Glossary of Unit 3 Bio 197H
Created by Gymnasticon
- Innate Immunity
- The kind of defense that is mediated by phagocytic cells, antimicrobial proteins, the inflammatory response, and natural killer cells.
It is present before exposure to pathogens and is effective from the time of birth.
- Acquired Immunity
- The kind of defense that is mediated by B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes.
It exhibits specificity, memory, and self-nonself recognition.
Also called adaptive immunity.
- Cell-mediated Immune Response
- The branch of acquired immunity that involves the activation of cytotoxic T cells, which defend against infected cells, cancer cells, and transplanted cells.
- Humoral Immune Response
- The branch of acquired immunity that involves the activation of B cells and that leads to the production of antibodies, which defend against bacteria and viruses in body fluids.
- Macromolecules that elicit an immune response by lymphocytes.
- A protein secreted by plasma cells that binds to a particular antigen and marks it for elimination.
Has a Y-shaped structure and in its monomer form consists of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains joined by disulfide bridges.
- A type of endocytosis involving large, particulate substances.
Accomplished mainly by macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells.
- Inflammation (Inflammatory Response)
- A localized innate immune defense triggered by physical injury or infection of tissue.
Changes to nearby small blood vessels enhance the infiltration of white blood cells, antimicrobial proteins, and clotting elements that aid in tissue repair and destruction of invading pathogens.
May involve systematic effects such as fever and increased production of white blood cells.
- Signaling Molecules
- Histamine - A substance released by mast cells that causes blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable during an inflammatory response
Cytokines 1 - Released to attract lymphocytes
Antigen - A macromolecule that elicits an immune response by lymphocytes
- The maintenance of internal body temperature within a tolerable range
- An animal, such as a reptile (other than birds), fish, or amphibian, that must use environmental energy and behavioral adaptations to regulate its body temperature
- An animal, such as a bird or mammal, that uses metabolic heat to regulate body temperature
- Climate Change
- Climate consists of the prevailing weather conditions at a locality. Climate is constantly changing, but there is some concern as to the rapid changes correlated with human activity.
- Climate change: Examples
- ‐Temperatures are rising.
‐ Sea levels are rising.
‐The ocean is acidifying.
‐ Water cycles are changing.
‐Extreme weather is more common.
- Thermoregulation: Five general adaptation
- ‐ insulation
‐ circulatory adaptations
‐ cooling by evaporative heat loss
‐ behavioral responses
‐ adjusting metabolic heat production
- Climate Envelope Modeling
- Examine shifts in species distributions based on
existing distributions and projected distributions given changed climate.
- An extremely localized, small-scale environment, as a tree stump or a dead animal.
- The minute pores in the epidermis of a leaf or stem through which gases and water vapor pass
Plants regulate temperature by opening or closing stomata to vary transpiration
rates and associated evaporative cooling.
- C3, C4 and CAM plant strategies
- C3 plants open stomata for evaporative cooling; close stomata to prevent water loss - at the cost of CO2.
C4 plants preface the Calvin cycle with reactions that incorporate CO2 into a 4-carbon compound to supply CO2 to the Calvin Cycle
CAM plants convert CO2 into crassulacean acid during the night when the stomata are open, which supplies CO2 to the Calvin Cycle during the day when the stomata are closed.
- Thermal tolerance
- Each organism has a specific range of temperature which it can tolerate.
Those organisms which are subjected to temperature changes regularly will have a greater tolerance when subjected to temperatures beyond their normal range.
- Asexual Reproduction
- A type of reproduction involving only one parent that produces genetically identical offspring by budding or by the division of a single cell or the entire organisms into two or more parts.
- Two-fold cost of sex
- Unless the sexual couple produces twice as many
offspring as the asexual individual, there will be a
cost of sex ‐ fewer offspring per sexual parent than
per asexual parent.
- The separation of a parent into two or more individuals of approximately equal size
- A means of asexual reproduction whereby a single parent breaks into parts that regenerate into whole new individuals
- A type of reproduction in which females produce offspring from unfertilized eggs
- In prokaryotes, the direct transfer of DNA between two cells that are temporarily joined
In ciliates, a sexual process in which two cells exchange haploid micronuclei
- A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by the cell
- A DNA transfer process in which phages carry bacterial genes from one host cell to another
- A haploid cell, such as an egg or sperm. Gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.
- -In organisms undergoing alternation of generations
-Meiotically produced haploid cell which divides mitotically and generates a multicellular individual without fusing with another cell
- The male and female sex organs; the gamete-producing organs in most animals
- The number of individuals per unit of area or volume
- Statistics relating to births and deaths in populations
- Life table
- A table of data summarizing mortality in a population
- Survivorship curve
- A plot of the number of members of a cohort that are still alive at each age
-one way to represent age-specific mortality
- Reproductive Rates
- The rate at which an organism reproduces. Based on how many offspring it can have at a time and how often it reproduces.
- Life History Traits
- Evolutionary outcomes
reflected in the development, physiology, and
behavior of an organism.
– The age at which reproduction begins
– How often the organism reproduces
– How many offspring are produced during each
- Population Regulation
- A population cannot grow indefinitely so there is natural selection for certain traits.
– Organisms that live in stable environments tend to
make few, "expensive" offspring – K selection
– Organisms that live in unstable environments tend
to make many, "cheap" offspring – r selection
- Population dynamics
- The study of how complex interactions between biotic and abiotic factors influence variations in population size
- Age structure
- The relative number of individuals of each age in population
- Global carrying capacity
- The maximum population size that can be supported by the available resources on Earth.
– The carrying capacity of Earth for humans is
– Leeuwenhoek 1679: estimated 13.4 billion
– Current estimates are about 10‐15 billion
- Biological Community
- An assemblage of
populations of various species living close
enough for potential interaction
- Species Diversity
- a measure of the variety of
organisms that make up the community
-It has two components: species richness and
- Species Richness
- the total number of different
species in the community
- Relative abundance
- the proportion each species
represents of the total individuals in the
- Interspecific Reactions
- Relationships between species in a community:
herbivory, and symbiosis (parasitism, mutualism,
-The effects can be summarized as positive (+),
negative (–), or have no effect (0)
- Interspecific Competition
- (–/– interaction)
occurs when species compete for a resource in
- Competitive Exclusion
- Local elimination of a competing species
- Competitive Exclusion Principle
- states that two species competing for the same limiting
resources cannot coexist in the same place
- (+/– interaction) refers to
interaction where one species, the predator,
kills and eats the other, the prey
- a relationship where two or more
species live in direct and intimate contact with
- (+/– interaction)
one organism, the
parasite, derives nourishment from another
organism, its host, which is harmed in the process
- (+/+ interaction)
is an interspecific
interaction that benefits both species
- (+/0 interaction)
benefits and the other is apparently unaffected
- (+/– interaction)
refers to an
interaction in which an herbivore eats parts of
a plant or alga
- Trophic Structure
- the feeding relationships
between organisms in a community
- Keystone Species
- Exert strong control on a community by their ecological roles, or niches
They have disproportionate impact on a community relative to their biomass
- The transition through ecological stages that lead to a climax community
- Primary Succession
- Colonization of bare rock or soil
- Secondary succession
- replacement of one community of species by another through gradual process of colonization
- Union of sperm and egg, sets development in motion
- cell division creates a hollow ball called a blastula
- Cells are rearranged into a three-layered gastrula
- The three layers of gastrula interact and move to give rise to organs
- A small cell of an early embryo.
- a ball of cells with a fluid-filled cavity called a blastocoel
- The polarity is defined by distribution of yolk (stored nutrients)
The vegetal pole has more yolk; the animal pole has less yolk
- A hollow ball of cells produced one week after the fertilization in humans.
Consists of the embryoblast, blastocyst cavity, and the trophoblast.
- germinal disk cells of the inner cell mass in the blastocyst that form the embryo.
- The outer epithelium of the blastocyst, which forms the fetal part of the placenta
Trophoblast cells attach to the wall of the uterus forming the placenta approximately 7 days after conception
- A specialized organ that passes nourishment from the female’s blood to the embryo
Allows for the elimination of waste through the umbilical cord, which develops during the fifth week and connects the placenta with the embryo
- Amniotic Sac
- a membrane filled with amniotic fluid; helps cushion the embryo and keeps it at a constant temperature.
- Yolk sac
- One of four extraembryonic membranes that support embryonic development; the first site of blood cells and circulatory function
- The outermost of the three primary germ layers in animal embryos
Gives rise to the outer covering and in some phyla, the nervous system, inner ear, and lens of the eye
- The innermost of the three primary germ layers in the animal embryos
Lines the archenteron and gives rise to the liver, pancreas, lungs, and the lining of the digestive tract
- The middle primary germ layer of an early embryo that develops into the notochord, the lining of the coelom, muscles, skeleton, gonads, kidneys, and most of the circulatory system
- The development of body shape and organization.
Only in animals does it involve the movement of cells
- A network of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments that branch throughout the cytoplasm and serve a variety of mechanical and transport functions
- The outermost of four extraembryonic membranes
Contributes to the formation of the mammalian placenta
- The ability of one group of embryonic cells to influence the development of another
- One male mates with a variable number of females
Each female normally mates with one male and raises the young on her own
- A female mates with more than one male
- Both sexes mate with multiple partners
- Intersexual selection
- involves members of one
sex choosing mates on the basis of certain
- Intrasexual selection
- involves competition
between members of the same sex for mates
- Transfer effect
- Ex. Bright bowers of bower birds allow them to dispense with bright plumage
- Fixed action pattern
- a sequence of unlearned, innate behaviors that is unchangeable
- Simple change in activity or turning rate in response to a stimulus
- A more or less automatic, oriented movement toward or away from a stimulus
- A regular, long distance change in location
- Innate behavior
- Behavior that is strongly fixed and under strong genetic influence
- – Habituation
– Spatial learning
– Associative learning
– Classical conditioning
– Operant conditioning
- a simple form of learning that
involves loss of responsiveness to stimuli that
convey little or no information
- a behavior that
includes learning and
and is generally
- Sensitive Period
- a limited developmental phase that is the only me when certain behaviors can be
- Spatial Learning
- a more complex modification of
behavior based on experience with the spatial structure of
- The process of knowing represented by awareness, reasoning,recollection,
- When some animals behave in ways that reduce their individual fitness but increase the fitness of others
- Inclusive fitness
- the total effect an
individual has on proliferating its genes by
producing offspring and helping close relatives
- All the organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic factors with which they interact
A community and its physical environment
- the human emotional or psychological connection to nature.
- Conservation biology
- integrated study at all levels of biology to sustain
biodiversity at all levels (from genes to ecosystems)
- Restoration ecology
- use of ecological approaches to recover degraded
- Ecosystem Services
- the processes through which natural ecosystems sustain
- ‐use organisms to detoxify environments
‐some lichens can concentrate uranium dust
‐some bacteria can convert uranium, chromium and nitrogen to insoluble forms
- Biological augmentation
- ‐use organisms to add key materials to an ecosystem
‐add mycorrhizal symbionts and nitrogen‐fixing plants
- Sustainable Development
- Meet today’s needs without compromising future
generation’s abilities to meet their needs
You must Login or Register to add cards