Glossary of Vegitative Warfare

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Created by sammy1194

What kind of cells do plants have circulating in them?

Name two invading pathogens that plants deal with:
Bacteria and Fungi
How many protection strategies do plants have?
What does the first protection plan plants have?
Different molecules recognize and suppress the alien pathogen.
What is the second protection mechanism plants use?
A sequence of arms-race operatives against pathogens that outwitted the first responders.
What pathogen caused the Irish potato famine?
Blight(spoils and harms growth)
In 1999 stem rust fungus outwitted what where?
It infected wheat in Uganda, but spead to Ethiopia, Sudan, and Iran.
What fungus infected Uganda in 1999?
Stem rust fungus
Name a common way that pathogens make their way inside a plant

Squeezing through a open stomata
What is a stomata?
It\'s the pores that plants use to exchange gases.
How does Pseudomonas syringae bacteria make it\'s way into a plant?
The proteins found in this bacteria help freeze the water on the surface of leaves causing cells to burst.
What is appressoria, and what pathogen uses this method?
Appressoria is turgur pressure that pushes the fungi pathogen into the plant.
What type of machinery breaks down plant cell walls?
Name the first receptor protein involved in plant immunity
Who founded Xa21?
Pamela Ronald in 1995.
Where was Xa21 found?
What does Xa21 do?
It recognizes a short peptide that many bacteria use to communicate.
Chitin is a long-chain polymer of _____________.
Where is Chitin found?
The cell walls of fungi
What is MAMP?
Microbe Associated Molecular Patterns
What is PAMP?
Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns
What are PAMP and MAMP?
They\'re the first line of defense plant receptors.
What system recognizes invasion?
Innate System
What substance sends out signals to warn a plant of an intruder?
Azelaic Acid
What happens after Azelaic Acid sends it\'s signal?
The plant accumulates salicylic acid.
Besides being a signal for defense, humans also use Azelaic acid for what?
Azelaic acid is a group of what type of acid?
dicarboxylic acid
In what plants is Azelaic acid found?
Wheat, rye and barley.
How does the innate system suppress the growth of microorganisms?
Second line of defense consist of?
Microbial enemies artillery
What happens when a pathogen enters a plant cell?
Releases dozens of diff. molecules peptides Bomb the plant cell
When pathogens first enter the plant cell their aim is to?
Disable Innate Immunity
What is secretory output pathways?
Shutting down a plants ability to export proteins
Who figured out the secretory output pathway?
Yang He at Michigan State University
Bacteria Flagella is?
The protein motors that many bacteria use to swim around
During initial innate immunity response _____________________.
Peptides supress the genesis, stability and activity of microRNA that plans produce during the
Gibberella Fujikuroi injecsts what?
It injects the plant hormone gibberellin
What does Gibberella Fujikuroi infect?
Gibberella Fujikuroi is what kind of pathogen?
Gibberellin suppresses?
The rice defense hormone salicylic acid
P.syringae injects?
The chemical Coronatine
What does coronatine do?
It mimics the hormone jasmonic acid(signaling)
Name one way pathogens attach RIN4
Repeatedly phosphorylate
What happens when RIN4 is phosphorylated in a resistant plant?
It immediately reboots the plants defenses by removing the phosphorylation
What are emerging players in plant immunology?
Sulfation, glycosylation and acetylation
Sophien Kamoun reported
genes involved in chromatin remodeling may have helped the late blight pathogen develop it nefarious infection tactics
What might have helped late blight pathogens develop its tactics?
Gees involved in chromatin remodeling

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