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Glossary of USMLEworld facts

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Created by jerusso

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main SE of PTU/methimazole
agranulocytosis
major SE of buproprion

seizures

was taken off market for seizures in bolemics 

meds associated w/ cutaneous photosensitivity
tetracycline, amioderone, sulfonamides
presentation of malignant hyperthermia

Fever, muscle rigidity, tachycardia, HTN, myoglobimenia

tx w/ dantrolene (block intracellular Ca) 

ethosuxamide mechanism
block T-type Ca2+ channel
green color of bacterial mucous is caused by
myeloperoxidase

schistocyte

acanthocyte

bite cell 

traumatically broken RBC

spur cell seen w/ abetaliporoteinemia

G6PD 

energy content of:

protein

carbs

fat 

 

4

4

carotid/aortic arch chemoreceptors vs central chemoreceptors

central: respond to CO2 (pH)

peripheral: respond to CO2 and O2 (only O2 in chronic hypercapnea and responsible for hypoxic drive) 

phenoxybenzene vs phentolamine

both for pheo

phenoxy is noncompetitive

phentol is competetive 

supraoptic

suprachiasmatic

ventromedial

Ant

Post

Lateral 

Paraventricular

Septal 

ADH

Circaidian rythms

satiety

cooling, parasymph

heating, symph

hunger 

Oxytocin

Sex, emotions 

LGN

MGN

VA

VL

VPL

VPM 

vision

hearing

motor

motor

sensation to body

sensation to head 

cilostazol

PDE inhibitor that prevents platelet aggregation and vasodilates

used for leg claudication 

beta blockers and acetazolamide effect on glaucoma
decrease aqueous production
cholinergics effect on glaucoma (pilocarpine, carbacol)

contrist pupillary constrictor (open the angle of the eye)

anticholinergics will have the opposite effect and cause eye pain 

rosenthal fibers
pilocytic astrocytoma

silicosis

asbestosis

coal miner

berryliosis 

eggshell calcifications of hilar nodes

calcified pleural plaques

perilymphatic accumulation/dust laden macrophes

non-caseating hilar granulomas (like sarcoid) 

echinococcus granulosus

liver hydatid cysts. eggshell calcications

ruputre causes anaphylaxis 

dobutamine
B1 agonist used in acute heart failure to increase contractility. Also increase HR and conduction velocity (bad).
is pancreas retropertioneal
yes, except tail which meets at spleen which are both in peritoneum
SE of acyclovir
nephrotoxicity. crystalization in kidney
which cells in CBC increase right after prednisone administeration
neutrophils (demargination of cells attached to vessel walls)
D-xylose

a monosacchride that can be absorbed w/out pancreatic enzymes.

use to distinguish pancreatic from intestinal malabsorption 

Matched controls prevents what type of bias
counfounding. used in case-control. match cases with controls based on potential counfounders
the spleen in derived from
mesoderm (dorsal mesentary), but is supplied by blood from foregut (celiac a.)
hypnagogic vs hypnapompic

gogic=falling asleep

pompic=waking up 

viral reasortment

exhange of genome segments between two segmented genomes

antigenic shift in influenza 

7-a-hydroxylase
converts cholesterol into bile salts. blocking this increases cholesterol stone formation

kidney of:

Wegner

Goodpasture

Immune-comlpex 

RPGN=cresentic 

RPGN III- Pauci immune

RPGN I - anti-GBM

RPGN II 

blood:gas partition coefficient
propotional to solubility in blood. Higher solubility in blood means takes longer to saturate and takes longer to affect brain.
isolated systolic HTN
Age-related aortic stiffening

transduction

conjugation

transformation 

phage transfer

dna transfer from one bacterium to another

purified DNA uptake by bacteria or eukaryotic 

baclofen

dantrolene 

GABA agonist, tx spasticity

block intracellular Ca release ryanodine, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, malignant hyperthermia, serotonin syndrome, spasticity 

deadly withdrawal

barbituates (CV collapse), alchohol

 

dorsal interossei

palmar interossei

lumbricals 

abbduct fingers, ulnar n.

adduct fingers, ulnar n.

bye-bye, median/ulnar n. 

ANP 2nd messenger
cGMP
BNP
released from the ventricles. same effects as ANP, but 10x lower activity. Marker for congestive heart failure
clara cells
non-cilliated epithelial cells in bronchioles that detox, secrete surfactant components, and replace cilliated cells

brochial breath sounds

stridor 

loud and high-pitched, should be only heard over manubrium where bronchi are close to surface, otherwise there's consolidation, collapse, etc

musical inspiratory wheeze. sign of tracheal/laryngeal obstruction! 

UVA vs UVB

UVB=sunburn, cancer (esp BCC)

UVA=wood's light, "blacklight", causes damage to collagen and aging 

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