Glossary of Unit 7 Bio156 Self Test
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- Which of the following statements differentiates substrate-level phosphorylation from chemiosmotic phosphorylation?
- All of the Above
A.) In substrate-level phosphorylation, a phosphate group is transferred directly from a metabolic intermediate to ADP.
B.) Substrate-level phosphorylation is independent of the electron transport chain.
C.) Substrate-level phosphorylation can occur in the absence ofoxygen.
D.) Substrate-level phosphorylation can occur outside the mitochondrion.
- Which of the following occurs in the cytoplasm?
- Which of the following results in the conversion of glucose into two three-carbon compounds?
- What is the net result of glycolysis of one molecule of glucose?
- 2 molecules of pyruvic acid, 2 molecules of ATP, and 2 molecules of NADH
- A total of four ATP molecules are produced from the glycolysis of glucose, but the NET result is only two moleucles. Why?
- Two ATPs are used to split and prepare the glucose molecule for glycolysis.
- The end-products of glycolysis include:
- takes place in virtually all cells
- Pyruvic acid is considered ____ aerobic cellular respiration
- an intermediate in
- In the "grooming" steps (the bridge) between glycolysis and Krebs cycle, what is the net result from one molecule of glucose?
- 2 molecules of acetyl CoA, 2 molecules of carbon dioxide, 2 molecules of NADH
- The bridge between glycolysis and the Krebs cycle is:
- the conversion of pyruvic acid to acetyl CoA
- The enzymes of the Krebs cycle are located in the
- mitochondrial matrix
- What is the net result of Krebs cycle from one molecule of glucose?
- 2 molecuels of ATP, 6 molecules of NADH, 2 molecules of FADH2, 4 molecules ofcarbon dioxide
- The end products of the Krebs cycle include all of the following EXCEPT:
- pyruvic acid
- At the end of the Krebs cycle, most of the energy remaining from the original glucose molecule is stored in :
- By the end of Krebs cycle, what happened to the sex carbon atoms in the original glucose moleucle?
- released as carbon dioxide
- Where are the lectron transport chain and ATP synthase located?
- inner mitochondrial membrane
- Why is the inner membrane of the mitochondrion folded, forming cristae?
- creates a larger surface area, providing space for as many electron transport chains and ATP synthase molecuels as possible
- Which of the folliwing is NOT true of the inner mitochondrial membrane?
- it plays a role in teh production of pyruvic acid
- The ATP synthase in a human cell gets energy for making ATP directly from:
- flow of H+ through a membrane
- To where are the H+ ions pumped in order to create the concentration gradient used to generate ATP?
- intermembrane space of the mitochondrion
- How many H+ ions are pumped into the intermembrane space for each molecule of NADH that participates in the electron transport chain?
- How many H+ ions are pumped into the intermembrane space for each molecule of FADH2 that participates int he electron transport chain?
- What effect would an absence of oxygen have on the electron transport chain/ATP synthase system?
- there would be no chemiosmotic production of ATP
- Most of the NADH that delievers high-energy electrons to the electron transport chain comes from:
- the Krebs cycle
- Rotenone is a poison commonly added to insecticides. This molecule binds to the first electron carrier molecule in the electron transport system. Which of the following statements best describes the effect that it has on an insect?
- The insect will die because of inadequate ATP production.
- Which of the following poisons interferes with cell respiration by making the inner membrane of mitochondria leaky to H+ ions, which prevents the H+ gradient from forming?
- dinitrophenol (DNP)
- Which of the following poisons inhibits ATP synthase?
- A drug is tested int he laboratory and is found to create hooles in both mitochonndrial membranes. Scientists suspect that the durg will be harmful to human cells because it will inhibit:
- Both A and B are correct.
A.) Crebs cycle
- Most of the ATP produced in cellular respiration comes from:
- Approximately how many total ATP are generated by aerobic cellular respiration of one molecule of glucose?
- 38 ATP
- During which of the following phases of cellular respiration does substrate-level phosphorylation take place?
- both A and B are correct
B. Krebs cycle
- How many total ATP are geneated by anaerobic cellular respiration of one moleucle of glucose?
- 2 ATP
- Which of the following processes is most effieient, and produces the most ATP per molecule of glucose?
- aerobic respiration
- In alcoholic fermentation, ____ is produced. In lactic acid fermentation, ____ is produced.
- carbon dioxide, no carbon dioxide
- In alcoholic fermentation, a major problem for yeasts is:
- if the alchol they release becomes too concentrated, the yeast will die
- Which of the following products are created by alcoholic fermentation?
- beer and wine
- In humans, the result of anaerobic exercise is the buildup of:
- lactic acid
- Muscle soreness associated with strenuous exercise is at lease partly due to:
- the presence of lactic acid from fermentation by muscle cells
- Bacteria that are unable to survive in the presence of oxygen are celled:
- strict anaerobes
- Yeasts can produce ATP by either fermentation of chemiosmosis, and therefore they are:
- facultative anaerobes
- In yeast cells:
- alcohol is produced after glcolysis
- Some friends are tying to make wine in their basement. They have added yeast to a sweet grape juice mixture, and allowed the yeast to grow. After several days they find that sugar levels in the grape juice have dropped, but there is no alcohol in the mix
- the mixture needs less oxygen. Yeast only produce alcohol in the absence of oxygen.
- Which of the following metabolic pathways is common to both aerobic and anaerobic processes of sugar breakdown?
- none of the above
- In addition ot glucose, what biological molecules can be used as fuel for cellular respiration?
- All of the above
- Which ofthe following molecules stores the most energy per gram?
- In humans, food provides the raw materials a cell uses to make its own molecuels for repair and growth. These biosynthetic pathways:
- All of the Above
A.) can synthesize fat during metabolism of sugar
B.) can produce molecules that are not actually present in the original food
C.) can use "intermediate" compounds from glycolysis and the Krebs cycle to make food
- Name the two chemical ingredients that plants use to make food by photosynthesis
- carbon dioxide and water
- Which of the following terms describe photosynthetic plants?
- autotoophs and producers
- The term "aerobic" means?
- with oxygen
- Respiration (breathing)____, and cellular respiration_____.
- is gas exchange, produces ATP
- Which of the following is the correct summary equation for cellular respiration?
- glucose + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water + energy
- Which of the following statements is true about the neergy ields from cellular respiration?
- Cellular respiration is more efficient at harnessing energy from glucose than car engines are at harnessing evergy from gasoline.
- Aerobic cellular respiration converts about 40% of the energy in glucose into energy stored in ATP, while the rest is released as head. This:
- B, C and D are correct
B. results in an increase in the entropy of the universe.
C. is a reflection of the first law of thermodynamics.
D. is a reflection of the second law of thermodynamics.
- Aerobic cellular respiration is about ____ efficient, while anaerobic respiration is about _____ efficient.
- 40%, 2%
- Why are sweating and other body-cooling mechanisms necessary during vigorous exercise?
- 60% of the energy from food produces body heat instead of ATP.
- How much food should the average adult consume each day?
- 2200 Calories
- What chemical characteristic of oxygen accounts for its function in cellular respiration?
- Oxygen is very electronegative, and able to remove electrons from other atoms.
- Oxidation is the _____, and reduction is the _____.
- loss of electrons, gain of electrons
- During redox reactions:
- electrons are lost from one substance and added to another substance
- In the summary equation for cellular respiration, ____ is the reactant that is oxidized, and ____ is the reactant that is reduced.
- glucose, oxygen
- In the intermediate steps of cellular respiration:
- NAD+ is reduced to NADH
- A redox reaction is an example of :
- a coupled reaction
- In the electron transport chain of cellular respiration, electrons are passed from one electron transport molecule to another, and are finally accepted by:
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