, the _______ lacks 3 major vertebrates divisions.
1. Brain
• Name the 4 types of chromatophores.
1. Melanophores
2. Xanthopores
3. Erythrophores
4. Iridophores (most common in fish)






If a lizard changes colors from green to brown. It is due to its ______
• Melanophores
The disperal pattern that is shades of black and brown are regulated by what _____________
• The nervous system and/or endocrine system
What is the Melanophores made up of?

• Melanin granules that are clumped or dispersed (that are shades of BLACK and BROWN)




What color are Xanthophores?
• Yellow Granules (yellowish color)
What color are Erythrophores?
• Red Granules
What colors are Iriophores?
• Granules are reflected and dispersed. (They are light. SILVERY/ IRIDESCENT Skin)
What granules are most common in fish?
• Iridophores
Scales are located in what part of the fish?
• Dermis
What are the 3 major types of scales in fish?
• Cosmoid, Ganoid, and Teleost Scales
This is the most primative scales. It is only in fossilized fleshy-finned fish. IT has 3 layers
• Cosmoid
What are the 3 layers that are in the Cosmoid?
• Enamel
• Dentin
• Bone





Out of bone, enamel, and bone… which is the toughest?
• Enamel
Inorganic Crystals that is made up of Hydrooxyapatite (97%) and (3%) organic materials
• Enamel
Inorganic Crystals that is made up of Hydrooxyapatite (70%) and (30%) organic materials
• Dentin
It has connective tissue that is made up protein fibers, inorganic salts (calcium phosphate), and cells (osteocytes)
• Bone
This type of scale is made of 2 layers.



• Ganoid Scales
What are the layers in the Ganoid scales?
Bone and enamel
What layers is in the Teleost Scales?
bone
Found in Gars- Americas, 7 spp
• Ganoid Scales
What type of scales is only made up of ONE layer?
• Teleost Scales
What types of scales are found in most bony fish?
• Teleost Scales
What type of scales does a Cartilaginous fish have? And what difference does it have with the bone?



Cosmoid Scales
It has a basal plate of bones




What is considered an inner core of connective tissue?
Pulp
How many cell layers thick is the epidermis of an Amphibian?
5-8
In an Amphibian, explain the epidermis.
Thicker than fish skin ( 5-8 cell layers thick)
Upper dead CORNIFIED LAYER which has keratin (=protein)




Keratin is known as
Protein
What layer in the epidermis of the amphibian skin has keratin?
Cornified Layer
Name the 2 types of Keratin.
Alpha and Beta
Alpha Keratin is _______.
Soft
Beta Keratin is _______________.
Hard
Give examples of The Alpha Keratin .
Corneum and hair
Give examples of Beta Keratin.
Beak, Claws, Nails, feathers, hooves, etc
What Cornified structures are rare in _______________.
Amphibians
Name the only places you will find cornified structures on Amphibians.
Pads of feet
“teeth” of tadpoles




What is the pads of feet in Amphibians used for?
Digging
Males Holding onto females during amplexus




During ______ the Amphibian males hold onto the females with the pads of its feet.
Amplexus
(In Amphibians) ____________ Gives rise to multicellular glands that stick down into the dermis



epidermis
What are the two types of glands in from the epidermis?
Mucous and poison glands
This gland produces glycoprotein. (it provides protection and respiration)
Mucous Glands
This gland produces alkaloids. (it provides protection)
Poison Gland
Which gland is more common in terrestrial than aquatic forms?
Poison Gland
Cephlachordates feed by ________ ________ and live in _________ that they dig out.
1. Filter feeding
2. Burrows
Name 2 examples of Vertebrates or Craniates
1. Lampreys
2. Hagslimes
In Vertebrates, the skeleton is composed of _________ and _____ which is derived from the __________ and _______ _______.
1. Cartilage
2. Bone
3. Mesoderm
4. Neural crest


In Vertebrates, the cartilage and bone tissues form the ______________.
Endoskeleton
In Vertebrates, the endoskeleton ________, __________, and provides ____________.
1. Protects
2. Supports
3. Scaffolding

The endoskeleton ______ with the body and allows for a ________ size. It is not shed and replaced - True or False?
1. Grows
2. Larger
3. True

In Vertebrates, part of the endoskeleton encloses the ______ and offers __________.
1. Brain
2. Protection
The integument of Vertebrates is composed of two layers: the _________ and ________.
1. Epidermis
2. Dermis
Another name for the epidermis - ___________.
Another name for the dermis is the __________.
1. Ectoderm
2. Mesoderm
Warts on toad skin is an example of what?
Poison Glands
Explain the Dermis layer of an amphibian.
-relatively thin loose and dense layer
-very vascular = respiration
-chromatophores (makes color)
-microscopic scales in caecilians = worm-like amphibians


Give examples of reptiles
snakes, turtles, lizards, crocs
Explain the epidermis of a reptile
-Thick corneum (beta & Alpha keratin)= more h2o impervious
-adapted for terrestrial life
-sheds in large pieces
-epidermal folds (scales, shutes)
-few skin glands (analand thigh)



The "scales" or shutes that are hinges which allow for stretching
Epidermal folds
Beaks, rattles, claws, and spiny crest are derived from ____________.
Epidermis
Analand Thigh means what ?
dry skin
Explain the dermis of a reptile
Similar to fish and amphibians but some have a DERMAL BONE
A lower part of the turtles shell or the osteoderms of a crocs skin are both examples of ___________.
Dermal Bone
Modifications of the Integument system include: 3 examples
1. Hair
2. Glands
3. Feathers

Two differences between the Integument systems of terrestrial and aquatic organisms: _____ vs _____ and _____ vs _____
1. Thick vs thin
2. Dry vs wet
In Vertebraes, the elaborate ________ system is used for movement and is derived from the _________ and is also greatly segmented in _________ forms.
1. Muscle
2. Mesoderm
3. Aquatic

In Vertebrates, the digestive system lies _______ to the nerve cord. Examples of large digestive glands are the ________ and _______.
1. Ventral
2. Pancreas
3. Liver

The digestive system is _________ for food movement.
1. Muscular
In a Vertebrates digestive system, the gut is held in place by a sheet of ___________ tissue called ___________.
1. Connective
2. Mesentery
In a Vertebraes circulatory system, it has a ________ heart with _____ to _____ chambers.
1. Ventral
2. 2 to 4
A Vertebrates circulatory system is a ________ blood vessel system with two types of blood cells such as _______ and _______.
1. Closed
2. Red blood cell
3. White blood cell

Vertebrates have specialized organs for gas exchange such as....4 examples.
1. Gills
2. Skin
3. Lungs
4. Mouth lining


What glands for birds have that produces oil?
Uropygial gland
Explain the epidermis of a bird.
-VERY thin except for skin on legs
-No glands (except oil glands on the base of the tail)
-transparent

-includes: feathers, scales, beak, spurs, claws



Feathers, scales, beak, spurs, and claws all develop from the ________________.
Epidermis
Feathers grow out of the epidermal _____________.
follicle
Growth of a feather occurs at the base of the _________ and pushes _____ cells outward.
follicle
old
Initially, feathers are folded and wrapped with __________.
Keratin (=sheath [corneum])
As the feather continues to grow from the follicle, feathers emerges from the ______________.
sheath
When a feather is __________, it creates a flat structure that is very durable
unsheathed
What is used for flight protection, communication, and insulation?
Feathers
In a Vertebrates excretory system, organisms have _____ kidney(s) and the function is to filter out ____________ wastes, help maintain ______ and ____ balance, and helps maintain ____ balance.
1. Two
2. Nitrogenous wastes
3. Water
4. Ion
5. Ph



In a Vertebrate's brain, it is divided into what is called a _________ meaning ___ divisions.
1. Tripartite
2. 3
Name the 3 divisions of the brain and their scientific names
1. Forebrain (Prosencephalon)
2. Midbrain (Mesencephalon)
3. Hindbrain (Rhombencephalon)

In all birds (except penguins), feathers always grow from regions called _________.
tracts
The region that feathers grow from is the tract. Another word for tract is _______________.
Pterylae
On a bird, the bare areas where there is no hair is called?
apteria
_____________ help insulate body and connect barbs together to help with flight.
Barbules
What typically has barbs and barbules?
feathers
In a feather, the barbs grow off of the ______________.
Rachis
In a dermis of a bird, there is no ______________.
bone
Explain the dermis of the bird.
-no bone
-less pigments than other vert. (since skin is covered with feathers)
-induces development of feather and nourishes growing

another name for sweat gland in the epidermis glands in the mammal?
Sudoriferous
The Forebrain controls the sense of _______.
Smell
The Midbrain controls ________
Vision
The Hindbrain controls ________ and _________.
1. Balance
2. Hearing
_______ ______ cells are embryonic cells unique to vertebrates.
Neural Crest
______ ____________ - can develop into numerous types of tissues and thought to form only in vertebrates.
Cells pleuropotent
4 examples of Chondrichthyes
1. Sharks
2. Skates
3. Rays
4. Rat fishes


Chondrichthyes have a ___________ skeleton, ______, and conducts respiration through _______. They also have ________ fertilization and acute senses including a _______ _____ system.
1. Cartilaginous
2. Jaws
3. Gills
4. Internal
5. Lateral line



Actinopterygii are also known as _____-________ fishes.
Ray-finned
Ray-finned fishes have a ______ skeleton, jaws, and a ___________ fin supported by fin rays.
1. Bony
2. Jaws
3. Membranous

This cools mammals.
It serves as a communication and defense mechanism.
It is the reason the zoo smells.

The sweat glands
This gland is a lubricate, defense, and communication mechanism
Sebaceous
Hair is an _____________ derivative.
epidermal
Hair has 3 layers. Name them.
cuticle, cortex, and medulla
In Hair, the Flattened layer of dead cells that overlap (looks like shingles) (unique)
cuticle
What makes one have gray hair?
no pigmentation
The hair layer that is pigmented and is the middle layer.
Cortex
The layer of hair that is made up of dead cells, air spaces, and is the inner region.
Medulla
What layer of hair does one see when hair is gray.
Medulla
Explain the scales of a mammal
-scales on bone (epidermal)
-folded corneum

SEEN in tails of beaver, opossum, some rodents, armadillo


Scales on bone is ________.
epidermal
Nails, claws, and hooves are _________
epidermal
Nails, claws, and hooves have 2 parts. name them.
Unguis (outer)
Subunguis (inner)
Unguis is the _________ hard part of a ___________.
outer
hoof




________ is the soft part of the nail, hoof, or claw that if you hit while cutting, you will hurt the animal.
Subunguis
Why are antlers never a horn?
bc they have no dermal bone or sheath
What is composed of an outer keratinized sheath on a bony core?
True Horns
What is the reason for horns
Organs of defense and offense
for display
Most Ray-finned fishes reproduce through ________ fertilization.
External
A Ray finned fishes gills are covered by a _____ _____ also known as __________. They also usually have a swim ________ or ______.
1. Bony flap
2. Operculum
3. bladder or lung

Ray finned fishes are the _______ diverse group with _________ species.
1. Most
2. 27,000
Sarcoptercyi are also referred to as _____ _______ fishes.
Lobe finned
Lobe finned fishes are a _____ fish with a fleshy ______ at the base of fin.
1. Bony
2. Lobe


Two examples of Lobe finned fishes are the __________ and __________.
1. Coelacanth
2. Lungfishes
Salamanders, frogs, and caecilians are 3 examples of what class?
Amphibia

Amphibia appendages are adapted for moving on ______ and conduct respiration primarily through their _____ or ______.
1. Land
2. Lungs
3. Skin

Amphibia have an ________ larval stage and undergoes metamorphoses into an adult ___________ form.
1. Aquatic
2. Terrestrial
Baleen is derived from ________________.
the epidermis
Keratin plates that resemble large combs that are used for filter feeding
Baleen
What animal is baleen found in?
whales
The dermis is thick and vascular in the mammals. What are the two parts of it?
dermal bone (armadillo shell, horns, antlers)
chromatophores along epidermal (-dermal boundary)
"Chromatophores along the epidermis " is known as the
dermal boundary
The skeleton of vert. is often held together by
ligaments
What kind of tissue makes up the skeleton of a vertebrate?
connective tissue
__________ supports and it the site for calcium and phosphorus
the skeleton
2 types of skeleton tissue. Name them.
Notochordal tissue and cartilage
A flexible rod in embryo and adults of few species (lampreys and hag slimes)
notochordial tissue
The notocord extends from __________ to _________.
from the base of the skull to the tail
The notocord is made of __________ cells with a fibrous sheath.
vacuolated
What is often replaced by cartilage and bone in the back?
notocord
What is the remnants of notocord in the human vert. column called?
Pulpy Nucleus
Cells that make something , ends with what?
-blasts
What is the first skeleton of babies?
cartilage
________ is a major skeleton component in the adults of the agnathans and chondrichthyeans
cartilage
Cart. is made up of what kind of tissue?
cartilage
Amphibia lay eggs or give birth to live young: True or False?
True
Snakes, lizards, turtles, tuatara, and crocodilians are all examples of the class ________.
Reptilia
Reptilia are ___________ tetrapods with _______ skin.
1. Terrestrial
2. Scaly
Reptilia conduct respiration through _______ and reproduce by laying an amniotic ________ ______ or give birth to ______ _______.
1. Lungs
2. Shelled eggs
3. Live young

Birds make up the class ______.
Aves
Birds are _________ tetrapods with fore-limbs modified as _______ and conduct respiration through _______.
1. Feathered
2. Wings
3. Lungs

Are birds endothermic or exothermic?
Endothermic
Birds reproduce through _________ fertilization with _________, ________ eggs.
1. Internal
2. Shelled
3. Amniotic

Birds have acute _________ and __________.
1. Vision
2. Hearing
Mammals make up the class __________.
Mammalia
Mammals nourish their young from ___________ glands.
Mammary
Mammals have ______ on their skin and are _________ with concerns to maintaining homeostasis.
1. Hair
2. Endothermic
Mammals have a _________ diaphragm that ventilates ______.
1. Muscular
2. Lungs
Mammals carry their young in an _________ ____ and most give birth to live young.
Amniotic sac
The total number of vertebrates are around ________ species.
56,000
Vertebrae skin has an outer covering composed of two layers: _________ and ______.
1. Epidermis
2. Dermis
In Vertebrae skin, the epidermis is derived from the _________ and the dermis is derived from the _________.
1. Ectoderm
2. Mesoderm
Vertebrae skin aids in several areas. List 6 examples.
1. Protection
2. Thermoregulation
3. Sensing environment
4. Helps maintain shape
5. Communication
6. Respiration




- milky look (clear to opaque)
-has cells(= chondrocytes) embedded in the gelatinous matrix
cartilage
Cells making the cartilage
chondroblast
The __________ is made up of polysaccharides.
matrix
-Has NO blood supply
-has nutrients, wastes, gases : diffuse through the matrix

ALL of those mean what?




The cartilage heals poorly.
In the cartilage, water binds to __________ which creates a gel-like state (good shock absorber)
chondroitin sulfate
__________sulfate + ___________ acid (= sulfated mucopolysacc. and protein fibers)
1. chondroitin
2. hyaluronic
The matrix develops from the __________ and _____
Neural Crest Cells and dorsal mesoderm
When does the neural crest cells develop the matrix
while the neural tube is forming
What is more flexible than bone and is less apt to fracture?
Cartilage
A
A
Cells are often ______ near the surface and contain ________ (a protein) causing a cornified layer.
1. Dead
2. Keratin
The mesoderm derives the _________ layer.
1. Dermis
The dermis is composed of _____________ tissue.
Connective
The dermis contains ________ vessels, ________, and pigment cells called ______________.
1. Blood
2. Nerves
3. Chromatosphores

Name the 2 methods by which bone growth occurs
1. Endochondral Ossification
2. Membraneous Ossification
During endochondral ossification, the ___________ template gets replaced by ________.
1. Cartilage
2. Bone
In step 1 of endochondral ossification, the cartilage gets _______ away by invasion of _______ vessels and changes downward in ____.
1. Eroded
2. Blood
3. Ph

In step 2 of endochondral ossification, cartilage becomes _____________ and bone making cells, or ___________, invade and start to make ______.
1. Honeycombed
2. Osteoblasts
3. Bone

In step 3 of endochondral ossification, the areas where replacement occurs are called _____________ centers or ______________ centers.
1. Replacement
2. Ossification
Replacement occurs first in _________.
Diaphysis
The diaphysis is the ________ ossification center.
Primary
Replacement occurs second in the _________.
Epiphyses
The epiphyses is the _________ ossification center.
Secondary
The _________ cartilage is found at the ends of the bone.
Articular
The zone of proliferation is the site of __________.
Mitosis
The zone of Hypertrophy is a place of _________
Swelling
Name the 4 zone sections thru the epiphyseal growth plate
1. Zone of reserve cartilage
2. Zone of proliferation
3. Zone of hypertrophy
4. Zone of calcified cartilage


In endotherms, epiphyseal plates eventually _______ growing so individuals stop _________.
1. Stop
2. Growing
-typically stores little calcium an phosphorus
-more compressible than more (will compress under gravity's pressure)
Cartilagenous
A bony fish is the only exception in being its ___________ (which is cartilage) stores calcium and phosphorous.
a bony fish's bony jaw
Name the 3 types of cartilage.
Hyaline, Elastic, & Fibrous
Which cartilage is found in the nose, trachea, bronic, costal cart., the ends of articulating bones, and the entire embryological skeleton?
Hylaline Cartilage
What cartilage is almost all chondroitin sulfate
- looks glassy look skeletal templates for most bones,trachea, bronchi, articulating cart., and embryological skeleton
Hylaline Cartilage
What cartilage has lots of COLLAGEN fibers (which is protein)
-it is very tough
-not as flexible as elastic cart.

Fibrous cart.
This cart. is found in the pubic symphysis, intervertebral disks, and knee joints
fibrous cart.
What cart. has lots of elastic fibers
-is very flexible
elastic cart.
This cart. is found in external ears and epiglottis
Elastic Cart.
Periosteal growth occurs underneath connective sheath called the __________.
Periosteum
The ____________ are inside of the periosteum and lay down bone.
Osteoblasts
The ___________ lines the inside of the medullary cavity and helps ________ cavity.
1. Endosteum
2. Enlarge
In memraneous ossification, the bone developments from a sheet of undifferentiated cells called the ___________.
Blastema
The bone that develops this are the ________ bone or _____________ bone.
1. Dermal
2. Membraneous
The ____________ classification are the types or forms of bone.
Histological
Name the 2 types of bones
1. Compact or dense bone
2. Spongy or cancellous bone
Compact or dense bone is composed of ____________ bone matrix arranged in concentric rings called the ___________.
1. Calcified
2. Lamellae
Most lamellae are organized into cylinders of bone called ________ or _________ systems.
1. Osteons
2. Haversian
_____________ is made up of 85% calcium phosphate and 20% calcium carbonate. (=inorganic salts)
Bone
Bone is made up of what kind of tissue
connective
The inorganic salts that are in the bone form a needle-like crystals of _____________________.
Hydroxyapatite
In a bone, crystals bone to _____________________ in the matrix. (which makes the bone hard)
Collagen fibers
There are 2 developments of growth forms. What are the growths from?
-from the cartilage template
-from fibrous dermal membrane
The cartilage templates produces 2 bones. Name them.
Replacement bone and endochondral bone
What bone means "inside cartilage"
endochondral bone
What kind of bone is developed from the fibrous dermal membrane
membranous bone and dermal bone
Most bones are classified as ____________ bones.
replacement
A bone is classified based on what?
the way the grow.
Can you tell after the bones develop if it was dermal or replacement?
No. they will look the same (i.e. bone tissue)
What 2 hormones control bone growth and bone respiration?
Calcitonin and Parathormone
Which hormone that controls bone growth and respiration is produced by the thyroid gland?
Calcitonin
Which hormone that controls bone growth and respiration is produced by the parathyroid gland?
parathormone
The hormone
-stimulates osteoblasts and inhibits osteoclasts
Calcitonin
This hormone-
stimulates osteoclasts (which leads to bone resorption)
Parathormone
This hormone decreases blood Ca 2+ levels
Calcitonin
This hormone increases blood Ca 2+ levels
Parathormone
The lamellae between osteons are called ____________ lamellae.
Interstitial
Lamellae contain cavities called _________ which contain mature bone cells which are called ____________.
1. Lacunae
2. Osteocytes
All lacunae are connected by microscopic passageways called ____________ and transports __________, _______, and _________.
1.Canaliculi
2. Nutrients
3. Gases
4. Wastes


Compact or dense bone is located on the _________ of bones and the spongy or cancellous is located to the __________.
1. Outside
2. Inside
The spongy or cancellous bone consists of ___________ framework of bone tissue with spaces between bone tissue.
Interlacing
The spongy or cancellous bones are filled with _________ or the blood making tissue.
Marrow
The spongy or cancellous is usually inside of _______ bone.
Dense
The spongy or cancellous bone contains ________, _________, and __________, but no ________.
1. Lacunae
2. Osteocytes
3. Lamellae
4. Osteons


Name the 2 kinds of the Teleost Scales?
Cycloid and Ctenoid

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