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Glossary of Unit 3 Bio 197H

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Innate Immunity
The kind of defense that is mediated by phagocytic cells, antimicrobial proteins, the inflammatory response, and natural killer cells.

It is present before exposure to pathogens and is effective from the time of birth.

Acquired Immunity
The kind of defense that is mediated by B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes.

It exhibits specificity, memory, and self-nonself recognition.

Also called adaptive immunity.



Cell-mediated Immune Response
The branch of acquired immunity that involves the activation of cytotoxic T cells, which defend against infected cells, cancer cells, and transplanted cells.
Humoral Immune Response
The branch of acquired immunity that involves the activation of B cells and that leads to the production of antibodies, which defend against bacteria and viruses in body fluids.
Antigens
Macromolecules that elicit an immune response by lymphocytes.
Antibody
A protein secreted by plasma cells that binds to a particular antigen and marks it for elimination.

Immunoglobulin.

Has a Y-shaped structure and in its monomer form consists of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains joined by disulfide bridges.



Phagocytosis
A type of endocytosis involving large, particulate substances.

Accomplished mainly by macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells.

Inflammation (Inflammatory Response)
A localized innate immune defense triggered by physical injury or infection of tissue.

Changes to nearby small blood vessels enhance the infiltration of white blood cells, antimicrobial proteins, and clotting elements that aid in tissue repair and destruction of invading pathogens.

May involve systematic effects such as fever and increased production of white blood cells.



Signaling Molecules
Histamine - A substance released by mast cells that causes blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable during an inflammatory response

Cytokines 1 - Released to attract lymphocytes

Antigen - A macromolecule that elicits an immune response by lymphocytes





Thermoregulation
The maintenance of internal body temperature within a tolerable range

Ectotherm
An animal, such as a reptile (other than birds), fish, or amphibian, that must use environmental energy and behavioral adaptations to regulate its body temperature
Endotherm
An animal, such as a bird or mammal, that uses metabolic heat to regulate body temperature
Climate Change
Climate consists of the prevailing weather conditions at a locality. Climate is constantly changing, but there is some concern as to the rapid changes correlated with human activity.
Climate change: Examples
‐Temperatures are rising.
‐ Sea levels are rising.
‐The ocean is acidifying.
‐ Water cycles are changing.
‐Extreme weather is more common.



Thermoregulation: Five general adaptation
‐ insulation
‐ circulatory adaptations
‐ cooling by evaporative heat loss
‐ behavioral responses
‐ adjusting metabolic heat production



Climate Envelope Modeling
Examine shifts in species distributions based on
existing distributions and projected distributions given changed climate.
Microhabitat
An extremely localized, small-scale environment, as a tree stump or a dead animal.
Stomata
The minute pores in the epidermis of a leaf or stem through which gases and water vapor pass

Plants regulate temperature by opening or closing stomata to vary transpiration
rates and associated evaporative cooling.


C3, C4 and CAM plant strategies
C3 plants open stomata for evaporative cooling; close stomata to prevent water loss - at the cost of CO2.

C4 plants preface the Calvin cycle with reactions that incorporate CO2 into a 4-carbon compound to supply CO2 to the Calvin Cycle

CAM plants convert CO2 into crassulacean acid during the night when the stomata are open, which supplies CO2 to the Calvin Cycle during the day when the stomata are closed.



Thermal tolerance
Each organism has a specific range of temperature which it can tolerate.
Those organisms which are subjected to temperature changes regularly will have a greater tolerance when subjected to temperatures beyond their normal range.
Asexual Reproduction
A type of reproduction involving only one parent that produces genetically identical offspring by budding or by the division of a single cell or the entire organisms into two or more parts.
Two-fold cost of sex
Unless the sexual couple produces twice as many
offspring as the asexual individual, there will be a
cost of sex ‐ fewer offspring per sexual parent than
per asexual parent.


Fission
The separation of a parent into two or more individuals of approximately equal size
Fragmentation
A means of asexual reproduction whereby a single parent breaks into parts that regenerate into whole new individuals
Parthenogenesis
A type of reproduction in which females produce offspring from unfertilized eggs
Conjugation
In prokaryotes, the direct transfer of DNA between two cells that are temporarily joined

In ciliates, a sexual process in which two cells exchange haploid micronuclei

Transformation
A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by the cell
Transduction
A DNA transfer process in which phages carry bacterial genes from one host cell to another
Gamete
A haploid cell, such as an egg or sperm. Gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.
Spore
-In organisms undergoing alternation of generations
-Meiotically produced haploid cell which divides mitotically and generates a multicellular individual without fusing with another cell
Gonads
The male and female sex organs; the gamete-producing organs in most animals
Density
The number of individuals per unit of area or volume
Demographics
Statistics relating to births and deaths in populations
Life table
A table of data summarizing mortality in a population
Survivorship curve
A plot of the number of members of a cohort that are still alive at each age
-one way to represent age-specific mortality
Reproductive Rates
The rate at which an organism reproduces. Based on how many offspring it can have at a time and how often it reproduces.
Life History Traits
Evolutionary outcomes
reflected in the development, physiology, and
behavior of an organism.

In reproduction:
– The age at which reproduction begins
– How often the organism reproduces
– How many offspring are produced during each
reproductive cycle







Population Regulation
A population cannot grow indefinitely so there is natural selection for certain traits.

– Organisms that live in stable environments tend to
make few, "expensive" offspring – K selection
– Organisms that live in unstable environments tend
to make many, "cheap" offspring – r selection




Population dynamics
The study of how complex interactions between biotic and abiotic factors influence variations in population size
Age structure
The relative number of individuals of each age in population
Global carrying capacity
The maximum population size that can be supported by the available resources on Earth.

– The carrying capacity of Earth for humans is
uncertain
– Leeuwenhoek 1679: estimated 13.4 billion
– Current estimates are about 10‐15 billion




Biological Community
An assemblage of
populations of various species living close
enough for potential interaction

Species Diversity
a measure of the variety of
organisms that make up the community

-It has two components: species richness and
relative abundance



Species Richness
the total number of different
species in the community
Relative abundance
the proportion each species
represents of the total individuals in the
community

Interspecific Reactions
Relationships between species in a community:
-competition, predation,
herbivory, and symbiosis (parasitism, mutualism,
and commensalism)
-The effects can be summarized as positive (+),
negative (–), or have no effect (0)




Interspecific Competition
(–/– interaction)
occurs when species compete for a resource in
short supply





Competitive Exclusion
Local elimination of a competing species
Competitive Exclusion Principle
states that two species competing for the same limiting
resources cannot coexist in the same place
Predation
(+/– interaction) refers to
interaction where one species, the predator,
kills and eats the other, the prey

Symbiosis
a relationship where two or more
species live in direct and intimate contact with
one another

Parasitism
(+/– interaction)
one organism, the
parasite, derives nourishment from another
organism, its host, which is harmed in the process


Mutualism
(+/+ interaction)
is an interspecific
interaction that benefits both species

Commensalism
(+/0 interaction)
one species
benefits and the other is apparently unaffected

Herbivory
(+/– interaction)
refers to an
interaction in which an herbivore eats parts of
a plant or alga


Trophic Structure
the feeding relationships
between organisms in a community
Keystone Species
Exert strong control on a community by their ecological roles, or niches

They have disproportionate impact on a community relative to their biomass



Succession
The transition through ecological stages that lead to a climax community





Primary Succession
Colonization of bare rock or soil
Secondary succession
replacement of one community of species by another through gradual process of colonization
Fertilization
Union of sperm and egg, sets development in motion
Cleavage
cell division creates a hollow ball called a blastula
Gastrulation
Cells are rearranged into a three-layered gastrula
Organogenesis
The three layers of gastrula interact and move to give rise to organs
Blastomere
A small cell of an early embryo.
Blastula
a ball of cells with a fluid-filled cavity called a blastocoel
Polarity
The polarity is defined by distribution of yolk (stored nutrients)
The vegetal pole has more yolk; the animal pole has less yolk


Blastocyst
A hollow ball of cells produced one week after the fertilization in humans.

Consists of the embryoblast, blastocyst cavity, and the trophoblast.

Embryoblast
germinal disk cells of the inner cell mass in the blastocyst that form the embryo.
Trophoblast
The outer epithelium of the blastocyst, which forms the fetal part of the placenta

Trophoblast cells attach to the wall of the uterus forming the placenta approximately 7 days after conception



Placenta
A specialized organ that passes nourishment from the female’s blood to the embryo

Allows for the elimination of waste through the umbilical cord, which develops during the fifth week and connects the placenta with the embryo

Amniotic Sac
a membrane filled with amniotic fluid; helps cushion the embryo and keeps it at a constant temperature.
Yolk sac
One of four extraembryonic membranes that support embryonic development; the first site of blood cells and circulatory function
Ectoderm
The outermost of the three primary germ layers in animal embryos

Gives rise to the outer covering and in some phyla, the nervous system, inner ear, and lens of the eye

Endoderm
The innermost of the three primary germ layers in the animal embryos

Lines the archenteron and gives rise to the liver, pancreas, lungs, and the lining of the digestive tract

Mesoderm
The middle primary germ layer of an early embryo that develops into the notochord, the lining of the coelom, muscles, skeleton, gonads, kidneys, and most of the circulatory system
Morphogenesis
The development of body shape and organization.

Only in animals does it involve the movement of cells



Cytoskeleton
A network of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments that branch throughout the cytoplasm and serve a variety of mechanical and transport functions
Chorion
The outermost of four extraembryonic membranes

Contributes to the formation of the mammalian placenta

Induction
The ability of one group of embryonic cells to influence the development of another
Polygyny
One male mates with a variable number of females

Each female normally mates with one male and raises the young on her own

Polyandry
A female mates with more than one male
Promiscuity
Both sexes mate with multiple partners
Intersexual selection
involves members of one
sex choosing mates on the basis of certain
traits



Intrasexual selection
involves competition
between members of the same sex for mates
Transfer effect
Ex. Bright bowers of bower birds allow them to dispense with bright plumage
Fixed action pattern
a sequence of unlearned, innate behaviors that is unchangeable
Kinesis
Simple change in activity or turning rate in response to a stimulus
Taxis
A more or less automatic, oriented movement toward or away from a stimulus
Migration
A regular, long distance change in location
Innate behavior
Behavior that is strongly fixed and under strong genetic influence
Learning
– Habituation
– Imprinting
– Spatial learning
– Associative learning
– Classical conditioning
– Operant conditioning




Habituation
a simple form of learning that
involves loss of responsiveness to stimuli that
convey little or no information

Imprinting
a behavior that
includes learning and
innate components
and is generally
irreversible



Sensitive Period
a limited developmental phase that is the only me when certain behaviors can be
learned
Spatial Learning
a more complex modification of
behavior based on experience with the spatial structure of
the environment

Cognition
The process of knowing represented by awareness, reasoning,recollection,
and judgment
Altruism
When some animals behave in ways that reduce their individual fitness but increase the fitness of others
Inclusive fitness
the total effect an
individual has on proliferating its genes by
producing offspring and helping close relatives
produce offspring


Ecosystem
All the organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic factors with which they interact

A community and its physical environment

Biophilia
the human emotional or psychological connection to nature.
Conservation biology
integrated study at all levels of biology to sustain
biodiversity at all levels (from genes to ecosystems)
Restoration ecology
use of ecological approaches to recover degraded
ecosystems
Ecosystem Services
the processes through which natural ecosystems sustain
human life
Bioremediation
‐use organisms to detoxify environments
‐some lichens can concentrate uranium dust
‐some bacteria can convert uranium, chromium and nitrogen to insoluble forms

Biological augmentation
‐use organisms to add key materials to an ecosystem
‐add mycorrhizal symbionts and nitrogen‐fixing plants
Sustainable Development
Meet today’s needs without compromising future
generation’s abilities to meet their needs

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