Glossary of Vert.Morph. TEST2

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In the skeletal system, what is the name for the part that is everything BUT the skull
The postcranial part of the skeletal system is made up of 2 parts. Name them.
The axial part of the postcranial skeletal system is made up of what 3 parts?

Rib and Sternum may or may not be present

The appendicular part of the axial skeletal system has two parts to it. What are they
The skeletal system is made up of two parts what are they.
Postcranial Skeleton
Cranial Skeleton

Name the 3 sections of the cranial skeleton
Chondrocranium (=neurocranium)

What are the 3 kinds of feet

When an animal (i.e. Monkey, humans) walks, the entire foot is planted on the ground. What is that called
When an animal (ie. dog) walks, it walks with its digits on the ground. What is that called
When an animal (i.e. deer) walks, it walks on its hooves. What is that called
The elongation of the ungulgates' (ie. deer, horse, antelopes) limbs primarily come from the elongation of the ______________ of the limb.

Distal End
The distal end of the limb is considered the what
foot (i.e. metatarsels and metacarp.)
In Ungulates, stride and speed are increased how?
bc they dont put the entire foot on the ground
When looking at a skull (cat skull) you will see mainly __________ bc it covers the chondrocranium
The cranial skeleton has 3 components. What are they called?
1. Chondrocranium (= neurocranium)
2. Dermatocranium
3. Splanchnocranium

The Postcranial skeleton is composed of the ________ and ___________ skeleton.
1. Axial
2. Appendicular
The Axial skeleton is composed of what 3 skeletal structures?
1. Backbone
2. Ribs
3. Sternum

Each somite differentiate into 3 regions...what are the 3 regions?
1. Dermatome
2. Myotome
3. Sclereotome

Dermatome refers to:
Dermis of skin
Myotome refers to:
Scleretome refers to:
Parts of skeleton
Sclerotome cells surround and replace most of __________.
Sclerotome cells form __________ and/or ______ __________ = vertebrae.
1. Cartilage
2. Bone segments
One vertebrae formed from parts of 2 _______ _________.
Primary Scleretome
The main part of the vertebra is the __________ and it encloses the ___________.
1. Centrum
2. Notochord
Name the 3 main parts of a developed vertebra:
1. Centrum
2. Arches
3. Apophyses

The 2 types of arches, _______ and ________, develop from cartilaginous wings called _________.
1. Neural
2. Hemal
3. Arcualia

Name the 2 types of apophyses
1. Diapophyses
2. Parapophyses
The Diapophyses comes off the ________ ______.
Neural arch
The Parapophyses comes off the _________.
List the 5 shapes of centra among vertebrae groups
1. Acoelous
2. Amphicoelous
3. Procoelous
4. Opisthocoelous
5. Heterocoelous

Mammals have an _________ centra shape.
Fishes have an ______________ centra shape.
Anurans, lizards, and snakes have a __________ centra shape.
Procoelous (Pro = front)
Salamandars have an _____________ centra shape.
Opisthocoelous (Opis = behind)
Birds have a ___________ centra shape.
Heterocoelous (Hetero = different)
The suffix -coelous means _________.
The Apophyses supports the _____ and _________ _________.
1. Ribs
2. Vertebral column
The Chondrocranium is sometimes called
What is the first part of the skeleton that is laid down?

(The other 2 are pretty much laid down together)

THe Chondrocranium forms 2 different type of cartilages. What are they called
Longitudinal Cart.
Sensory Capsules (associated with sensory organs)
Which cartilage from the Chondrocranium is associated with the sensory organs
Sensory Capsules
Name the 2 cartilages that make the longitudinal cartilage of the Chondrocranium
Prechordal Cart.
Parachordal Cart.
This cartilage develops from the ethmoid plate (=ethmoid, some sphenoid elements of the skull)

It is part of the Longitudinal Cart.

Prechordal Cart.
This cartilage develops into the Basal Plate and occipitals. (= occipital elements)

It is part of the Longitudinal Cart.

Parachordal Cart.
IN the longitudinal cart., the sensory capsule is made up of what? (3 things)
Olfactory Capsule- surrounds olfactory sac
Optic Capsule- surrounds eye (=Sclerotic ring)
Otic Capsule - surrounds ear

In the sensory capsules (of the Chondrocranium), what surrounds the olfactory sac
olfactory capsules
In the sensory capsules (of the Chondrocranium), what surrounds the eye
Optic Capsules
In the sensory capsules (of the Chondrocranium), what surrounds the ear?
Otic Capsules
This is another word that is used for the Optic Capsule that means that s surrounds the eye.
Sclerotic Ring
The Longitudinal Cart. and the Capsular Car(= sensory caps.) from the SKULL. It is said that the brain sits in it like a boat. Explain how the brain is enclosed .
They have a floor, partial walls, posterior roof for the brain and cartilagenous capsules around major sense organs
Another name for Sensory Capsules is
Capsular Cartilage
Dermatocranium develops from _________of head dermis and _____________
dermal bone
neural crest cells
Actinopterygian and Crossopterygian/tertrapod pattern are the 2 patterns for the _______________.
Which pattern in the dermatocranium tend to have more dermal bone and is found in MODERN fish (the fish you like to eat)
Actinopterygian pattern
Which pattern in the dermatocranium has fewer dermal bones because of fusion
crossopterygian pattern
Dermal bone fuses to __________ and _________
Chondrocranium and splanchnocranium
Bones of the _____________ is often divided into 6 series of bones (bones in a series)
Name the 6 series of bone in the dermatocranium
1facial series
2 vault series
3 orbital series
4 temporal series
5 palatal series
6 mandibular series

Which series of the dermatocranium is made of the nasal, premaxilla, maxilla
facial series
Which series of the dermatocranium is made of the frontal parietal
vault series
Which series of the dermatocranium is made of the prefrontal, postfrontal, postorbital, jugal (=malar), lacrimal
orbital series
Which series of the dermatocranium is made of intertemporal, supratemporal, and squamosal
temporal series
Which series of the dermatocranium is made of the vomer, palatine, and pterygoid
palatal series
Which series of the dermatocranium is made of dentary , splenial, angular, coronoid
mandibular series
Not all vertebrates have the entire series of 6 dermal bones in the dermatocranium. Why
Some of the bones have fused together.. so there are representation of the bones
What brings about movement of the organism? (i.e. to run and catch food)
muscular system
Movement of activities inside the organism like digesting food, moving urine out of bladder, air in and out of lungs, etc couldnt happen without the __________
muscular system
________ is used to generate heat (makes us shiver)
muscular system
_________ is used to generate electric current that can be used to navigate and catch food (electric eel)
muscular system
Name 6 ways that muscles can be classified
2.nervous control
3. basic histology
5. contractile properties
6.embryonic origin

Another word for skeletal muscle =
Name 3 locations for muscles
Skeletal (=somatic)
Visceral (organs)
heart (cardiac)

Name the 2 ways muscles can be classified by the nervous control
and Voluntary
T or F: Voluntary muscle is smooth, and is on the visceral and heart

IT IS STRIATED and is found in the skeletal muscle

T or F : Involuntary muscle is smooth and is found on the heart and visceral
Name the 3 ways that muscles can be classified by basic histology
skeletal (=striated)

Skeletal muscle's fibers are _________ and composed of __________.
longitudinal bundles= myofibrils
Myofibrils are composed of __________ and __________
myosin (thick myofilaments)
actin (thin myofilaments)
what are thin myofilaments called
what are thick myofilaments called
The alignment of myosin and actin in myofibrils give muscles the ____________ appearance
What are the myofibrils that are composed of repeating units called
What runs from one Z line to another
when muscles contract, what comes together
the z line
What theory is made because the overlap of myofilaments cause the sacromeres to shorten
sliding filament theory
Which band is composed of myosin and some actin and is dense and darker than all other bands
A Bands
Which bands extend from one "A band" to another. It is lighter
I Band
Which band is in the middle of the A band. It is really pale and disappears when muscles contract
H zone
When you contract your muscle, what spills out of the sarcoplasmic reticulum
calcium (important in muscle movement)
What zones, bands, and lines, decrease in width during contraction
"I" and "H"
As actin myofilaments get pulled over myosin myofilaments, it pulls _______ towards one another.. this is called _________
Z- discs
Sacromere contraction
Sacromeres of myofibril all shorten together as ______and _______ slide over one another

A tubular network that stores and releases Calcium during muscle contraction and SURROUNDS MYOFIBRILS
sacroplasmic reticulum
What surrounds the myofibrils
sacroplasmic reticulum
sacroplasmic reticulum release leads to __________.
a contraction
What causes the release of the sacroplasmic reticulum that leads to a contraction.
nerve impulses
All myofibrils of the muscle fibers ________ together
Muscle fibers that are organized into bundles are called
1 muscle fiber that is held together by what type of connective tissue
a bundle of muscle fibers that is held together by what type of connective tissue
An entire muscle that is held together by what type of connective tissue
The connective tissue of the muscle becomes part of the ______

and perichodrium or periosteum

Myofibril is made up of _______ and _______
thick and thin myofilaments
When a muscle contracts, it pulls on ____________ which eventually pulls on ____________
connective tissue
Skeletal muscles are organized into ____________
motor units
Nerve cell + muscle fibers = ___________
motor unit
When a nerve cell enters muscle, it splits and makes _______ with numerous muscle cells
neuromuscular junction
What happens when a nerve cell fires?
The motor unit is stimulated and the muscle fibers contract
T or F: An increase in motor unity that fire , result in an increase in force produced by the muscles
The union of the neuron and the muscle fibers =
neuromuscular junction
What type of muscle (smooth, cardiac, or skeletal) is associated with the viscera (i.e uterus, urinary bladder, gall bladder, blood vessels, bronchioles, etc)
smooth muscle
What type of muscle are where the cells fusiform (spindle shaped)

and is involuntary

smooth muscle
What type of muscle is where the cells are uninucleated in the center of the cell and look like unclear striation.

fibers are narrower and branching

cardiac muscle's cells are separated by ________ (which facilitate ion transfer)
intercalated disks
_______ muscle contracts nervous stimulation (myogenic)
__________ muscle is used to pump blood
cardiac muscle
T or F: Smooth muscle is innervated by autonomic nervous system
False : The cardiac muscle not skeletal
A way to classify muscles is by color. It is based of the amount of ____________
myoglobin (=respiratory pigment)
What classification isn't good and is an older classification scheme
A way to classify muscles is _____________. It has tonic and twitch fibers.
Contractile Properties
_______ fibers contract slowly and for a longer period of time.
tonic fibers
_________ muscles are common postural muscles in amphibians and reptiles, less so in fishes and birds, and is rare in mammals BUT found in the eye muscles
tonic fibers
where are the only tonic fibers found in mammals at
eye muscle
____________ produce faster contractions and is found in ALL vertebrates
twitch fibers
T or F: Twitch fibers are found in ALL vertebrates
Name the 3 basic kinds of twitch fibers

slow twitch
fast oxidative
fast glycolytic

Which twitch fibers do not contract really fast but they rarely fatigue
slow twitch
Which twitch fibers have a few # of mitochondria
fast glycolytic
Name the two types of arches
1. Neural
2. Hemal
The neural and hemal arches develop from the cartilaginous wings also known as the _________.
The neural and hemal arches protect the _______ ______ and ________ ________ _________.
1. spinal cord
2. caudal blood vessels
In aquatic verts, they have trunk and caudal vertebrates which offer little support to the _________ and _______ girdles.
1. pectoral
2. pelvic
Terrestiral verts have 5 different types of vertebrates:

1. Cervical
2. Thoracic
3. Lumbar
4. Sacral
5. Caudal

The cervical vertebrates are used for turning the ______.
The thoracic vertebrates are used to support the ______ and ________ _______.
1. ribs
2. pectoral girdle
The lumbar vertebrates are used for supporting _________.
The sacral vertebrates are used for supporting the _______ _______.
pelvic girdle
Which twitch fibers have a high oxygen storage proteins (myoglobin)

is known as the red muscle

slow twitch fibers
Which twitch fibers are known as the "dark" meat of fish and fowl and is found more in marathon runners
slow twitch fibers
Which twitch fiber is fast but fatigues slowly
Fast oxidative
Which twitch fibers have a large number of mitochondria = more efficient at breaking down glucose
Slow twitch fibers
fast oxidative fibers
In the fast oxidative fibers, the ATP is from _______________
oxidation phosphorylation
Which twitch fibers are found in birds as the flight muscles (the meat is dark=more reddish)
fast oxidative
What are the fastest twitch fibers called
fast glyclotic fibers
Which twitch fibers fatigue the fastest
fast glyclotic fibers
In the fast glyclotic fibers the ATP is formed by ______________
Which twitch fibers is the "white" breast muscle in domestic fowl ( quail, chickens etc)
fast glycolytic fibers
The embryonic origin of classifying muscles into 3 sources What are they called
Mesenchyme, hypomere, paraxial mesoderm
What is another name for stem cells or undifferentiated cells
What type of muscle from the embryonic development as a loose collection of mesoderm cells which is dispersed throughout the animal's body during the development
mesenchyme origin
__________ forms the smooth muscle of the blood vessel wall and viserca
mesenchyme origin
The medial walls (=_______________) encloses the _______ of the Hyopmere
splanchnic mesoderm
Lateral walls (=______________) form the outer lining of the ____________ of the hypomere
somatic mesoderm
The Hypomere forms the the splanchnic mesoderm and somatic mesoderm. What else does it form?
the cardiac muscle
The Paraxial forms shortly after ____________.
___________forms beside the longitudinal axis of body (i.e. along the neural tube)
paraxial (which is from the embryonic dev)
What has segmented bodies of somites in the embryonic origin
The somites of the paraxial divide into 3 things. What are they
dermatone, sclerotome, myotome
T or F; Myotomes form most of the skeletal muscle of the body
A relative FIXED site of the muscle attachment is called
Relative MOVEABLE site of attachment is called
Bones serves as ________ with muscles
________ exert force on muscles
The ribs articulate with the ________, serve as an attachment point for ________, strengthen the ______ _____, protects _________, and may aid in ___________.
1. vertebrae
2. muscles
3. body wall
4. viscera
5. breathing

The _______ is found in terrestrial vertebrates with limbs but an exception is found with the turtles.
The ________ is not found in early amphibians or reptiles but is found in birds and very large and flight muscle attach out it.
The appendicular skeleton is composed of the _________ and _______.
1. girdles
2. limbs
Name the two types of girdles
1. pectoral
2. pelvic
Name the two types of limbs
1. forelimbs
2. hindlimbs
The pectoral girdle consists of two basic components which are ___________ and ________.
1. endochondral
2. dermal
In the pectoral girdle, name the 4 endochondral elements
1. scapula
2. procoracoid
3. coracoid
4. scapulocoracoid

In the pectoral girdle, name the 5 dermal elements
1. clavicle
2. cleithrum
3. supracleithrum
4. post temporal
5. interclavicle

The location of insertion can affect ________, _______, and _________ of skeletal element

more _________insertions = STRONGER movements
___________ insertions = FASTER movements
_____________ yield greater movement than ____________ for muscles of same shortening distance
proximal insertions
distal insertions
Bony fishes are dominated by ________ elements.
What is the only endochondral element found in bony fishes?
Bony fishes are comprised of ______ elements which are closely associated with the ________.
1. many
2. skull
In amphibians, we see a reduction in ________ elements and the ____________ elements dominate
1. dermal
2. endochondral
In reptiles, birds, and mammals, ____________ elements dominate.
Name the 3 endochondral elements that dominate in reptiles, birds, and mammals
1. coracoid
2. procoracoid
3. scapula

In birds, we find a fusion of the clavicles which is called what?
furculum (aka wishbone)
In mammals, we may see the clavicles which are also known as what?
collar bones
The pelvic girdle is only composed of ____________ components.
The greater the sectional area in muscle mechanics, the greater the ________ applied to the bone
T or F: In muscle mechanics, force is affected by the length of the muscle
If you want more force, one needs to build up more _______ inside muscle cells
Resistance to muscle stimulates growth of ______________
Lack of resistance, muscles will become __________ and eventually __________.
atrophy which means waste away
In fishes, the pelvic girdle is only composed of the ____________ bar or plate.
In tetrapods, the ventral portion of the pelvic girdle is composed of the anterior _______ and posterior _________.
1. pubis
2. ischium
On the dorsal part of the pelvic girdle in tetrapods, the ________ articulates with the sacral vertebrae.
What is the socket called where the pubis, ischium, and ilium come together in the pelvic girdle of a tetrapod?
Name 2 types of appendages
1. paired
2. unpaired
Pectoral and pelvic fins, legs, wings, arms are all examples of _______ appendages
Dorsal, anal, and caudal fins are all examples of _________ appendages
In fish appendages, name the 3 sets of elements
1. basal elements (=basal pterglophores)
2. middle elements (=radial pterglophores)
3. distal dermal rays (=ceratotrichia)

In tetrapod limbs, what are the 3 divisions?
1. proximal
2. middle
3. distal

Longer muscles have more _____________ so it produces a faster speed over a longer distance
Which muscles has fibers that has a greater # of overall fibers whn compared to parallel muscles
pinnate muscles

pinnate means feather like

Name 2 different fiber orientation on the muscles
pinnate and parallel muscles
Muscles ACTING TOGETHER to bring about movement (biceps and brachialis)
The MAIN MUSCLE that moves the bone (biceps)
prime mover
muscles that have OPPOSING FORCES on the bone (Biceps and triceps)
Muscles that support the joint during a muscle contraction ( Biceps, triceps during clinching of the fist)
The postcranial system is made up of the _______ and __________.

axial musculature
appendicular musculature
Who is gay?
Tyler Alexander
Axial musculature is derived from the _________.
trunk myotomes
Axial musculature is stimulated by __________
spinal nerves
_________ is above the horizontal septum.
________ is below it.
Epaxial musculature
Hypaxial mus.
Where is the only place in terrestrial tetrapods that you see muscle segmentation
rectus abdominus
In tetrapods the axial mus. ________ in volume
In fish these two muscles help move the fish, in human these 2 muscles are not used for movement but are instead used to support the vert. column
epaxial and hypaxial
T or F: In tetrapods, you will see a gain of segmentation
false: you will see a loss
______ help support the backbone in tetrapods which help support the girdles and limbs
Spinalis dorsi, longissimus dorsalis, and the iliocostalis are all muscles that make up the ________ in tetrapods
Obliques, intercostals, rectus abdominus all make up the _________ in tetrapods
In tetrapods, the ________ supports the chest wall, abdominal wall, and is used for respiration
__________ musculature supports and moves the limbs
Appendicular musculature develops from cells of the ______ that move into primordial limb bud
trunk myotomes
In tetrapod appendages, the _________ segment is composed of one bone that articulates with the girdle. Examples are the _________ in the forelimb and the _______ in the hindlimb.
1. proximal
2. humerus
3. femur

In tetrapod appendages, the ________ segment is composed of 2 elements. Examples are the ______ and _______ in the forelimb; _______ and ________ in hindlimb.
1. middle
2. ulna and radius
3. tibia and fibula

In tetrapod appendages, the ______ segment is divided into what 3 subdivisions. (hindlimb and forelimb)
1. distal
2. ankle, wrist
3. sole, palm
4. toes, fingers

Name the bones which comprise each distal segment subdivision:
1. ankle
2. wrist
3. sole
4. palm
5. fingers and toes

1. tarsals
2. carpals
3. metatarsals
4. metacarpals
5. phalanges

Anurans have a fusion in the middle segment of their appendages. Name the 2 fusions
1. tibiofibula
2. radioulna
The tibiofibula and radioulna are modifications which aid in __________ and __________.
1. jumping
2. swimming
An alimals walks on its tarsals, metatarsal, and phalanges with a ____________ limb.
In a bird's forelimb, some metacarpals are fused to form a unique bone called the ____________.
In a bird's hindlimb, the fusion of the tibia and tarsals is called the __________.
What group of muscles is made up of the latissimus dorsi, trapezius muscles, triceps, deltoids
dorsal group
what group of muscles are made up of the pectoralis muscles and the biceps brachii
ventral group
The geniohyoid, sternohyoid, thyrohyoid and tongue all make up the _________ muscles
Muscles in the throat came from the _______
Jaw musculature is divided into what 2 groups
Hypobranchial muscles form from the VENTRAL tips of the _______
T or F: All hypbranchial muscles open mouth and expand oropharyngeal cavity
Branchiomeric muscles develop from the _________
somitomeres = less organized masses of mesoderm in the head
Branchiomeric muscles are stimulated by
cranial nerves
In a bird's hindlimb, the fusion of the tarsals and metatarsals is called the _______________.
In a mammal such as a bat, the elongated metacarpals (2-5) and phalanges help support the _______.
In a hooved animal such as a horse, the animal has an ____________ limb.
Hooved animals have a ______ of metacarpals, metatarsals and digits (1 and 5), a ________ of the metacarpals and metatarsals (2 and 4) and an ___________ of the metacarpal and metatarsal 3.
1. loss
2. fusion
3. elongation

A deer and camel are examples of animals with a __________ foot.
A rhinoceros and horse are examples of animals with a ___________ foot.
In fishes, the branchiomeric muscles are called
constrictor levators (which open and close jaws)
Mandibular, hyoid muscles, branchial muscles are part of the ______ muscles
IN mammals, the masseter is homologous to the ______ inthe shark
IN amphibians, the _________ is homologous to the mandibular adductor of the shark
adductor mandibulae
IN mammals, the temporalis is homologous to the ______________ in the shark
IN mammals, the trapezius complex is homologous to the _____ in sharks
In mammals, the __________ is homologous to the intermandibularis
Branchiomeric muscles are innervated by the _______
cranial nerves
Number V cranial nerves is known as the
IN the cranial nerves, the number VII is known as the
IN the cranial nerves, the number IX is known as the
In the cranial nerves, the number X is known as the
IN the cranial nerves, the number XI is known as the
T or F: The cranial nerves helps us see homologies between groups of animals
Eye Musculature develops from the ____________
How many muscles are there in the eye

and they rotate in the eye socket

The chondracranium is initially formed from 2 major sets of cartilages which are:
1. longitudinal cartilages
2. sensory capsules
Name the 4 longitudinal cartilages
1. trabecula (prechordals)
2. polar cartilage
3. parachordal
4. occipitals

Name the 3 sensory capsules
1. nasal capsule
2. optic capsule
3. otic capsule

What the 2 groups of longitudinal cartilages?
1. prechordal cartilages
2. parachordal cartilages
The prechordal cartilages develop into the _________ plate.
ETHMOID (ethmoid, some sphenoid elements of skull)
The parachordal cartilages develop into the _______ plate and ____________.
1. basal
2. occipitals
The __________ capsule surrounds the olfactory sac.
olfactory capsules
The _____ capsule surrounds the ear.
The ______ capsule surrounds the eye.
Bones of the chondracranium seen in many vertebrates include (5):
1. exoccipital
2. basioccipitals
3. supraoccipital
4. ethmoids
5. sphenoids

The _________ and ________ cartilages form the skull; has floor, partial walls, posterior roof for brain and cartilaginous capsules around major sense organs.
1. longitudinal
2. capsular
Splanchnocranium develops from the
neural crest cells
Which cranium (dermatocranium, chondrocranium, or splanchnocranium) functions in respiration, feeding, sound production, hearing, and supports the tongue
splanchnocranium = visceral skeleton
__________ is called visceral arches and is modified in different vert. classes (typically see 5 arches)
__________is initially a series of cartilages associated with oral cavity and pharynx
Dermatocranium develops from _________ and _______
dermal bones (of head)
and neural crest cells

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