Glossary of US History Semester Exam

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modified lincoln's 10% plan
decided to proceed w/ Reconstruction w/out Congress
Andrew Johnson
Attempt to reconstruct South after civil war to bring South back into unity w/ rest of states
A minority after the civil war whose motives were wrong
Radical Republicans
removing a pres. from office before his term end, because he broke the law
prohibited slavery
13th amendment
black citizen rights
14th amendment

guarenteed black voting rights
15th amendment
who was protected by the Tenure Office Act
Edward Stanton
5 divisions ruled by military leaders in the south. states had to accept 14 and 15 amendment
military reconstruction act
waving the bloody shirt
blaming dem. for civil war and treating them like traitors
attempts to regulate conduct of former slaves, often in an unfair manner
black codes

free slaves who rent land to farm
why is sharecropping necessary?
developed as an answer to economic deprivation in the south
allowed many to survive but not prosper
radical weak pres. who let congress control the reconstruction
ulysses s grant
railroad construction company, padded expenses, paid extra to stockholders
credit mobilier scandal
tried to regulate price of gold so they could make a profit on exchange
Fisk and Gould
corrupt govt. at state level officials padded expenses. this increased debt
staye din office because they (dem) had the electoral vote
tammany hall
Republican candidate for election 1876
Rutherford B Hayes
Compromise of 1877
Hayes would be pres if federal troops removed from south
Railroad Baron
Cornelius Vanderbelt
Steel Giant
vertical integration

Andrew carnegie
Americas 1st billionaire
horizontal integration

john d rockefeller
legal device, board of trustees empowered to make decisions and control operations of a whole group of companies
leader of the New South
created national and international market for his tobacco products
American Tobacco Company
hydroelectric power

james buchanan duke
jan 1883
established civil service commision and eliminated much of the spoils system
pendleton act
regulated railroad rate
interstate commerce act
made monopolizing illegal
sherman antitrust act
mckinley tariff
raised tariff, 1890
labor union of skilled laborers
knights of labor
led by Gompers, from knights of labor
american federation of labor
founded by american railway union, led by pullman strike
eugene vs. debs
dawes act
gave indian lands
homestead act
cultivated 160 acres for 5 years = land for free
helped stop unfair business practices
federal trade commission
inspected meat
meat inspection act
lowered tariff by 1/3
underwood tariff act
national draft
selective service act
regulation of food
pure food and drug act
12 banking divisions with regional federal bank
federal reserve act
illegal to criticize effort
espionage and sedition acts
simple way of life (ordinary)
wanting possessions to make them happy
one nation exercising its power over another
collective or govt. means of productions

gas and water socialism

us isolates itself from other nations
(Wilson) US should show others how countries should be run
20th century idealogical movement through:
political participation by all classes
durect govt action through social and political reform

man against nature
ie call of the wild - jack london
diverse racial and ethnic cultures, which blend into a new and unified nation
melting pot
applicatio of the evolutionary theory to social institutions
social darwinism
result of work of a washington bureaucrat lester frank ward
reform darwinism
large, city-wide campaigns in major cities
urban evangelism
greatest urban evangelist
d l moody
a bridge from east to west of railroad
took products east and settlers west
transcontinental railroad
began building railroad in Omaha Nebraska
hired irish immigrants
headed west

union pacific
began building railroad in Sacramento, CA
headed east
built by chinese workers called "coolies"

Central Pacific
driving herds over land to RR terminals to ship them east
cattle drive
tough hardworking ranchhands who drove the cattle
unfenced public land the cattle were driven over
open ranges
gave 3 million acres in 1889
gave 6 million acres in 1893
oklahoma land rushes
region b/t mississippi river valley and rocky mountains
great plains
lived on great plains
main source of food was buffalo
plains indians
renowned indian fighter
george armstrong custer
opposed custer in sioux war
sitting bull
also opposed custer in sioux war
crazy horse
movement favoring greater cooperation and unity among nations of western hemisphere
called for all nations trading in china to refrain from interfering w/one another and allow free trade in china
opan door policy
in cuba, sunk Feb 15, 1898, 260 american deaths
lasted 4 moths, US won, took puerto rica, guam and the philippines
spanish-american war
destroyed spanish sea power in pacific and left philippines in the hand of the US
battle of manila bay
collection of cowboys and adventurers from west, commanded by leonard wood and teddy roosevelt; voluntee unit for army
repeat of manila bay; US captured puerto rico
battle of santiago bay
reduced possibility of influencing voters and frustrated corrupt politicians
secret ballots
nomination of candidates by popular vote
direct primaries
voters initiate legislation by presenting petitions to their legislature that require the legislators to consider some action
allows people to vote for laws during regular elctions
voters petition to have special election deciding whether to remive an elected official from office
16th amendment
federal income tax
17th amendment
direct election of US senators
18th amendment
prohibition of alcohol
19th amendment
women's right to vote
progressive politician, square deal, big stick, 2 terms and pres.
teddy roosevelt
every mand and woman should receive fair treatment and equal opportunity
square deal
most important railroad regulating legislation
hepburn act
believed education of blacks would lead to power economically
booker t washington
believed blacks should gain power politically
w.e.b. dubois
american controlled canal in central america to link pacific and atlantic
panama canal
foreign policy to influence foreign affairs through investment of US dollars in foreign countires
dollar diplomacy
emphasized teaching students, not subjects
john dewey
denies existence of God and affirms goodness and perfectibility of man
secular humanism
applied evolution to christianity
central powers
germany and austria
france, britain, us, (russia)
sec. of state who resigned after Wilson was too "strong" in his response to Germany
william jenning bryan
gen. sent to find villa
john j pershing
what sparked WWI?
assassination of archduke ferdinand
austria demanded that serbia________ following the assassination
be under austrian rule
russia feared austria would __________ so she sent troops to the balkans
dominate the balkans
____ came to austrias aid
____ was obligated to step in when russia felt the need for assistance
central powers planned 2 step attack
1. swing through belgium to occupy paris
____ was drawn in because of a previous agreement to protect the neutral status of _____
divided loyalties in the US due to?
most war news was provided by ___ who controlled ______
britain/transatlantic cable
2 ways US was econimcally tied to allies more than central powers?
1. giving loans to allies - as result rade increased
2. trade w/ central powers decreased b/c of british blockade
US sea rights were violated when ____
Lusitania was sunk (carried US passengers)
final incident that shifted US from neutral position
german destruction of sussex
supreme court decisions regarding race relations upheld idea of _____
separate but equal
3 major point of 14 points
1. freedom of seas
3 major points of 14 points
1. freedom of seas
2. selfdetermination of europe
3. league of nations

where US halted german drive to Paris on june 2 and 3
chateua thierrey and belleau wood
one of the costliest military campaigns inn US history
argonne offense
ended war so sides could negotiate peace
big four?
1. woodrow wilson (US) peace
2georges clemenceau (france) revenge
3. vittorio orlando (italy) territories

Big Four - who? where? want?
1. Woodrow Wilsonn (US) peace
2. Georges Clemenceau (France) revenge
3. Vittorio Orlando (Italy) territories
4. David Llyod George (Britain) control of seas

june 28 1919
treat of versailles
stated germany was responsible for war
war-guilt clause
buying on installment?
making small mothly payments until the item is paid for
buying something at a low price and selling it for a higher price for profit
buying stock "on the margin"?
investers would purchase stock through broker, but pay only percentage. Investor only receives that percentage of stock. Broker would finance rest through money borrowed from bank or other investers
why did drop in stock prices lead to "panic selling"?
Investors began to grow wary, and out of fear of losing money. They thought their stock would be worthless, so they sold it so the at least broke even
when prices began to fall, why did banks pressure the stockbrokers?
Brokers had to borrow moeny from bank to finance the remaining amount for the investors' purchase of stock
"dump stock"?
sell stock fro extremely low price just to get rid of it
2 factors that cause shrinking market for US products?
1. people did not need/could not afford additional purchases (had evrything they need)
2. high tariff closed possibility of selling US products abroad
why were banks struggling during 20s?
noone was paying their loans
goal of people wishing to distance themselves from wartime pressures and problems?
stock market characterized by rising prices and optimism
bull market
black tuesday
Oct 29, bottom fell out of market, beginning great depression
stockmarket crash (1929)
US hoped it was temporary readjustment of inordinaryly high stock proces caused by speculation
one company totally controls 1 level of production
horizontal intertgration
one company controls all aspects of production from start to finish
vertical integration
several companies join their stock into one trust which controls prices
2 or more competing companies share profits, thus eliminating competition
2 or more companies give 51 percent of the stock to a holding company. The major stockholders in the individual companies also hold stock in the holding company. since the holding company is not producing anything and has no management expenses, when it s
holding company
2 or more companies have the same board of directors, thereby reducing competition
interlocking directorates
2 incentives govt gave to RR?
land and loans
2 dangers faced by ranchers as they drive cattle?
indian attacks and lack of water
slang term for farmers
what brought an end to the open range?
barbed wire
___ were a series of conflicts witht the indians aimed at getting them ____
indian wars/onto reservations
positive effect of imperialism?
growth in christian missions
after spanish-american war, US was forced to maintain a ______ to protect newly annexed areas
peacetime standing nevy and army
progressives favored legiislation that allowed ____ to organize and force businesses to negotiate fairly
labor unions
to _____, progress was a process of the natural order that could be aided by government intervention
reform darwinists
food saving and production?
rationing or Hooverizing
which mexican raided the borders b/f WWI?
pancho villa
Ace of Aces?
Eddie Rickenbanker?
Why move west?
mining, land, agriculture, cattle, technology
2 siux chiefs
Crazy Horse (military)
Sitting Bull
cow theives
"Gilded Age"
industrial age
the rich got richer and the poor got poorer
THe Red Badge of Courage
Stephen Crane
leading financier
JP Morgan
heir to the Austrian throne
Archduke Frances Ferdinand
Great War
hot-tempered Pres?
Andrew Johnson
Dollar Diplomacy by whom?
Speak softly, carry a big stick
teddy roosevelt
progressive era, credit for signing legistlation
mr. progressive
idealism would change the world
accused of messiah complex
1st major union
fighting for: lower wages, shorter hours, and women/children not working

knights of labor
splinter group from Knights of Labor
divided skilled laborers into skill groups
also fought for safety

American Federation of Labor
Military Reconstruction Act
divded south into 5 military groups
each state had to pass 14th amendment
each state had to write a new constitution granting unversal male suffrage regardless of race

positive contributions of radical govts. in South
public school systems
universal male suffrage
rebuilding of transportation systems

early in reconstruction, radical republicans gained control of state govts. in the south by _______
denying vote to many former confederates
vanderbilt made his fortune from?
2 negative effects of industrialization?
lower wages and longer hours
false belief that only society keeps mankind from reaching perfection
reform darwinism

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