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Glossary of USMLE Pathology 2

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What is the term for an abnormal amount of collagen type III that produces a large bulging scar, seen primarily in blacks?
Keloid
True or false? Klinefelter syndrome cannot be diagnosed until puberty.
True
What form of sunlight is the most carcinogenic?
Ultraviolet B (UVB) sunlight
What renal pathology involves uniform thickening of the glomerular capillary wall, granular appearance under the microscope, and effacement of foot processes?
Membranous glomerulonephritis
What enveloped RNA retrovirus infects CD4 T cells and uses the enzyme reverse transcriptase?
HIV
What enzyme is deficient in chronic granulomatous disease of childhood?
NADPH oxidase
What rare disorder presents as a large, hard, irregular thyroid gland due to fibrous proliferation of connective tissue in the thyroid gland and extends to adjacent structures?
Riedel thyroiditis
Rheumatic fever most commonly follows pharyngeal infections with what bacteria?
Group A β-hemolytic streptococci
What benign cardiac tumor is associated with tuberous sclerosis?
Rhabdomyoma
What are the rules of 10 regarding pheochromocytoma?
10% are bilateral, 10% malignant, and 10% familial, 10% in children, 10% outside the adrenal gland, and 10x more likely to be seen on the USMLE than in real life
What vascular pathology is associated with HTN in the upper extremities, hypotension in the lower extremities, and a radial-femoral delay?
Postductal coarctation of the aorta (adult)
What seronegative spondyloarthropathy is seen in HLA-B27–positive young females and presents with the triad of conjunctivitis, urethritis, and arthritis affecting the knees and ankles?
Reiter syndrome
What AD disease involves hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles in association with esophageal carcinoma?
Tylosis
A 20-year-old woman who was recently diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease goes to the ER with a tender, painful, swollen, and erythematous knee (monoarticular). What organism is the likely culprit?
Neisseria gonorrhea (history of STD in patient with monoarticular infectious arthritis: think gonococcus)
What vasculitis is characterized by systemic vasculitis in small to medium- size vessels (except the lung); affecting young males; 30% HBsAg-positive; P-ANCA and autoantibodies against myeloperoxidase?
Polyarteritis nodosa
What malignant bone tumor is associated with familial retinoblastoma?
Osteosarcoma
What bilateral AR disorder seen in infancy as progressive renal failure has multiple small cysts at right angles to the cortical surface?
Polycystic kidney disease of childhood
In what syndrome does the patient have angiomatosis; renal cell carcinomas; pheochromocytomas; retinal, cerebellar, medulla, or spinal cord hemangioblastomas; and epidermal cysts?
von Hippel-Lindau syndrome
What is the term for hyperextension of the PIP and flexion of the DIP joints in rheumatoid arthritis?
Swan-neck deformities
What is the term for white retinal spots surrounded by hemorrhage? In what condition are they seen?
Roth spots, and they are seen in bacterial endocarditis.
A 70-year-old man complains of urinary urgency, nocturia, hesitancy, postvoid dribbling, urinary retention, and a PSA result of 6.5 ng/mL. What is your diagnosis?
BPH. Although an argument can be made for prostatic cancer (you should expect a much higher PSA result), these are buzzwords for BPH. Prostatic cancer is usually silent until late in the disease, when obstructive symptoms begin to occur.
What triad consists of endothelial injury, changes in laminar flow, and hypercoagulation?
Virchow triad, associated with the formation of a thrombus.
What bone cell has receptors for PTH?
Osteoblasts (Remember, they modulate the function of osteoclasts.)
What type of peptic ulcer disease is characterized by the onset of burning epigastric pain immediately after eating?
Gastric ulcer
What is the term for normal cellular genes associated with growth and differentiation?
Proto-oncogenes
Blue sclera is seen in what hereditary bone disorder?
Osteogenesis imperfecta
What form of anemia is diagnosed with sucrose lysis test and Ham test?
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
In what rare AR disorder do you see neutropenia, defective degranulation, and delayed microbial killing due to a problem in chemotaxis and migration?
Chédiak-Higashi syndrome
What myeloid disorder is characterized by increased hematocrit, blood viscosity, basophils, and eosinophils; intense pruritus; and gastric ulcers due to histamine release from basophils, increased left atrial pressure, and plethora?
Polycythemia vera (Remember, polycythemia vera is a risk factor for acute leukemias.)
If you order a V/Q scan for suspected pulmonary emboli, is the filling defect seen on the ventilation or perfusion side?
Ventilation of an unperfused lung segment is highly suspicious for pulmonary embolism.
What transports iron in the blood?
Transferrin
What hematological malignancy is particularly likely to affect patients with Down syndrome?
ALL (nearly 15–20 times the normal risk)
What childhood pathology involves anterior bowing of the tibia, epiphyseal enlargements, and costochondral widening, with the endochondral bones being affected?
Rickets
A Japanese man has weight loss, anorexia, early satiety, epigastric abdominal pain, and a palpable left supraclavicular lymph node. On endoscopy you find a large, irregular ulcer with elevated margins on the lesser curvature of the stomach. What is your
Gastric carcinoma
What drug causes a sixfold increase in schizophrenia, can impair motor activity, and can cause lung problems?
Marijuana
What is the term for neurologic signs consistent with a cerebrovascular accident but lasting 24 hours with full recovery?
Transient ischemic attack
What is the name of the tumor when gastric carcinoma spreads to the ovaries?
Krukenberg tumor
What condition results from a deficiency in the enzyme hexosaminidase A?
Tay-Sachs disease
Which cerebral herniation results in compression of the anterior cerebral artery?
Cingulate gyrus herniation (subfalcine)
What pathology involves excessive fibrosis throughout the body via increased fibroblast activity, occurs in women more than men, and is most commonly seen in the third to the fifth decade?
Scleroderma
What is the term for the syndrome consisting of hepatomegaly, ascites, and abdominal pain due to hepatic vein thrombosis?
Budd-Chiari syndrome
What form of angina is characterized by
• Coronary artery vasospasm, symptom occurrence at rest, ST segment elevation (during episode), and no signs on ECG?
Prinzmetal variant angina
What form of angina is characterized by
• Coronary artery luminal narrowing, symptom occurrence during exertion, ST segment depression on ECG?
Stable angina
What form of angina is characterized by
• Coronary artery nonocclusive thrombus; symptom occurrence with increasing frequency, duration, intensity, and decreasing activity, frequently at rest?
Unstable (crescendo) angina
What skin condition is a localized proliferation of melanocytes presenting as small, oval, light brown macules?
Benign lentigo
What is the term for nonneoplastic abnormal proliferation of cell size, shape, and cellular organization?
Dysplasia
What diagnosis ensues from finding well-demarcated erythematous plaques with silvery scales on the knees, elbows, and scalp along with nail bed pitting and discoloration?
Psoriasis
What renal disease in diabetic patients is seen as a halo of capillaries around the mesangial nodules?
Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease
What autoimmune liver disease is characterized by affecting a middle-aged woman with jaundice, pruritus, fatigue, xanthomas, increased direct bilirubin levels, and antimitochondrial Abs?
Primary biliary cirrhosis
What cell in chronic inflammation is derived from blood monocytes?
Macrophages
True or false? Pancreatic insufficiency results in vitamin B12 malabsorption.
True. Pancreatic enzymes begin the breakdown of vitamin B12-R complex in the duodenum.
What neuroendocrine tumor produces excess serotonin; is associated with diarrhea, flushing, bronchospasms, wheezing; and is diagnosed by findings of elevated urinary 5-HIAA levels?
Carcinoid tumor
What tumor constitutes 40% of testicular tumors in children?
Teratoma
What urinary metabolite is elevated in pheochromocytoma?
Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA)
A 25-year-old black woman presents with nonproductive cough, shortness of breath, fatigue, and malaise; she has bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy on chest radiography and elevated ACE levels. What do you diagnose?
Sarcoidosis
What are the four reasons for hypochromic microcytic anemia with a low MCV?
1. Sideroblastic anemias (i.e., porphyrin and heme synthesis disorders)
2. Thalassemia
3. Iron deficiency
4. Lead poisoning
What is characterized by an intense inflammatory reaction, an increase in the amounts of granulation tissue and wound contraction by myofibroblasts?
Healing by secondary intention
What thyroiditis presents as a tender, enlarged, firm thyroid gland, usually preceded by an upper respiratory viral illness?
de Quervain thyroiditis
What disorder leads to IgG autoantibodies to the TSH receptor?
Graves disease
What intrauterine deficiency leads to failure to thrive, mental retardation, motor incoordination, and stunted growth?
Iodine, resulting in congenital hypothyroidism
What pancreatic islet cell tumor is associated with MEN I syndrome?
Gastrinoma
What type of PUD is classically described by the onset of burning epigastric pain 1 to 3 hours after eating that is relieved by food?
Duodenal ulcer
What disease arises from the adrenal medulla, displaces and crosses the midline, metastasizes early, is the most common solid tumor, and is seen in the 2-to 4-year-old age group?
Neuroblastoma
What AD disease associated with chromosome 19 involves a defect in the LDL receptors that leads to skin and tendon xanthomas?
Familial hypercholesterolemia
A 20-year-old woman goes to the ER with ptosis, diplopia, weakness in her jaw muscles when chewing, and muscle weakness with repeated use. What is your diagnosis?
Myasthenia gravis
What is the term for RBCs with smooth undulations on the surface of their membrane, commonly seen in uremia?
Burr cells (echinocytes)
Name the cancer associated with the following tumor markers. (Some may have more than one answer.)
• Beta-hCG
Choriocarcinomas and trophoblastic tumors
Name the cancer associated with the following tumor markers. (Some may have more than one answer.)
• CA-125
Ovarian cancer
Name the cancer associated with the following tumor markers. (Some may have more than one answer.)
• CA-19.9 and CEA
Pancreatic cancer
Name the cancer associated with the following tumor markers. (Some may have more than one answer.)
• alpha-Fetoprotein
Hepatoma and nonseminomatous testicular germ cell tumors
Name the cancer associated with the following tumor markers. (Some may have more than one answer.)
• Calcitonin
Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid
Name the cancer associated with the following tumor markers. (Some may have more than one answer.)
• PSA and prostatic acid phosphatase
Prostate cancer
Name the cancer associated with the following tumor markers. (Some may have more than one answer.)
• Placental alkaline phosphatase
Seminoma
Name the cancer associated with the following tumor markers. (Some may have more than one answer.)
• CEA
Cancer of the lung, stomach, colon, and breast
What seronegative spondyloarthropathy is seen in HLA-B27–positive young men, involves the sacroiliac joints, has no subcutaneous nodules, and has a bamboo spine appearance on radiograph?
Ankylosing spondylitis
What disorder is associated with decreased platelet count, prolonged PT and PTT, decreased fibrinogen, and increased fibrin split products (D-dimers)?
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
What spirochete is responsible for Lyme disease?
Borrelia burgdorferi
What very aggressive lung cancer metastasizes early and is associated with smoking and paraneoplastic syndromes?
Small cell carcinoma (oat cell)
What bone disorder is characterized by brown tumors, bone pain, deformities, and fractures due to excessive PTH?
Osteitis fibrosa cystica (von Recklinghausen disease)
What glycogen storage disease is due to the following enzyme deficiencies?
• Lysosomal glucosidase (acid maltase)
Pompe's disease
What glycogen storage disease is due to the following enzyme deficiencies?
• Muscle phosphorylase
McArdle's syndrome
What glycogen storage disease is due to the following enzyme deficiencies?
• Glucose-6-phosphatase
von Gierke's disease
What ovarian disease involves psammoma bodies?
Serocystadenocarcinoma
What cystic swelling of the chorionic villi is the most common precursor of choriocarcinoma?
Hydatidiform mole
In what condition do you see dimpling on the kidney's surface?
Pyelonephritis
What are the most common causes of osteomyelitis
• Overall?
Staphylococcus aureus
What are the most common causes of osteomyelitis
• In neonates?
Streptococcus agalactiae
What are the most common causes of osteomyelitis
• In patients with sickle cell disease?
Staphylococcus aureus (but they are more prone to salmonella infections)
What are the most common causes of osteomyelitis
• In drug addicts?
Pseudomonas
What malignant neoplasm of the bone is associated with Homer-Wright pseudorosettes; onion skinning of the periosteum on radiographs of the femur, pelvis, and tibia; and chromosome 11;22 translocation?
Ewing's sarcoma
What lymphoma is characterized by CD19, CD20, CD5; CD23-negative; and chromosome 11;14 translocations?
Mantle cell lymphoma
What components of the complement cascade form the MAC?
C5b–C9
True or false? HPV infection increases the risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma of the penis.
True. HPV serotypes 16 and 18 are risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma.
What form of coarctation of the aorta is associated with Turner syndrome?
Preductal (infantile)
True or false? An elevated serum osteocalcin level is a marker for increased bone formation.
True. Increased alkaline phosphatase levels also are associated with increased bone formation.
What is the most common opportunistic infection of the CNS in HIV?
Toxoplasmosis
What hereditary bone disorder is due to decreased osteoclast function, resulting in thick, sclerotic bones that fracture easily?
Osteopetrosis (Albers-Schönberg disease)
True or false? Pancreatic delta-cell tumors inhibit CCK secretion, leading to gallstones and steatorrhea.
True. Delta-Cell tumors produce excess somatostatin, which inhibits CCK, gastrin (hypochlorhydria), and insulin secretion (diabetes).
What is the term for the speckled appearance of the iris in patients with Down syndrome?
Brushfield spots
What is the term for the collapse of the vertebral body due to TB?
Pott disease
What organ must metastasize for carcinoid heart disease to occur?
Liver
Which subset of MEN syndrome is associated with the following?
• Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, pheochromocytoma, and mucocutaneous neuromas
MEN III (or IIb)
Which subset of MEN syndrome is associated with the following?
• Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, pheochromocytoma, and parathyroid adenomas (or hyperplasia)
MEN IIa (or Sipple syndrome)
Which subset of MEN syndrome is associated with the following?
• Parathyroid, pancreatic, and pituitary gland tumors and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
MEN I (or Wermer syndrome)
What X-linked recessive disease involves mental retardation, self-mutilation, choreoathetosis, spasticity, a decrease in HGPRT, and an increase in uricemia?
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
What disorder is associated with spider angiomas, palmar erythema, gynecomastia, testicular atrophy, encephalopathy, abnormalities in clotting factors, and portal HTN?
Cirrhosis
What is your diagnosis of a young, thin asymptomatic female with a midsystolic click on cardiac auscultation?
Mitral valve prolapse
What infection is associated with ring-enhancing lesions seen on computed tomography (CT) of the brain in an HIV-positive individual?
Toxoplasmosis (although you should rule out cerebral abscess due to other organisms)
What is the term for a reversible change in one cell type to another?
Metaplasia (usually to a more protective cell type)
What liver tumor is associated with oral contraceptive pill use?
Hepatic adenomas
What CNS developmental abnormality is associated with downward displacement of the cerebellar vermis and medulla compressing the fourth ventricle and leading to obstructive hydrocephalus?
Arnold-Chiari malformation type 2
What disease involves a lack of both T cell-mediated and humoral immune responses that can be either X-linked or AR?
Severe combined immunodeficiency disease
What condition results in the following CSF results?
• Opening pressure 70 to 180 mm H2O; 0–10 WBCs (monocytes); glucose 45 to 85, protein 15 to 45
Normal values
What condition results in the following CSF results?
• Opening pressure 450 mm H2O; 5 WBCs (90% lymphocytes); normal glucose and protein levels
Brain abscess
What condition results in the following CSF results?
• Opening pressure 100 mm H2O; 120 WBCs (90% lymphocytes); normal glucose levels; protein 17
Viral meningitis
What condition results in the following CSF results?
• Opening pressure 250 mm H2O; WBCs 250 (90% lymphocytes); glucose 35; protein 100
TB meningitis
What condition results in the following CSF results?
• Opening pressure 400 mm H2O; WBCs 8500 (90% PMNs); glucose 15; protein 120
Bacterial meningitis
True or false? Removal of the ileum results in vitamin B12 deficiencies.
True. The ileum is the site where vitamin B12 is absorbed.
What is the term for edema that has LDH below 200, protein level 2.5, and a specific gravity below 1.020?
Transudative; exudative has the opposite values and has an elevated cellular content.
What is the term for thickened, hyperpigmented skin in the axillae, groin, and skin folds associated with malignancies, obesity, and DM?
Acanthosis nigricans
How many grams of protein must be excreted in 24 hours to produce the diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome?
>3.5 g/day of protein, along with generalized edema, hypoalbuminemia, and hyperlipidemia
What illicit drug can cause amyloidosis and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in the kidney?
Heroin
What catecholamine-hypersecreting tumor, a secondary cause of HTN, results in headache, diaphoresis, anxiety, tachycardia, and palpitations?
Pheochromocytoma
What is the term for flattened nose, low-set ears, and recessed chin seen in patients with bilateral renal agenesis?
Potter facies
What type of healing occurs in a clean surgical incision?
Primary intention
What are the two most common viral infections in HIV?
CMV retinitis and HSV-2
What disorder is defined by inability of the lower esophageal sphincter to relax with swallowing and a bird beak barium swallow result?
Achalasia. (Think Chagas disease if it presents in a person from Central or South America.)
Does Cushing syndrome or Cushing disease have elevated ACTH levels and cortisol suppression with dexamethasone?
Cushing's disease (pituitary) has elevated ACTH and cortisol suppression with dexamethasone, whereas Cushing's syndrome (adrenal adenoma) has decreased ACTH and no cortisol suppression with dexamethasone.
What CD4 T-cell receptor does the HIV virus bind to?
gp120
What is the term for RBC fragments?
Schistocytes
What disorder is due to a deficiency in tyrosinase?
Albinism
What two Abs are used to diagnose Hashimoto's thyroiditis?
Antithyroglobulin and antimicrosomal Abs
What urease-producing gram-negative curved rod is associated with PUD and chronic gastritis?
Helicobacter pylori, which is also associated with an increased risk of gastric carcinoma
Name the cancer associated with the following chemical agents. (Some may have more than one answer.)
• Alkylating agents
Leukemias and lymphomas
Name the cancer associated with the following chemical agents. (Some may have more than one answer.)
• Aromatic amines and azo dyes
Hepatocellular carcinoma
Name the cancer associated with the following chemical agents. (Some may have more than one answer.)
• Arsenic
Squamous cell carcinoma (skin, lung) and angiosarcoma of the liver
Name the cancer associated with the following chemical agents. (Some may have more than one answer.)
• Asbestos
Mesothelioma and bronchogenic carcinoma
Name the cancer associated with the following chemical agents. (Some may have more than one answer.)
• Naphthylamine
Bladder cancer
Name the cancer associated with the following chemical agents. (Some may have more than one answer.)
• Benzenes
Leukemias
Name the cancer associated with the following chemical agents. (Some may have more than one answer.)
• Vinyl chloride
Angiosarcoma of the liver
Name the cancer associated with the following chemical agents. (Some may have more than one answer.)
• Chromium and nickel
Bronchogenic carcinoma
Name the cancer associated with the following chemical agents. (Some may have more than one answer.)
• Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Bronchogenic carcinoma
Name the cancer associated with the following chemical agents. (Some may have more than one answer.)
• Nitrosamines
Gastric cancer
What are the five conditions associated with normochromic normocytic anemia with a normal MCV and an elevated reticulocyte count?
1. Autoimmune hypersplenism
2. Trauma
3. Anemia
4. Spherocytosis
5. Sickle cell anemia
What pancreatic islet cell tumor is associated with hypoglycemia, sweating, hunger, confusion, and increased C-peptide levels?
Insulinoma
What substance is used to test platelets' response in patients with von Willebrand disease?
Ristocetin
What X-linked recessive disorder that is due to an abnormality in the dystrophin gene, has onset by age 5 with progressive proximal muscle weakness, calf pseudohypertrophy, and elevated CPK levels?
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (Remember, Becker's is slower in progress, less severe, later in onset, and lacks cardiac involvement.)
What subset of adenocarcinoma arises from the terminal bronchioles and/or alveolar walls?
Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma
What estrogen-producing tumor of the female genital tract is characterized by Call-Exner bodies?
Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary
What AD syndrome involves 1000 or more edematous polyps, most commonly affects the colorectal area, and is associated with chromosome 5q21?
Familial polyposis coli
What is the term for osteophyte formation at the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints in osteoarthritis? In the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints?
Bouchard nodes in the PIP joints; Heberden nodes in the DIP joints.
What prostaglandin is associated with maintaining patency of the ductus arteriosus?
PGE (along with low oxygen tension)
What is the term for dilated veins within the spermatic cord?
Varicocele
What type of hemostasis in an intravascular space consists of fibrin, platelets, RBCs, and WBCs?
Thrombus
What is the most common primary malignant tumor in bone?
Osteosarcoma
What is the most common infectious agent in HIV?
Pneumocystis carinii
What myeloid disorder is characterized by dry bone marrow aspirations, splenomegaly, leukoerythroblastosis, teardrop RBCs, and hyperuricemia due to increased cell turnover?
Myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia
What disease that involves mental retardation, flat face, muscle hypotonia, and a double-bubble sign on radiograph poses an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease and ALL?
Down syndrome (trisomy 21)
What form of anemia is associated with IgG Abs against Rh antigens, positive direct Coombs test, and splenomegaly?
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
What urinary metabolite is increased in patients with carcinoid syndrome?
5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA)
What chronic liver disease has a beaded appearance of the bile ducts on cholangiogram?
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
What three LTs are associated with bronchospasms and an increase in vessel permeability and vasoconstriction?
LC4, LD4, and LE 4
What are the three Bs of adult polycystic kidneys?
1. Big
2. Bilateral
3. Berry aneurysm
What AR disease involves a defect in AA 508 on chromosome 7, causing a defect in Cl- transportation that leads to recurrent pulmonary infections and an increase in viscid mucoid secretions along with pancreatic insufficiencies?
Cystic fibrosis. (Parents are usually the first to find out because the baby tastes salty.)
What law states that an enlarged, palpable gallbladder is more likely due to cancer than stone obstruction?
Courvoisier's law
What is the term for air in the pleural space?
Pneumothorax
What disorder of bone remodeling results in thick, weak bones and is associated with high-output cardiac failure?
Paget disease (osteitis deformans)
What is the term to describe the increase in organ size due to the increase in cell size and function?
Hypertrophy
What slow-growing primary CNS tumor that affects mostly females is associated with psammoma bodies?
Meningioma
True or false? Ethyl alcohol induces the cytochrome P-450 enzymes.
True
What are the five components of portal HTN?
1. Caput medusae
2. Esophageal varices
3. Ascites
4. Splenomegaly
5. Hemorrhoids
What syndrome results when there is a deletion to paternal chromosome 15? Maternal?
Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome, respectively
What CNS tumor arises from Rathke's pouch?
Craniopharyngioma
What is the triad of Reiter syndrome?
1. Conjunctivitis
2. Nongonococcal urethritis
3. Peripheral arthritis

Can't see, can't wee, can't kick with your knee
Which of the following is not a risk factor for cholesterol gallstones: pregnancy, OCP use, female gender, hemolytic anemia, cirrhosis, and obesity? (May be more than one answer.)
Cirrhosis and hemolytic anemia, which are risk factors for pigmented gallstones.
Name the nephritic disease based on the immunofluorescent staining.
• Mesangial deposits of IgA and C3
IgA nephropathy (Berger disease)
Name the nephritic disease based on the immunofluorescent staining.
• Smooth and linear pattern of IgG and C3 in the GBM
Goodpasture disease
Name the nephritic disease based on the immunofluorescent staining.
• Granular deposits of IgG, IgM, and C3 throughout the glomerulus
Postinfectious GN
What glycoprotein allows platelets to adhere to each other through the use of fibrinogen?
GP IIb/IIIa, which is why GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors are used in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes
What virus is associated with body cavity large B-cell lymphomas?
HHV-8
What germ cell tumor is seen in the 15-to 35-year-old age group, peaks when the person is 35 years of age, and is a bulky mass that spreads via the lymphatic system?
Seminoma
What transmural inflammatory bowel disease can be found from the mouth to anus, has noncaseating granulomas, is discontinuous (skip lesions), and has a cobblestone appearance, thickening of the bowel wall, linear fissures, and aphthous ulcers with normal
Crohn disease
Does ELISA or Western blot confirm whether a patient is HIV-positive?
ELISA screens and Western blot confirms the diagnosis.
What GN is highly associated with hepatitis B and C infections?
Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN)
What is the term for squamous to columnar metaplasia of the distal esophagus secondary to chronic inflammation?
Barrett esophagus has an increased risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the esophagus.
What is the term for excessive amounts of granulation tissue that can block re-epithelialization and wound healing?
Proud flesh
What is released from the mitochondria to trigger apoptosis?
Cytochrome c
How much of a vessel must be stenosed to cause sudden cardiac death?
More than 75% of the vessel
Oxidation of Hgb forms what bodies in patients with G-6-PD deficiency?
Heinz bodies
What syndrome that is due to an adrenal gland adenoma produces excess aldosterone resulting in HTN, hypokalemia, and low rennin levels?
Conn syndrome (primary hyperaldosteronism)
What virus is associated with both nasopharyngeal carcinoma and Burkitt lymphoma?
EBV
What normochromic, normocytic AD anemia has splenomegaly and increased osmotic fragility?
Hereditary spherocytosis
What does prepubertal hypersecretion of growth hormone lead to?
Gigantism
What enzyme is deficient in alkaptonuria?
Homogentisic oxidase
What sex cell tumor causes precocious puberty, masculinization, gynecomastia in adults, and crystalloids of Reinke?
Leydig cell tumor
Name four major risk factors for atherosclerosis.
DM, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and HTN are major risk factors. Being male, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, homocysteine elevation, oral contraceptive pills, and genetics are minor risk factors for atherosclerosis.
Name the AD disease associated with chromosome 15 in which the patient has long extremities, lax joints, pigeon chest, and posterior mitral leaflet prolapse and is prone to developing dissecting aortic aneurysm.
Marfan syndrome
What is the term for a large VSD that leads to pulmonary HTN, RVH, and cyanosis due to right-to-left reversal of the shunt?
Eisenmenger syndrome, which can also occur with any left-to-right shunt
Eating fava beans can produce the Mediterranean type of what deficiency?
G-6-PD deficiency
What form of hemophilia is X-linked recessive and due to a deficiency in factor VIII?
Hemophilia A
What leukemia affects a 4-year-old child with 3 months of fever, fatigue, generalized lymphadenopathy, CNS involvement, hepatosplenomegaly, bleeding, and platelet count below 100, 000?
ALL
What protein deficiency results in respiratory distress syndrome of newborns?
Deficiency in surfactant
What are the three components of amyloid?
1. Fibrillary protein
2. Amyloid protein
3. Glycosaminoglycans
What autoimmune disorder is due to Abs directed to ACh receptors at the NMJ?
Myasthenia gravis
What are the three left-to-right shunts?
1. VSD
2. ASD
3. PDA
What protein causes fibrinolysis?
Plasmin
What pancreatic islet cell tumor is associated with watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, and achlorhydria?
VIPoma
True or false? Obesity, DM, HTN, multiparity, early menarche, and late menopause are all risk factors for endometrial carcinoma.
False. They are all risk factors for endometrial carcinoma except multiparity. Nulliparity, estrogen-producing tumors, and estrogen replacement therapy are also risk factors for endometrial carcinoma.
What is the term for pigmented iris hamartomas seen in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1?
Lisch nodules
What GI pathology is associated with a positive string sign, an increase in the number of bloody stools, RLQ pain, skip lesions, terminal ileum most commonly affected, occurrence in women more than men, and an increased thickness of the bowel?
Crohn disease
What is the most common fungal infection in HIV?
Candida
True or false? GERD is a cause of asthma.
True. Don't forget this in your differential diagnosis of an asthmatic.
Name the product or products of arachidonic acid:
• Vasodilation and inhibition of platelet aggregation produced by vascular endothelium
PGI2
Name the product or products of arachidonic acid:
• Vasodilation
PGD2, PGE2, and PGF 2
Name the product or products of arachidonic acid:
• Pain and fever
PGE2
Name the product or products of arachidonic acid:
• Vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation produced by platelets
TXA2
Name the product or products of arachidonic acid:
• Chemotactic for neutrophils
LTB4
Name the product or products of arachidonic acid:
• Vasodilation, bronchospasm, and increased vascular permeability
LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4
Which hepatitis B Ab indicates low transmissibility?
HBeAb
What pneumoconiosis is associated with exposure to the following occupations or materials?
• Miners, metal grinders, and sandblasters
Silicosis

Note: Coal worker's pneumoconiosis is synonymous with black lung disease, an upper lobe occupational disorder
What pneumoconiosis is associated with exposure to the following occupations or materials?
• Aerospace industry, nuclear reactors
Berylliosis
What pneumoconiosis is associated with exposure to the following occupations or materials?
• Shipyards, brake linings, insulation, and old building construction
Asbestosis
What is the term for calcification of the gallbladder seen on radiograph due to chronic cholecystitis or adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder?
Porcelain gallbladder
What is the term to describe a decrease in the cell size and function usually associated with disuse?
Atrophy. Disuse can also be due to immobilization, ischemia, aging, and a host of other causes.
Which B-cell neoplasm has the following cell surface markers: CD19, CD20, CD5 (T-cell marker), CD23; and are CD10-negative?
CLL (B-cell origin)
What disease caused by decompression sickness leads to multiple foci of ischemic necrosis that affect the head of the femur, humerus, and tibia?
Caisson disease
What are the four DNA oncogenic viruses?
1. HPV
2. EBV
3. Hepatitis B
4. Kaposi sarcoma
Is the AD or AR form of osteopetrosis malignant?
The AR form is malignant and AD is benign.
What carcinoma produces hematuria, flank pain, and a palpable mass?
This is the triad of renal cell carcinoma
Name at least three causes of metastatic calcification.
Remember the mnemonic PAM SMIDT

P, (hyper) Parathyroid/ Paget disease
A, Addison's disease
M, Milk-alkali syndrome/metastatic cancer

S, Sarcoidosis
M, Multiple myeloma
I, Immobilization/idiopathic
D, Vitamin D intoxication
T, Tumors
What is the only subtype of Hodgkin's lymphoma that is most commonly seen in females?
Nodular sclerosis
What is the leading cause of preventable premature death and illness in the United States?
Smoking
What prion-associated CNS pathology produces rapidly progressive dementia with myoclonus, involuntary movements, and death within 6 to 12 months?
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
What breast malignancy has tumor cells with a halo surrounding the nucleus and is an ulceration of the nipple and areola with crusting, fissuring, and oozing?
Paget disease of the breast
What breast pathology involves malignant cells with halos invading the epidermis of the skin?
Paget disease of the breast
Macro-ovalocytes in the peripheral blood smear are formed from what cell in the bone marrow?
Megaloblasts
Name the type of exudate, given the following examples.
• Sunburn
Serous exudates
Name the type of exudate, given the following examples.
• Uremic pericarditis
Fibrinous exudates
Name the type of exudate, given the following examples.
• Parasitic infection
Eosinophilic exudates
Name the type of exudate, given the following examples.
• Diphtheria infection
Pseudomembranous exudates
Name the type of exudate, given the following examples.
• Meningococcal infection
Purulent exudates
Name the type of exudate, given the following examples.
• Rickettsial infection
Hemorrhagic exudates
What parasite is associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder?
Schistosoma haematobium
What malabsorption syndrome produces abdominal distention, bloating, flatulence, diarrhea, steatorrhea, and weight loss shortly after eating bread products?
Celiac sprue (gluten-sensitive enteropathy)
What herpes virus is associated with Kaposi sarcoma?
HHV 8
What is the term for the copper corneal deposits found in Wilson's disease?
Kayser-Fleischer rings
Name the six vitamin K–dependent coagulation factors.
Factors II, VII, IX, and X and proteins C and S.
What ovarian carcinoma is characterized by psammoma bodies?
Cystadenocarcinoma
A marfanoid patient presents with tearing retrosternal chest pain radiating to her back. What is your first diagnosis?
Dissecting aortic aneurysm. MI is also high on the list, but these are buzzwords to look for dissection.
What malignant neoplasm of the skin is associated with keratin pearls?
Squamous cell carcinoma

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