Glossary of Tour Guide Course - Test Preparation
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- (Greek): is the study of the past based on written accounts; branch of humanities.
- Archeology is the systematic study of past human life and culture by the recovery and examination of remaining material evidence, such as graves, buildings, tools, and pottery. To pursue this study, archeologists focus on the relationship between the material objects made by past peoples on the one hand, and the makers' behavior on the other. Sometimes written records help; often no such records exist.
- Jewish Bible or TENAKH
- includes the Torah (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy), Neviim (Prophets) and Ketuvim (Writings: (Psalms, Proverbs, and Song of Songs, Lamentations, Job, Ruth, Esther, Daniel and Ezra-Nechemiah and Chronicles.)
- graphic representation of a spoken language.
- First written language
- – ~3400 BCE, developed by Sumerians in southern Mesopotamia and Iraq. This writing spread throughout the Ancient Near East (ANE), and eventually to Israel. Egyptians developed writing ~3100 BCE.
- First reference to writing in Bible
- In Exodus 32:31-32:
“Moses went back to the Lord and said, ‘Alas this people is guilty of a great sin in making for themselves a god of gold. Now if You will forgive their sin [well and good; but if not erase me from the record which you have written]”
- The SUMERIAN PERIOD
- 4. The rise of the state of Mesopotamia
Civilization emerges in southeastern Mesopotamia in Sumer (Sumerians). They organized into ~20 city-states, including Ur, Uruk, Nippur, Lagash, Kish. From ~3400 to 2400 BCE they were isolated. They laid down much of our Western civilization, including dividing by 360 degrees, making the 12 signs of the Zodiac, first recognizing astrology, giving us the first precise calendar, etc. Many biblical Hebrew words are Sumerian.
In ~2400 BCE Sumerian documents begin listing names of those who are not Sumerians – probably eastern Semitics.
- Origin of the word Semitic
- Comes from “descendents of Shem”, son of Noah. Shem’s brothers were Ham, and Japheth.
Biblical Source: Genesis 10:1-10
- Legend of Sargon
- ~2200 BCE
The story: a Priestess had a child. She sent the newborn in a basket down the Euphrates, where he ends up in the Sumerian City of Kish (near Bagdad.) He was found by a gardner.
By ~2200 Sargon’s empire included all of Mesopotamia.
Position Date length of rule BIblical Name?
- ~2155-2119 – Grandson of Sargon – empire reaches its zenith. Naram-Sin ruled for over 60 years. [Nimrod of Genesis Chapter 10 – see above, is possibly Naram-Sin and Cush is possibly Kish. This is the only place in the Bible that Akkad appears.]
- The Amurru
- Their name means “people from the west [of the Euphrates River—including Syria, Israel, Jordan, and Lebanon] ” They are sometimes referred to [possibly incorrectly] as Amorites.
- Sixth King of the Babylonia Empire
- 178-1750 BCE
- Hammarabi Stele
Refers to who in Bible
- Discovered in 1901 at the acropolis of ancient Susa
M. J. de Morgan.
Hammurabi was the king of Babylon around 1800 BCE
"Amraphel" of the Bible (Genesis 14) who was one of the kings who captured Abraham's nephew Lot.
- Rosetta Stone-
- Jean-François Champollion
Hieroglyphics, Demotics, Greek
- 3rd Century BCE Egyptian Historian
- Major Periods in Egyptian History
- The Old Kingdom – 3100-2200 BCE great pyramids built.
~2200 BCE Egypt breaks up into 5-6 sub regions.
First Intermediate – 2200-2050 7th – 10 Dynasties
Characterized by political instability.
Middle Kingdom - 2050-1750 BCE Height of Egyptian culture
Second Intermediate – 1750-1550 BCE
1750 – Hyksos
New Kingdom – 1550- ~1150 BCE
- Four Empires in ANE in 1500 BCE
- 1. Egypt that is unified and rules over Canaan.
2. Babylonia that rules over southern Mesopotamia
3. Mittani (Hurian) of Northern Syria --indo-Europeans of whom little is know
4. Hatti (Sometimes referred to as Hittite) of eastern central Turkey. (See Republic of Hatay)
- Biblical Reference to Kings of HIttites
- II Kings Chapter 7:6: Assyrian King of Damascus refers to Kings of the Hittites.
For the Lord had made the host of the Arameans to hear a noise of chariots, and a noise of horses, even the noise of a great host; and they said one to another: 'Lo, the king of Israel hath hired against us the kings of the Hittites, and the kings of the Egyptians, to come upon us.'
- Area (sq/km) of Israel [Including West Bank and Mt. Hermon]
- 24,000 Square Kilometers
The Negev makes up 12,000 SQ/K or @ 50% of the country.
- Highest Point in Israel
- Mt. Hermon at 2,200 meters. This compares with Mt. Lebanon at 3,088 meters.
- Five (5) Main West to East Geological Units
- I. The Coastal Plain
III. Central Highlands
IV. Great Rift Valley
V. Trans-Jordan Plateau (Golan Heights and Mt. Hermon)
- Name the 6 subunits of the Coastal Plain region
- 1. Galilee, Rosh Hanikra to Akko – Bananas and avocadoes
2. Akko to Haifa Zubulon Plain – Cotton and Carp
3. Carmel: Haifa to Nahal (river) Taninim (the alligators river) – Bananas
4. The Sharon: Nahal Taninim to Nahal Yarkon – Oranges
5. Pleshet: Nahal Yarkon to Emek Shikma (just north of kibbutz Ruhama) – Sunflowers and grapes
6. Negev: Valley of Shikma to the Valley of Besor – Carrots and Potatoes
- The Shephelah (Arabic: Sofla) “hilly area”
- This north-south zone runs from Ben Shemen in the north to the Memorial of the Negev Brigade in the South – approximately 60 kms long. The southern most point is at Tzomet Goral (Goral Junction) just north of Beer Sheva on highway 40. Its elevation is between 200 and 400 meters above sea level.
- Only Urban Center in the Shephela
- Today the only urban area is Beit Shemesh. This is explained by the history of the region; the Tabu (Land Registration Authority) recognizes this area for grazing cattle and not for urban development.
- Important Biblical Sites on the Shephela
- Many important biblical settlements were found here - Beit Govrin, Lachish, Gezer, Meresha. Along with this archeologists have found many tombs, oil presses, cisterns for storing rain water, columbaria for raising pigeons in order to use their guano for fertilizer.
10,000 artificial (man made) caves have been found in this area.
- Central Highlands
- Main watershed of Israel. Drop of 1000--400 to Dead Sea.
Stretches 400 Kms from Metula to Eilat.
Major cities - Sfed Nazareth and Jerusalem
- Highest Point in the Central highlands
- Mt. Meron 1208 meters
- What and where are the Makteshim ?
- The Negev has a number of interesting cultural and geological features. Among these are three enormous, craterlike erosion cirques or machteshim, which are unique to the region: ha-Machtesh ha-Gadol (“The Large Crater”), ha-Machtesh ha-Katan (“The Small Crater”) and the Ramon Crater. The last is the biggest of all, in fact – it is probably the largest natural crater on Earth. There is a fourth smaller crater as well.
- The Rift Valley in Israel is divided into five subdivision - name them.
- 1. Hula Valley – has running rivers and is a main source of surface water
2. Kinneret Lake
3. Jordan Valley
4. Dead Sea Valley
5. Arava Valley
- Is Lake Kinneret below sea level?
- Yes - -200 meters.
- What is the drop in elevation of the Jordan River from Lake Kinneret to the Dead Sea
- 200 meters - from -200 to -400 meters.
The Jordan meanders 200 Kms - the straight distince isn 100 Kms.
- What is the widest point of Dead Sea
- 17.5 Kms. Flanked by the Judean Desert to the west and the Mountains of Moab to the east. It has shrunk in length from 83 to 40 km over the past 45 years.
- What is the Length of the Arava?
Average Annual rainfall?
- The Arava is 170 km long is the driest region in Israel.
Average of 10 mm /annum.
- What are artifacts?
- Any portable object made and/or used by humans.
Features are defined as non-portable evidence of past human behavior, activity, and technology.
- Importance contribution of Asyrian King Ashurbanipal (669-627 BCE)
- Created first Library - vis-a-vis archive
Ashurbanipal created "the first systematically collected library" at Nineveh, where he gathered all cuneiform literature available by that time. A library was distinct from an archive: earlier repositories of documents had accumulated passively, in the course of administrative routine.
- What was found at the library in Nineveh?
- Evidence” of the Flood.
The evidence was inscribed in cuneiform among 20000 clay tablets discovered ...among the ruins of a palace of the Assyrian King Ashurbanipal (669-626 BC). The evidence was inscribed in Assyrian cuneiform among 30,000 clay tablets discovered in 1872 by George Smith the British Orientalist.
- Who found and excavated Troy?
- The German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann, found and excavated Troy, began
to dig at Mycenae in the 1870’s.
- Who first excavated at Nineveh and when?
- Austen Henry Layar 1854
- What is the accepted chronology from Paleolithic to Neolithic ages?
- Paleolithic 200,000 BCE
Mesolithic 17,000 – 8,000 BCE
Epi-paleolithic 10,000-8,000 BCE
Neolithic – 8,000-4,500 BCE
- Who developed the Stone, Bronze Iron Age classification?
- Christian Jorgesen Thomsen -
In organizing the extensive collection of artifacts at the National Museum of Denmark, the 19th-century Danish archaeologist Christian Thomsen proposed an innovative system based on the assumption of a progression in human technology from stone to bronze to iron.
- Chalcolithic Age?
- 4500-3300/3100 BCE
- Bronze Age
- 3300 - 1200 BCE
- When were the first cities founded?
- Early Bronze Age - 3200 -2000
The first cities were founded at the beginning of this period – Uruk, Sumer. [Example Teleilat Ghassul (Tulaylât al-Ghassûl) is a large Late Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in the lower Jordan Valley some 5-6 km. (3-4 mi.) northeast of the Dead Sea.
- Iron Age
- 1200 – 586 BCE
- When did pottery come into use?
- 6000 BCE
Dame Kathleen Kenyon, the British archeologist, led an excavation to Jericho to study the connections of biblical history of Joshua to archeological evidence of the collapse of a wall. She did not find the remains of a wall but her discovery of a pre-pottery age around 8,000 BCE during the Neolithic Age.
- What is the importance of Pottery to Archeology?
Identification of specific cultures
[See Flinders Petrie]
- Mesopotamia (def)
- land between two rivers (Tigris and Euphrates).
- Epi-paleolithic Age
- 8,000- 6,000 BCE
Ended with the introduction of farming.
The Epi-paleolithic period is characterized by the domestication of animals and plants as humans begin to take greater control of their environment.
- Eusebius of Caesarea (263-349 CE)
- He was a Christian scholar and friend of and the biographer for Emperor Constantine. He also published a list of names that appeared in the holy scriptures and attempted to identify where biblical sites where located.
- Edward Robinson
- Early ANE Archaeologist
In the 1830’s Robinson came to the Holy Land to find Megiddo. He used biblical sources and incorrectly determined the location based on what he assumed the sights from the location would look like. He actually was so very close to the correct location…
- Sir William Flinders Petrie (1853-1942)
Name two Major Contributions?
- “Father of Pots”
Stratigraphy and Typology
- In archaeology, study of the layers (strata) of ancient remains that provide clues as to the material culture represented by each layer and the order of successive cultures inhabiting the site (the top layers are more recent, the bottom layers more ancient).
- Pottery Dating
- Pottery Dating tables have been developed that help archeologist differentiate the approximate dates when particular pieces have been manufactured. This can be reliable within on or two centuries.
- What is an antiquity?
(According to the Israel Antiquities Authority)
- Before 1700
The Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA) Law was established to set legal rules and regulations for archeology. Any antiquities dated before 1700 CE are legally the property of the State.
- What is a tel?
- Multi-stratified mounds
or Tels/tells (In Hebrew this means a “ruined site” Tell (Arabic) Tel (Hebrew). Tels are particular to the Ancient Near East. [Note: The first cities in Europe were built in the Roman era and did not experience multi-layering.]
- What is a Khirbet?
- A Khirbet is a site that does not take the form of a mound. Usually, a khirbet site has only a few or even a single occupation period, not enough to form a mound. In Jordan, khirbets are the most common type of site.
- The three (3) methods of excavation
- British, American, Israeli
It is generally supposed that there have been three significant approaches to archeological excavation in Israel: The British method developed by Wheeler and Kenyon, the American method which is traced especially through Reisner, Albright, and Wright, and the Israeli method of Munya Dunayevsky.
- British method of excavation
- The so-called British method [i.e. Kathleen Kenyon’s Trench Approach” emphasizes a grid of squares (usually 5m by 5m), separated by standing balks which remain in place at least throughout most of the excavation.
- American method of excavation
- The American method is generally considered to be an intermediary position between the British and Israeli methods. Its main contributions are considered to be the eclecticism of Wright, careful, daily ceramic analysis in the tradition of Albright, and the increased use of scientific studied in such areas as geology, botany, and zoology.
- Israeli method of excavation
(eg Hazor and Masada)
- The Israeli method emphasizes horizontal exposure of architectural remains.
Restorable pottery found in situ on the floors of architectural levels is the key element in dating. Recently there has been an increased emphasis on restoration of architectural remains as “field museums”.
The work of Yigal Yadin at Hatzor is an example. He dug 5 square meter deep sections through one layer of the tel until he was able to decipher the plan of that settlement at the specific strata (layer.) He then removed the barriers between squares and revealed architectural structures.
- What is an archeological survey?
- detailed examination of an area designed to gather information about archeological sites. The goal of an archaeological survey is to identify all archeological sites within the area of potential effects
- Where did Samson find his wife?
Where is it?
She was from what group?
- biblical Timnah
Sorek Valley (Tel Batash?) near kibbutz Tel Shahar.
Biblical Source: Judges 14:1 And Samson went down to Timnah and saw a woman in Timnah of the daughters of the Philistines.
- Where did Rehoboam build cities for the defence of Judah?
- 2 Chronicles 11:6
And Rehoboam dwelt in Jerusalem, and built cities for defense in Judah.
6: He built even Bethlehem, and Etam, and Tekoa,
7: And Beth-zur, and Shoco, and Adullam,
8: And Gath, and Mareshah, and Ziph,
9: And Adoraim, and Lachish, and Azekah,
10: And Zorah, and Aijalon, and Hebron, which are in Judah and in Benjamin fenced cities.
- Where is the Fertile Crescent?
- The Fertile Crescent bounded by Anatolian Plateau, Iranian Plateau, Desert Belt and the Mediterranean Sea.
- When did people settle in the Fertile Crescent?
- Around 7,000 years ago
(during the Neolithic, pre-pottery, period) people settled in the Fertile Crescent, including the Land of Israel, Egypt, etc.).
- Where are the Levant "boundaries?"
- Levant is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. The Levant does not include the Caucasus Mountains, any part of the Arabian Peninsula proper, or Anatolia.
- What is the mportance of the Levant region in Middle Bronze Age 1800-1700 BCE?
- Land bridge with northern Egypt (through the Sinai Peninsula).
Provided ports along the Mediterranean coast for ships coming from Egypt, Greece, Syria, Cyprus, etc.
- Semitic Language Four subgroups
- Semetic languages are divided into 4 parts: Eastern Mesopotamia --Akkadian (Assyrian and Babylon dialects), Western (“Ammorite”- Hebrew), Northwestern (Aramaic- Cannonites), and Southern (Arabic and Ethiopian)
- Main Coastal Trade Route
- From Nile to Euphrates -
this Coastal Road until you reached the mountain pass that leads to Megiddo. From here you would most likely take a route across the Jezreel Plain, stopping at Afula, then heading around Mt. Tabor, north to a city on the Horns of Hattin, down to the Sea of Galilee, up to Hazor, and around the south side of Mt. Hermon to Damascus.
- The Great Trunk Road
- is often mistakenly referred to as the Via Maris, which is a misnomer. Via Maris is the Latin translation from Isaiah 9:1 (in the Hebrew Bible, 8:23) – "the way of the sea." The prophet was probably referring to the road from Dan to the sea at Tyre, which marked the northern border of Israel at the time of the Assyrian conquest.
- The Kings’s Highway
- Biblical Source: Numbers 20:17
[Highway starts at Gulf of Aqaba (ancient Elat), goes up the eastern side of the Arava, Crosses Mt. Edom, Moab and the Trans-Jordan Plateau.]
"Please let us pass through your land: we will not pass through field or through vineyard, neither will we drink of the water of the wells: we will go along the king's highway; we will not turn aside to the right hand nor to the left, until we have passed your border." [Moses’s peace message to the Amorite, giant King Sihon to allow the Israelites to pass by his land.]
- The Coastal Plain
- It is mostly covered in sand dunes, on the foundation of sandstone – Kurkar. It varies in width from 500 meters just south of Zikron Yaakov and widens to over 20 kms. In the south.
- Low Country—low rolling hills): From Sha’ar HaGai – Beit Shemesh in the north, to Lod-Ramle and to Kiryat Gat in the south. It is as wide as 30 Km in the south. [The western Galilee is referred to as Shephelah in the Bible]
- Hill Country - 3 parts
- 1. Galilee in the north
(Upper and Lower, divided at Bikat Beit Kerem) – Highest point is Mt. Meron at 1208 m; average is ~600 m.; location of northern tribes
2. Sumerian Hills in the center
Location of Sameria and Benjamin tribes
3. Judean Hills in the south
Highest point is 900 m. in the Hebron Hills; area goes from Jerusalem to the border of the Negev; location of tribe of Judah
- Jordan Rift Valley
7 Subunits north to south?
- y (part of the Syria-Africa Great Rift Valley:
1. Lebanese Valley
2. Northern Jordan Valley (Hula Valley, withTel Hatzor just to the south)
3. Sea of Galilee
4. Jordan River (Elisha sent a messenger to him, saying, 'Go and wash in the Jordan seven times, and your flesh will be restored to you and you will be clean’ (Kings 5:10)
5. Dead Sea (~ -400 meters)
6. Arava Valley (divides the Negev from southern Jordan)
7. Gulf of Aqaba (Eilat)
- Rain Shadow
- A rain shadow is a dry area, which, with respect to the prevailing wind direction, is beyond a mountain range; it is dry because air masses lose part of their water when they move over these mountains. The Judean Desert east of the Judean hills was created by a Rain Shadow effect
- DEUTERONOMISTIC “PROMISED LAND’
G-d to Abram
- G-d's promise to Abraham -
The Assyrian territory west of the Euphrates – Amurru. Genesis 15:18 In the same day the LORD made a covenant with Abram, saying, Unto thy seed have I given this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates. The river of Egypt was probably the eastern-most branch of the Nile delta, flowing into northern Sinai (not including Egypt). It may have been the Pollusian (now dried out), which was a branch of the Nile. This closely matches the “Land of Amura” – the “land of the west” from a Mesopotamian point of view.
- The LAND OF CANAAN
G-d to Moses
- Book of Numbers 34:1-12. The concept is that G-d is telling Moses where the Land of Canaan will be (from the southeastern corner of the Dead Sea, past Kodesh-barnea and across to the Mediterranean Sea, north to Mt. Hor [meaning big mountain], possible north of Beirut. According to researcher Amihai Mazar, Canaan extended from Lebo-hamath in the north to the Brook of Egypt – El Arish (?) in the south.
- Where is Canaan first mentioned in the Bible?
- Biblical Source: Genesis 10:15-18 First time Canaan is referred to in the Bible. 15. And Canaan begat Sidon his first born, and Heth,16 And the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the Girgasite, 17 And the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite,18 And the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite: and afterward were the families of the Canaanites spread abroad.
- Biblical source for David's Kingdom
- Deuteronomy 34:1-4
And Moses went up from the plains of Moab unto the mountain of Nebo, to the top of Pisgah, that is over against Jericho. And the LORD showed him all the land of Gilead, unto Dan, 2 And all Naphtali, and the land of Ephraim, and Manasseh, and all the land of Judah, unto the utmost sea, 3 And the south, and the plain of the valley of Jericho, the city of palm trees, unto Zoar. 4 And the LORD said unto him, This is the land which I swore unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, saying, I will give it unto thy seed: I have caused thee to see it with thine eyes, but thou shalt not go over thither.
- "And all Israel from Dan even to Beer-sheba"
- Biblical Source:
1 Samuel 3:20)
II Samuel 3:10
I Kings 4:25
II Chronicles 30:5
- The names by which a geographical place is known.
- How many places are named in the Bible?
- Approximately 450
only about 262 have been identified with any degree of certainty
- Proto-History in Canaan
- Proto-History in the Land of Canaan (LAND OF CANAAN) indicates that period where written records exist first in Mesopotamia (i.e. Sumer cuneiform, 3200 BCE) and shortly later in Egypt (i.e. hieroglyphics 3000 BCE)
- Canaanite Early Bronze - 3 Subdivisions
- 1) Pre-urban;
2) Urban and
- Characteristics of Canaanite Early Bronze City
- 1. Defensive walls
- The Cartouche of what king was found in Tel Arad?
- King Narmer - 1st King of Egypt
1st Dynasty 3100 BCE
- Importance of Narmer's Ceremonial Pallet
- Possibly depicts Canaanite nomads - 3100 BCE
Show King Narmer smiting his enemies who have beards depicting nomads. The Egyptians are rarely depicted with beards. The pallet depicts a fortified town and perhaps a “desert kite”
- Weni "Land of the Sand Dweller” Inscription
King, Date and Importance?
- Egyptian Weni Inscriptions: Under King Pepi I (2289-2255 BCE – 6th Dynasty ) the inscription refers to “Land of the Sand Dweller” that his General Weni encountered In a land of vine land and orchards. This probably refers to the Jezreel Valley
- Name 6 Archeological Canaanite Early Bronze sites
- Tel Erani, Beit Yarmut (south of Ramat Beit Shemesh), Beit Yerach (southern tip of the Kinneret) – has a grain silo and the base of 9 round structures, Khirbet-et-Tell (“Ruin of Ruins) east of Ramallah associate with the biblical town of Ai and Megiddo with the earliest temple.
- Post Urban Canaanite Early Bronze
Date major phenomenon
- Deterioration of Cities: 2400-2200 BCE:
There is evidence of settlements being abandoned and/or burned. By 2200 BCE there is no evidence of one city or village remaining in the Land of Canaan. This is not true in Jordan. The reason for this is not known. Theories include climate change and invasions by nomads.
- Canaanite Intermediate Bronze
Date Possible invaders?
- 2200-2000 BCE –
referred to as EB4 or Middle Bronze 1 (MB1) in the Land of Canaan
The whole period seems to be something of a mystery. It has been proposed that Syrian tribes known as the Amurru or Amorites were the invaders (or perhaps just filled the empty space) and in fact initiated the move to the Middle Bronze
- Canannite Middle Bronze II
- 2000-1550 BCE
Urban Life begins to revive gradually from north to south and west to east. Cities are established Stage One: Sidon, Tyre, Kabri (north of Acco), Ashdod, Jaffe, Gaza (north-south, Dor (across from Zikron Yaacov), Yavne. Second stage Gat, Ekron, Safi, Megiddo, Yochneam, Afek (near Rosh Ha’Ayin); Stage Three: Hatzor, Dan Jericho, Shilo (east fringe of Sumaria); Stage Four: Central Hills – Shechem, Jerusalem, and Hebron.
By 1800 BCE the entire Land of Canaan was intensely settled by urban cities and villages. Most large tells where build during Middle Bronze age (MB).
- Mari Archives
Where is Mari
Who did the excavation and when
What did they find
- On the Eurphrates River near the border with Syria.
archaeologist André Parrot
Found remains of a grand palace dating to the early second millennium B.C., including largely intact archives containing nearly 25,000 cuneiform tablets.
What we know about MB Canaan comes from the Mari Archives.
- Execration Texts
- The first style were clay pots (1900 BCE) then clay figurines (1800 BCE).
The Execration Texts – bowls and statuettes of bond prisoners were inscribed with names of rulers, groups and cities considered to be a threat. These objects were broken in a voodoo like ritual as a curse against those inscribed.
Earliest mentioned cities on Execration texts: Jerusalem, Ashkelon, Rehov and nomadic tribes. Later mentioned: Lod, Afek, Acco, Shechem, Beit Shemesh, Damascus and Tyre.
These names on these texts lead us to believe that the people living in LAND OF CANAAN at the time where from the ethno-political Amurru culture.
- Canaanite Middle Bronze II
Characteristics of cities
- This era saw the emergence of cities fortified with ramparts and glacis. large structures and fortifications are being built throughout Palestine and illustrate the rise of Canaanite city-states. Some texts written on Egyptian artifacts dated to the twentieth century B.C.E. attest (by name) to the cities of Beth Shan, Jerusalem, Laish (Tel Dan), Shechem, Hazor, and Beth-Shemesh
- Canaanite Middle Bronze Fortification
- The walls built upon the ramparts or glacis could be either a solid wall or of the casemate wall type. As gateways both double and treble fortified gateways have been found built carefully through the ramparts. Some fortifications of the older cities were strengthened in this period. The rampart or the glacis were made to protect against battering rams, ladders and tunneling work done by attackers.
- Hyksos take over Egypt
Who are they?
Who drives them out? When?
- 1750 - 1570 BCE
During the Second Intermediate Period in Egypt the Hyksos took over lower Egypt. These people were western Semitic warriors who had been invited to Egypt and eventually took over power.
1570-1546 BCE King Ahmose, Son of Ibana, Founder of the 18th Dynasty and the New Kingdom,
He drove the Hyksos out of Egypt.
- Canaanite Late Bronze Age
- 1570-1200 BCE
- Who was the Late Bronze Age "Napoleon of Ancient Egypt"
When did he Rule?
Who acted as his regent?
What famous battle did he win?
Where are his victories recorded?
- Thutmose III
sixth Pharaoh of Egypt in the Eighteenth Dynasty
His stepmother Hatshepsut
He was recorded to have captured 350 cities during his rule, conquering much of the Near East.
His most famous campaign was his first when he decisively defeated a large Canaanite coalition under the King of Kadesh at the Battle of Megiddo.
Walls at the Temple at Karnak
- Name Five Egyptian Kings who wrote lists of Conquest in Canaan
- Thutmose III Triumphant List recorded a number of Biblical towns in a list of his military conquests in Canaan in about 1468 B.C.
Pharaohs Seti I, Ramesses II and Merneptah (Stele) left us additional city lists from the 13th century B.C.
Pharaoh Shishak (924 B.C.), who conquered Israel in the fifth year of Rehoboam’s reign (1 Kings 14:25–28) listed 156 Israelite cities in the records of his military victories.
- Urban pattern in Late Bronze age in Canaan
- In the Late Bronze age there were almost no villages in Canaan. It appears there was less food, less trade, there was a return of the nomads, the population decreased and fewer children were born.
- Give a Biblical source for an Egyptian conquest in Canaan
- Bible Source: ( Judges 5:19) The kings came; they fought the kings of Canaan, in Taanach by the waters of Megiddo; they took no gain of money.
- what Egyptian King proportedly started a monothesistic religion?
- Amenhotep IV changed his name to Akhenaton, meaning "the Servant of Aten" early in his reign. Whereas his father, Amenhotep III, had sought to reduce the increasing power of the priesthood, Akhenaton practically dismantled it.
He moved his capital to Amarna. A city existing only during his reign
- What are the Amarna Tablets?
- The “Egyptian Foreign Office Dead Letter Box: correspondence left behind when capital moved. First reference to “Yahweh.” The letters describe Egypt rule over Canaan. They provide a list of Canaanite towns- historical geography. They provide a picture of life in Canaan. Over time we begin to see this Egyptian rule falling apart. It was in Egyptian interest to let Canaanites fight each other and to collect taxes.
- Evidence of Egyptian presence and rule (?) in Canaan in Late Bronze Age
- Two stelae attributed to the Egyptian king Seti I were found in Beit Shean. In Jaffa, a doorpost was found which had inscribed on it a cartouche, which according to scholars carries the name of Ramesses II. A similar piece was uncovered in Ashdod. In Tel Shara near Nachal Gerar, bowls with Egyptian inscriptions were discovered. A similar bowl was found at Tel Lachish. Small bits of stelae, statues and statue bases carrying Egyptian names were found near the Kinneret, in Meggido and in Gezer, among other places.
- Rameses II
When did he rule over Canaan?
- 1260-1220 - he ruled over the land of Canaan:
The Battle of Kadesh is well documented from both the Hittite and Egyptian sides. Tens of thousands of soldiers fought on each side. According to Ramses II account the Egyptians won but in fact it was a drawl. Ten years after the battle the two sides signed a peace treated and exchanged diplomats.
- Israel Enters History
- Merneptah Stela
the Egyptian pharaoh Merneptah commissioned a series of victory hymns to be carved on a 7.5-foot-high, black granite stela (right) at Thebes. The stela depicts Merneptah receiving a scimitar from Amun, the god of Thebes. The hieroglyphic text recounts the pharaoh’s earlier campaigns in Canaan, among other places: “The Canaan is plundered with every hardship. / Ashkelon is taken, Gezer captured, / [and] Yano‘am reduced to nothing. / Israel is laid waste, his seed is no more.” This is the earliest known reference to Israel; thus the stela is also known as the Israel Stela.
- By 1200 BCE - the world has "fallen apart."
- 1. Egyptians lose rule over Canaan and pull out.
2. Hittite Empire falls apart.
3. The Mycenaean declines with the Dorian invasion
4. International trade dries up
5. In Canaan there is a wave of destruction in many cities
6. New ethnic groups begin to appear (e.g. Philistine, tribes of Edom and Moab
- The term “glacis” (gla-SEE), adopted from European military nomenclature, describes the massive earthen ramparts that surrounded virtually every important Canaanite city during the latter part of the Middle Bronze Age (c. 2000 to 1550 B.C.).
- Casemate Wall
- A double, parallel line of fortification walls divided into internal chambers by regularly or irregularly spaced partition, or cross, walls. This was the common method of defense for cities and towns throughout Israel in the Iron Age, especially during the early part (in Biblical terms, the period of the Judges and of Kings David and Solomon, about 1200 to 928 B.C.).
- Offset-Inset Wall
- Type of fortification wall replaced the casemate system, since it offered greater security against new methods of siege warfare—wheeled battering rams, scaling ladders, tunneling—introduced by the armies of the Assyrian empire. At the cities of Megiddo, Mizpeh (MEETS-peh) and Hazor—among others—the older casemate walls were filled and extended by the construction of a new type of solid wall, whose stone foundation, usually at least 10 feet thick, supported a superstructure of mudbrick.
- Cave of the Treasure
- Pesarch Bar-Adon
Chalcolithic 3500 BCE
Northern side of Nahal Mishmar, which lies between Nahal Se’elim and Nahal Hever. He chose well: His team was to make one of the most stunning finds in the history of Israeli archaeology, a collection of more than 400 copper and ivory cult objects of extraordinary beauty and workmanship dating to about 3500 B.C.E. The cave in which Bar-Adon made the find became known, aptly, as the Cave of the Treasure.
- Ancient Near East Chronology
- Chalcolithic period (copper + stone in Greek) 4200 BCE – 3200/3100 BCE
This is the 1st time that metal is used by man.
EB: Early Bronze Age: 3200/3100 BCE – 2200 BCE
This is the 1st urban period in the land.
EB – 1: Proto urban period
EB – 2&3 Flourishing of the cities
EB – 4 Degeneration & abandonment of the cities
IB: Intermediate Bronze Age 2200 BCE – 2000/1950BCE
Semi namadism during this period; no urban living, mostly seasonal settlements; here we
are left with only tombs & burial sites.
MB: Middle Bronze Age 1950 BCE – 1550 BCE
The revival of urban living; the 2nd urban wave, very large cities all over the country, with
large earthen fortifications. (some say this is the age of the Patriarchs)
LB: Late Bronze Age 1200 BCE – 1150 BCE
Characterized by the great empires that ruled the ancient Middle East. (Egypt, Hittite,
Iron Age I 1200/1150 BCE – 1000 BCE
Time of the conquest, settlement, Judges, and the beginning of the Monarchy
Iron Age II – III 1000 BCE – 586 BCE
King David to the destruction of the 1st Temple.
Kingdom of Israel (N), Kingdom of Judah (S), the United Kingdoms of David & Solomon
From this period, the Bible was historical.
Persian Period 586 BCE – 333 BCE
586 BCE – 538 BCE: Babylonian Rule
538 BCE – 333 BCE: Persian Rule, until Alexander The Great
- Sir William Flinders Petrie
His two most important contributions
- 1. Stratigraphy ot tels
2. Typology of pottery
- What is the Septuagint?
- Derived from the Latin word for "seventy," refers to the 3d c. BCE translation of the Hebrew Scriptures into Greek in Alexandria, Egypt. There is a complicated story, however, behind the translation and the various stages, amplifications, and modifications to the collection we now call the Septuagint.
- Who first put together the Hebrew Bible
- Ezra 500 BCE
- How many books in the canonized Hebrew and Christian bibles?
- Hebrew bible 24
Christian bible 39
- Name seven kings of Assyrian Empire who invaded Israel
- Tiglith Pileser 1120 BCE reached the Mediterranean "King of Sumer and Akkad"
Ashurnasirpal II (883 BC–858 BC)
Ashurnasirpal's son, Shalmaneser III (858 BC–823 BC), [v. Ahab battle of Karkar - Jehu paid tribute]
Tiglath-Pileser III occupies Philitia 738 BCE [Ahaz pays tribute]
Shalmaneser V 727 BCE [Hoshea refuses to pay tribute] invades Sumaria
Sargon II 722 BCE takes Sumaria and ends Northern Kingdom
Sannichrib 705-01 BCE conquers 46 Southern Kingdom villages and threatens Jerusalem
- Name 4 Pharaohs of the 19th Dynasty of Egypt
- Ramses I Founds the IXX (19th ) Dynasty. @1300 BCE:
He rules for only two years. He comes from a family from lower Egypt. They may have seen themselves as successors to the Hyksos. He moved the capital to Praramses. Pra = House. His son …
Seti I Gets A lot Accomplished:
He invades Beit Shean – two inscriptions of Seti I at that site. He put down a rebellion there with three military units. He led other campaigns into Hittite (Hatti) Empire. His son…
Ramses II (1260-1220) ruled over the land of Canaan:
The Battle of Kadesh is well documented from both the Hittite and Egyptian sides. Tens of thousands of soldiers fought on each side. According to Ramses II account the Egyptians won but in fact it was a drawl. Ten years after the battle the two sides signed a peace treated and exchanged diplomats. [See http://nefertiti.iwebland.com/ramseskadeshcampaign.htm for my description of the battle from the point of view of Ramses II.]
Mernaptah 1207 BCE invades Canaan
- Merneptah Stela
- The Israel or Merneptah Stele described this campaign into Canaan. The inscription describes that the campaign captured Gezer, destroyed Ashkelon and “Israel is laid waste” and “Its seed is not.” This is the first and only time the Israel is mentioned in an Egyptian document. This is the first written indication of Israel not related to a Bible story. According to the Bible the Egyptian army would have been at the bottom of the Red Sea by 1207.
The stele provides the latest possible date for the earliest possible date for Israelites in Canaan.
- Amarna Tablets
- The “Egyptian Foreign Office Dead Letter Box: correspondence left behind when capital moved. First reference to “Yahweh.” The letters describe Egypt rule over Canaan. They provide a list of Canaanite towns- historical geography. They provide a picture of life in Canaan. Over time we begin to see this Egyptian rule falling apart. It was in Egyptian interest to let Canaanites fight each other and to collect taxes.
- “Habiru” reference what does it mean?
- Close reading of the Amarna and other texts indicate that the “Apiru” was an indication of a particular social class – namely outlaws or outcastes. Apparently they were mercenaries and robbers – a kind of “mafia” - like Robin Hood . Before David became king, he was a mercenary for the King of Gath. There is no direct historical connection between the Apiru and the Hebrew invading tribes.
The Apiru do appear in the Mari Letters (Middle and Late Bronze Ages)
- Name the two (2) major sections of the Fertile Crescent
- Mesopotamia - Land between to rivers
- Birthplace of King Saul
- Gibeah - 3 miles north of Damascus Gate in Jerusalem
- Gilgal: Give two means for the town name
- At this first camp set up after crossing the Jordan the Israelites
1. "rolled back the reproach" of the exile in Egypt - resuming circumcision and celebrating passover
2. 12 stones from Jordan River set up there in a circle.
- What were the mountains of curses and blessings?
Where are they located?
- Mt. Ebal, known from Deuteronomy, chapters 27 and 28, as the mountain where the curses were pronounced, is separated on the south from Mt. Gerizim, the mountain of the blessings, by the deep narrow valley of Shechem.
- What cities listed as captured in the Conquest in Joshua did not exist at the time.
- Jericho, Ai, Arad
- When did the "Israelite Conquest" start in the Tanakh?
- Numbers 21: 1-3
Num 21:1 And the Canaanite, the king of Arad, who dwelt in the South, heard tell that Israel came by the way of Atharim; and he fought against Israel, and took some of them captive.
Num 21:2 And Israel vowed a vow unto the LORD, and said: 'If Thou wilt indeed deliver this people into my hand, then I will utterly destroy their cities.'
Num 21:3 And the LORD hearkened to the voice of Israel, and delivered up the Canaanites; and they utterly destroyed them and their cities; and the name of the place was called Hormah.
- Could Joshua have conquered Arad? Jericho, GIbeon?
- No No No
The city was abandoned in 2200 BCE (EB)
Gibeon - No evidence of MB or LB settlement.
Jericho abandoned 1500 BCE (MB)
- Name four cities where there is archeological support for the "Israelite Conquest"
- Shilo Settled in late 12 Century BCE
Lachish 1150 BCE was totally destroyed
Hatzor Was MB and LB settlement and was destroyed 1250 BCE
Dan MB and LB settlements - conquered twice by Israelites
There is much evidence of destruction of Canaanite cities around 1200 BCE
- What is the theory of Israelite Conquest of George Mendenhall and Norman Gottwald?
- The sociological theory - that there was an Israelite "peasant revolt" against the Canaanites they were living among and resettlemed in the hill country.
- WShat is William Dever's theory of "Israelite Conquest"
- Peaceful infiltration theory - Israelites were indigenous to Canaan - they were local farmers.
- What was the "Israelite Conquest" Theory of Albrecht Alt and Martin Noth?
- Peaceful infiltration of the highlands by disparate groups of shepherds and herders from outside.
- What is Israel Finkelstein's theory of "Israelite Conquest"?
- Israelites left their villages when attacked by Egyptians in 15-14th Century BCE. Became nomadic. Returned to Hill Country with collapse of Egyptian rule in Canaan.
- What is the Letter of Aristeas?
- Early and best known source for the story of the Septuagint that recalls how Ptolemy (Philadelphus II [285–247 BCE]), desiring to augment his library in Alexandria, Egypt, commissioned a translation of the Hebrew Scriptures into Greek. Ptolemy wrote to the chief priest, Eleazar, in Jerusalem, and arranged for six translators from each of the twelve tribes of Israel.
- Where was the Judge Samuel Born?
- Samuel was born in Ramah, near the sanctuary of Shilo, in the tribal area of Ephraim. (Note that he was not a Levite)
- Where did Samuel grow up?
- Samuel grows up in the sanctuary at Shilo.
- How long was the Ark in the country of the Philistines?
Where had it been kept?
Where did Philistines move it?
Where was it lost?
Where was it taken?
- Seven (7) months.
Had been in Shilo
It was lost at the battle of Eben-Ezer (near Rosh HaAyin on the Yarkon River)
Philistines move it from Ashdod to Gath and Ekron?
It was moved to Kiriath Jearim (near Abu Gosh.)
- Samuel was a "circuit judge." Where did hold court?
- Ramah (his home town), Bethel, Mizpah and Gilgal (not Shilo)
- Where does King Saul rule?
- Where is King Saul killed?
- Saul is killed at Gilboa, with three of his sons, but his son, Eshbaal, is secreted away to Mahanaim, in trans-Jordan, by Abner, Saul's army chief, where Eshbaal is crowned King by Abner. 2 Sam 2:8, and 1 Chron 8:33. Eshbaal is referred to in the Bible in a derogatory manner, as Ish-bosheth (a man of disgrace).
- Where was King Saul buried and why?
- Jabesh Gilead. The people of the town were grateful that he had saved them from the Amonites.
- Name oldest Continous settlement in Israel - since biblical times
The group visited Pekiin, a Druze village in the Western Galilee (with a few Jewish residents). According to one theory, Pekiin is the only place in Israel with an unbroken record of Jewish occupation since the Second Temple period. It is apparently identified with the village Beka, mentioned in the writings of Josephus, whose occupants were engaged in growing pka'os, bulbs or cocoons, of silk worms.
- Name the "Cities of Refuge" in Joshua.
What is their role?
- Cedes, Shechem, Hebron, Golan, Ramoth and Bosor.
The Cities of Refuge were six Biblical towns in Israel that offered asylum to someone who had unintentionally slain another.
Of the six cities, three were on the West side of the Jordan River (Cedes, Shechem and Hebron) and three were on the East side (Golan, Ramoth and Bosor). According to the Mosaic Law, the "avenger of blood", generally a close relative to the victim, had the right to kill the slayer should he leave the city of refuge. This right ended when the High Priest died, and those who had sought asylum were allowed to return home without fear of punishment.
- Why is Saul's final battle at Gilboa?
- He may have been trying to expand his rule over the Galilee (at that time, Megiddo and Beit Shean were still ruled by the Philistines, which cities also controlled the major trade routes of the day).
- What are 4 reasons David made Jerusalem the capital of the United Monarchy?
- 1. It had not been part of any tribe.
2. It was a central location
3. It was not previously a Capital
4. It could be his own city, as anyone left of the Jebusites, owed their lives to David, and the Israelites that were brought in to the City, owed their fortunes to David.
- Name the 3 main elements within King David's United Monarchy
- 1. The Inner Circle: the Israelite populations David conquered and rules over- Judah, Israel, Jezrael Valley and the Shephela
2. The Middle Circle: Conquered kingdoms east of the Jordan River - eg Moab, Edom, Ammon, Aram-Damascus
3. Outer Circle: The treaty cities eg. Philistine, Geshur (north and east of Kinneret) and Hamath (n. Syria) cities.
- Cave of the Warrior
- Cave in Wadi el-Makkukh, near Jericho,
Chalcolithic mortuary practices, unique textile, bow, sandals, baskets, long elogent sash, shroud
- Bronze and Iron Age Chronology
Source: Dr. Gabriel Barkay
- The Bronze Age in the Near East is divided into three main periods (the dates are very approximate):
EB IA 3500 - 3300 B.C.E.
EB IB 3300 - 3050 B.C.E.
EB II 3050 - 2700 B.C.E.
EB III 2700 - 2350 B.C.E.
Intermediate Bronze Age
(EB IV/MB I) 2350 - 2000 B.C.E.
Middle Bronze (MB) Age
MB IIA 2000 - 1800 B.C.E. the Patriarchs?
MB IIB 1800 - 1550 B.C.E. Hyksos in Egypt
Late Bronze (LB) Age
LB I 1550 - 1400 B.C.E.
LB II (Amarna Age) 1400 - 1300 B.C.E. slavery in Egypt?
LB IIB 1300 - 1200 B.C.E. the Exodus?
Iron IA 1200 - 1150 B.C.E. Conquest & Judges?
Iron IB 1150 - 1000 B.C.E. Period of the Judges?
Iron IIA 1000 - 900 B.C.E. United Monarchy?
Iron IIB 900 - 700 B.C.E. Divided Monarchy
Iron IIC 700 - 586 B.C.E. Judah
- What are the Ebla Tablets?
What significance do they have to Geensis 14?
- Archives found in N. Syria at Tell Mardikh. 17,000 tablets found from Ebla Kingdom
The Ebla archives refer to all five Cities of the Plain (Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboiim and Zoar) and on one tablet the cities are listed in the exact same sequence as Genesis 14. The tablets further reflect that the region was prosperous and successful with a patriarchal culture consistent with that recorded in Genesis prior to the catastrophe recorded in Genesis 14.
- Tel Erani -
Where is it?
What important inscription was find there?
- Kiryat Gat - near the industrial area
An inscription with the name of the first king of Egypt was found - Nar-mer. EB period
- What characteristics of settlement in Canaan in EB 93500-2350 BCE) period?
- The rise of urbanization into organized, fortified, city states.
Many cities walls are very high and thick.
Sometimes the thickness of the wall would be 6-8 meters compared to 2-3 meters. These walls had semi-circular towers or bastions. [Examples in Jericho, Tarshisha, HaAi and Arad.]
- Characteristcs of EBI, EBII, EBIII and EBIV
- EBI "Proto-urban" [Kenyon] Period beginning of urbanization
EB II and III characterized by rapid urbanization. There is also considerable contact with Egypt. Large cities with temples and massive fortification.
EB IV these cities deteriorate do to acts of hostility and disappear.
- Tell Far’a
Where is it?
Who Excavated it
- Near Shechem
Excavated by The French Dominican priest Roland de Vaux (1903-1971)
There is a city with MASSIVE thick walled fortification with two large projecting towers. The gate passage was roofed over and had a fighting platform.
- Weni "Sand Dweller" Inscription
- A single inscription is the only document of the five campaigns Weni the Elder led under King Pepi I 2nd ruller of 6th Dynasty Egypt (ca.2313-2279 BCE) in Canaan, the Land of the Sand Dwellers as the Egyptians called the regions east of Egypt.
- Desert Kites
- These stone structures found in the desert areas of Trans-Jordan and later in the desert near Eilat were first spotted by British and German pilots during the WWII. They were actually deer and Gazelle traps from the EB.
- Name Early Bronze Age Canaanite cities
- Megiddo, Dan, Hazor, Beth-yerach, Taanach, Dothan, Aphek, Gezer, Yarmuth, Lachish, Jericho, Ai, Arad, Rehov, Bab edh-Dhra`, Tel el-Fara`ah (N), Tel Kinneroth, et al.
NOTE: Beer Sheva NO EB settlement
- Early Bronze Age Egyptian Dynasties significant occurrences
- Pre-Dynastic period -- 3300-3050 BC Upper & Lower Egypt were separate entities
Dynasties 1-2 (EBII)-- -2700 BC Unified under legendary King Menes (Narmer?)
Dynasties 3-6 (EBIII)-- -2300 BC Old Kingdom (Pyramid Age)
- Shaft Grave
- Typical EB grave. The first shaft grave was excavated by Charles Warren in 1857 on the Mt. of Olives. It was dated as Early Bronze Age much later by using the pottery he collected. These graves can also be found in Azariah, Kenyon found these graves at Siloam. They are all over the country.
- K-Lines “Secred Stones in the Desert”
- Intermediate Bronze walls in the Negev. One such wall is located between Mt. Ramon in the central Negev (100 km south from Beer-Sheva) and Mt. Romem. The length of this wall is 4.6 km. These walls may have been used for hunting deer, as road markers or to mark off grazing areas.
- These Intermediate Bronze piles of earth and stones used as temporary burial sites and were used in the Negev in IB. Skeletons, bones and beads have been found at these sites. Final burials were carried done in the northern part of the country. [Tumulus – in Latin is a pile of dirty.]
- Name characteristics of Intermediate Bronze Canaan.
- Large number of settlements in Negev. The whole shape of the map is different, social life different, burial cultural is different. Extremely different cultures from Early Bronze. Some possible reasons for the decline of the EB population were drought, and invasions and conquest by nomads. There was a lack of continuity in this region.
- Middle Bronze Age
- 1950-1550 BCE
This is the second urban period in Palestine. It is subdivided into MB II A and B. Intermediate Bronze age was called by W.F. Albright MB I therefore we do not have MB I. MB IA is 1950-1750 – Time of the middle kingdom in Egypt and time of flourishing culture there and many contacts with Palestine.
- Early Bronze Canaan
- Urbanization with City-State structure
Major city centers established at Megiddo, Dan, Hazor, Beth-yerach, Taanach, Dothan, Aphek, Gezer, Yarmuth, Lachish, Jericho, Ai, Arad, Rehov, Bab edh-Dhra`, Tel el-Fara`ah (N), Tel Kinneroth, et al.
City walls and fortifications: Defensive walls up to 7-8 or more meters thick semicircular towers along wall outwardly protrusive from wall
Burial Practices: Multiple, family burials in tombs & caves
Pottery: red slip, Kerak ware, cylinder seal impressions
Copper implements: axe heads, daggers
Cylinder seals: impressions in clay
Temples: Larger monumental "broad room" structures, such as Megiddo, Yarmuth, Ai
Granaries known from Beth-yerach -- capacity of 1400-1700 tons of grain
Water Systems: Ai (1800 cu.meters=500,000 gallons)
- MBIIB Egypt 1750-1550 BCE
- Egypt is split and foreign rules are there who are Semitic. We have Semitic named kings like Hamudi and Yaacov Har. This period in Egypt is see as a bad period in Egypt. The foreigners were referred to by Josephus and Menatho as Hyksos – a corruption of “rulers of foreign lands.”
- Kurkh Stele
- Assyrian Shalmaneser III, after the battle of Qarqar 853 BCE in Syria, set up this inscription to commemorate his "victory". Shalmaneser lists Ahab, the king of Israel, at the head of 2,000 chariots, 6000 horses and 10,000 foot soldiers.
- Black Obelisk
- The relief sculptures glorify the achievements of King Shalmaneser III (reigned 858-824 BC)
The tribute of Jehu, son of Omri: I received from him silver, gold, a golden bowl, a golden vase with pointed bottom, golden tumblers, golden buckets, tin, a staff for a king [and] spears.
- Mesha Stele
- Recording the "heroic struggles" of King Mesha with Omri and Ahab. Also called the Moabite stele
- Gezer Calendar
- Gezer Calendar
One of the earliest Hebrew epigraphs (from around the time of Solomon), written on limestone, the text seems to be a calendar of agricultural tasks and seasons
- Tel Dan Stele
- Possibly erected by Syrian king Hazael. has "House of David" inscription."
What is this?
- Solomonic Gate at Hazor
What is this and what event does it recall?
- Taylor's Prism telling of Sennacherib's attack on Judah in 701 B.C. States"as for Hezekiah, the awful splendor of my lordship overwhelmed him." Found in the ruins of his palace at Nineveh.
- Who were the Moabites?
- The Moabites lived due east of the Dead Sea. Ruth is probably the most important Moabite in Judaism.
- Draw a Map of Levant in 800 BCE
Map of Levant 800 BCE
- Name the cities of Samuel's circuit as a Judge
What city is noticably missing?
- Ramah, Gilgal, Mitzpah and Bethel
Shilo is not on the circuit.
- What were the Ammonites going to do to the all the inhabitants of Yabesh-Gilad?
Who defeats the Ammonites?
What did they do in return?
- Poke out the right eye of every inhabitant
As terms of surrender
They bury Saul and his sons in Yebest-Gilad
- Where was Saul defeated?
How did he die?
Why at this place?
Fell on his sword
Probably rying to conquer the Galilee
- Who was the chief of Saul's Army?
What is this?
- An EB Megaron "large room" temple at Megiddo
- Who ruled Egypt during Middle Bronze IIB?
When was this?
- The Hyksos
- What were the Execretion Texts?
In what form?
Why important historically?
- Clay objects used for ritual curses.
Bowls and Statuettes
Listed names of rulers, groups and cities...Ashkelon, Beit Shean, Jerusalem Rehov
- What was the linga franca of the the Middle Bronze Age in Levant?
- Akkadian using Cuneiform script
- Who is the only king of Israel depicted on on a stele?
What is he doing?
- Jehu, son of Omri, giving tribute to Assyrian King Shalmaneser III.
- What were the Lachish Letters?
What was the famous line?
- 18 pieces of pottery sherd as part of letters sent from a military outpost in the Judean hills to Lachish just before its defeat by Sargon II
"Signal can no longer be seen."
- What marriage resulted in the uniting of the Northern and Southern Kingdoms for a short time?
- The Marriage of King Jehoshapat (S) to the daughter of King Ahab and Jezebel (N)Athaliah
- When Saul Dies which of his son's becomes king?
For how many years?
How does he Die?
- Ishboseth (Eshball)
At the hands of two brothers who are capitains in his army.
Rachav and Baanah
- Where does Jeroboam set up Golden Calf altars?
- Bethel and Dan
- What is the biblical source for the list of cities conquered in Canaan by Joshua?
How many cities are mentioned?
- Joshua Chapter 12:9-24
- Name the last kings of Israel and Judah.
Date when reign ended
- Israel = Hosea 722
Judah Zedekiah 586
- Battle of Qarqar (Karkar)
- The Battle of Karkar was fought in 853 BCE when the Syrian army led by Shalmanezer III, encountered an allied army of 12 kings led by Hadadezer (Ben Hadad II), of Damascus. The Kurkh stela of Shalmanazer reports the battle
- Bone Repository
- After the dead body decayed, the bones were collected and placed in a bone repository located in a separate area of the tomb.
“gathered unto his fathers.”
- A chest, building, well or site made to serve as the final resting place of human skeletal remains.
- A stone container for a coffin or body
- First two places that Abraham buildt altars in the Land of Canaan
- Bethel and Shechem
- Where is Abraham sent to sacrifice his son?
Where did they travel from?
- Mount Moriah just north of Jerusalem
Where is it?
Who bought it from whom?
Who is buried there.
- Hebron (aka Kiryat Arba)
Abraham from Ephron the Hittite
To bury Sarah
Abraham, Sarah, Isaac, Rebekah, Jacob, and Leah
- what Mountains in Samaria are called Blessed and Cursed?
- Mt. Gerezim - Blessed
Mt. Ebal Cursed
Just north and south of Shechem
- Why Judah could not conquer the coastal plain?
- The people living there had iron wheeled chariots. (Judges 1:19)
- Where in the Bible is the area of the Tribe of Judah given?
- Joshua 15:1-12
- Where did the Tribe of Dan move?
- They moved to the north - Luz [Tel Dan]
Original area- Central Coastal Plain controlled by Philistines
- Which 3 of the tribes was assigned land east of the Jordan River
- Reuben gad and half of Manasseh
- which of Joseph's sons received the better blessing from Jacob?
- The younger son Ephraim
Not the older son Manasseh
- What did Jacob call the place of his "ladder dream?"
- What did Jacob call the place of his "wrestling dream"
Where is it?
On the Jabbok river east of the Jordan
- What are the two different meaning for Beer Sheva
- OATH of Abraham and Abimelech (well of the oath)
Seven WELLS dug by Isaac
- Where are the Terebinths [oaks] of Mamre?
Who built an altar there?
- Hebron or Kiryat Arba
- Where did Abraham build his first two altar?
- Bethel and Shechem
- What is a headers and stretchers wall?
- Headers and Stretchers wall have alternating stones lengthwise and breadthwise, in order to break joints and create a strong, interlocking wall.
- what "Bible Wars" were associated with:
1. Sun and Moon stadning still?
2. Trumpets, Pitchers and torches?
3. Tent Peg and a Hammer
4. Word Shibboleth kills 42,000
- 1. Joshua at Gibeon
2. Gideon against Amalakites
3. Deborah and Barak V. King of Hatzor Jabin and commander Sisera
4. Gileadites v.Ephraimites who could not pronounce the word. Gileadites kill 42,000 trying to cross the Jordan.
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