Glossary of Therio
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- GnRH in males
- Cause increase in testosterone. Test for presence of testicles.
- Causes release of LH. Lyses follicles=treat cystic ovaries. Induce mare ovulation/bitch estrus
- Equine Chrionic Gonatropin. (PMSG)
From the endotrial cups.
LH acting in mare, FSH in others.
- Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
Acts like LH.
- Prostaglandin E2
- Relaxation of the cervix
- Prostaglandin F2α
- Luteolysis & smooth muscle contraction.
Induce ovulation(if imminent in mares)
Induce abortion in bitches & queens.
- UTERINE CONTRACTION & MILK LETDOWN.
Produced in the hypothalamus & stored in the posterior pituitary.
- Target cells in the mammary gland for lactation.
Supports CL's in the queen & bitch.
- FSH in the male
- Support the seminiferous tubules by action on the Sertoli cells
- Induces OVULATION and luteinization of the theca interna cells.
- Produced by the CL
Responsible for maintaining the pregnancy (closing cervix, glandular development of uterus).
- Corpus Luteum(CL)
- Previously a follicle after ovulation. Make progesterone from estrogen.
- Fluid-filled structure on the ovary, contains the soon to be ovulated oocyte.
- Gonadal Hormones
- Anterior Pituitary Hormones
- Posterior Pituitary Hormones
- Produced by Hypothalamus, stored in Post. Pituitary
- Produced by granulosal cells of follicle.
Causes standing behavior, opens cervix, increase vaginal epithelium thickness.
- Therapeutic uses of FSH
- Induce superovalution in cows. (Embryo transfer).
- Therapeutic uses of Estrogen
- Cervical dilation, estrous behavior. Induce fertile heat in bitches.
- Therapeutic uses of Progesterone
- Close cervix, maintain pregnancy.
- Therapeutic uses of Testosterone
- Used for estrous control and/or stop lactation. By negative feedback on Pituitary.
- Therapeutic uses of Prolactin Inhibitors
- Dopamine agonists.
Cause abortion in bitches/stop lactation
- Therapeutic uses of Dopamine Antagonists
- Stimulate lactation (in mares with fescue toxicosis)
- LH in males
- Stimulate Testosterone production by Leydig cells
- Stimulates follicular development
- Therapeutic uses of Prostaglandin F2α
- Lyse CL: end Progesterone Phase, returns to heat cycle.
- Maintenance of pregnancy in mares.
- <40 days= Progesterone from primary CL
day 40-100 = eCG from endometrial cups
day 100-330 = Estrogen from fetal gonads
- Interestrous Period
- time from beginning of one estrus, to the beginning of the next
- Interestrous period of the bitch
- Average = 7 months
Min. - 120 days (4 months)
Max. - 12 months
- Proestrus in the bitch
- 7-9 days
begins active estrous cycle.
Vulva swells, hemorrhagic discharge from uterus, thickened vaginal epithelium.
- Vaginal cytology of Proestrus
- Cornification of vaginal epithelium, RBCs from hemorrhage, & WBCs
- Behavior of bitch in Proestrus
- BITCH, "She will eat his face"
- Hormones of the bitch in Proestrus
- ↑ estrogen,
- Duration of Proestrus
- 7-9 day average
2-21 day range
- Estrus behavior in the bitch
- Begins w/ the onset of standing behavior, ends when standing ends.
- Vaginal cytology of bitch in estrus
- Cornified epithelium predominates. no debris
- Hormones of the bitch in estrus
- LH & FSH peak @ beginning of estrus- induce ovulation
- Standing in the bitch
- Occurs with intitial ↑ in progesterone. Requires both estrogen & progesterone.
- Duration of estrus
- Average 7-9 days
Range 2-21 days
- Behavior of bitch in diestrus
- Stops standing, aggressive towards male advances. Pseudopregnancy
- Pseudopregnancy of bitch
- occurs after every estrus, if she doesn't get pregnant. last the duration of a normal pregnancy.
- vaginal cytology of bitch in diestrus
- non-cornified epithelium -fried eggs. no RBCs, lots o' WBCs early.
- Hormones of bitch in diestrus
- Rapid ↑ in progesterone, peaks @ day 21, decreases afterwards.
Prolactin present, & rises as progesterone fails.
- Feline estrous cycle
- Seasonal breeders (long day)
- Proestrus in the queen
- ↑estrogen, ↑activity, ↑vocalization
- Vaginal cytology of queen in Proestrus
- Not really done, may induce ovulation, too small anyway
- Estrus in the queen
- Vocalization, rolling, standing.
- Breeding of the queen
- copulation induces LH release
4+x to ensure ovulation
- Diestrus in the Queen
- Only if induced to ovulate, but not pregnant lasts 40-45 days.
- Interestrus period in the queen
- Only in induced ovulators, when not induced to ovulate.
No estrogen or progesterone. Lasts 8-10 days.
- Gestation in the queen
- gestation = 63 days (58-70), Luteal phase lasts 9 weeks.
- Anestrus in the queen
- Long day seasonal breeder, undergoes anestrus during winter months (unless kept indoors, under artifical light)
- Conditions caused by Brucella canis
- Abortion, Abortion, Abortion
infertility, orchitis/epididymitis, sick stillborn pups.
- Diagnosis of Brucella infection
- rapid slide agglutination test, false positives.
AGID test to confirm + tests
- Treatment of Brucella infection
- Euthanasia, or neuter and long-term antibotic therapy w/ streptomycin
- Conditions caused by Canine Herpesvirus
- Neonatal deaths-fading puppies
- Canine Herpesvirus
- cannot grow in adult b/c too hot, puppy Body temp lower. Only a concern if bitch never exposed=no immunity
- Critical time frame for herpes infection
- 3 weeks pre-whelping, 3 weeks post-whelping
- Immunity to Canine herpesvirus
- will only cause problem in first litter exposed. afterwards, bitch has antibodies against & will clear infection and transmit protection to pups.
- Diseases of concern in feline
- FIP-Feline infectious peritonitis
Feline leukemia virus
- Feline Infectious Peritonitis
- Kitten mortality complex
causes fetal resorption, abortions, stillbirths, fading kittens
- Felinve Leukemia Virus
- Causes Fetal resorption
- Feline Panleukopenia
- causes cerebellar hypoplasia in kittens
- Methods to diagnose pregnancy in B/Q
- Abdominal Palpations for Pregnancy (B/Q)
- 21-28 days=string of pearls, after 30 days, too hard to distinguish between intestinal contents
- Radiography for Pregnancy (B/Q)
- Safe after day 40. usually done one week prior to parturition (skeletons more visible), only to count fetuses, not to diagnose.
- Ultrasound for Pregnancy (B/Q)
- Difficult to tell how many, but can confirm pregnancy & determine fetal viability. Fetal HR > 200 BPM if not stressed. Drops when stressed.
- Relaxin test (B)
- For canines. Relaxin produced by placenta, measurable after day 21.
- Management concerns of pregnant B/Q
Body temp monitor
- Exercise concerns during pregnancy (B/Q)
- Regular exercise important to maintain muscle tone, fewer dystocias. Less of an issue in cats.
- Weight control concerns during (B/Q)
- Overweight=more dystocias
- Nutritional concerns during pregnancy (B/Q)
- Balanced diet, No supplements (Ca especially), ↑ calories in last trimester, feed less, more often as fetuses take up abdomen.
- Whelping/Queening areas
- Out of high traffic areas, box with pig rails (prevent crushing), 1 week accustomization period, washable rug/blankets
- Preparturition radiographs
- one week prior, count fetuses to better manage, know how many are in there, so don't need to guess
- Body Temp monitor for Bitch
- take 2x/day, 1 week before due date, when temp drops (~98), whelping will be w/in 24 hours
- Gestation length for Bitch
- 65 days from LH spike, 61-63 days from breeding
- Gestation length for Queen
- 63 day average
- Problems during pregnancy B/Q
- Abnormal vaginal discharges,
- Abnormal vaginal discharges during pregnancy (B/Q)
- Hemorrhagic=may be sign of impending abortion, forced rest
Purulent=evaluate for pyometra
- Causes of fetal wastage (B/Q)
- Trauma, heat, stress, viral, bacterial.
Treat with PGF2α, to evacuate uterus post-abortion
- Prolonged gestation (B/Q)
- Make sure of breeding date, end of last estrus.
More common in pregnancies with only 1 fetus, can be from Ca supplement
- Initiation of parturition (B/Q)
- drop in progesterone, coinciding drop in body temp (especially in bitch)
- First stage of parturition
- Preparation of uterus, cervical dilation
nesting behavior, nervousness
- 2nd stage of parturition
- Fetus enters pelvic canal, stimulates oxytocin release-contractions
- Interval between fetuses
- usually 30-60 minutes, inverene if active contractions longer than 1.5 hours or resting longer than 4
- Passing of fetus B/Q
- Amnion appears first, must be broken, by mom or help so don't suffocate. Mom eats placenta, breaks umbilical cord.
- 3rd stage of parturition
- Passing of placenta
- Period after parturition occurs. Involution of the uterus occurs
- Normal involution of uterus
- Lochia may persist 4-6 weeks,
Normally most expelled in 2 weeks.
Brown/reddish, no odor
- Management of damn post-partem (B/Q)
- Monitor vulvar discharges,
give unlimited feed/fresh H2O,
start weaning young 3-4 weeks,
reduce dam's feed
- Care of newborns (B/Q)
- Ensure colostrum intake
poikilothermic for 1st 2 weeks (avoid drafts)
Piling up, crying indicate problems
Monitor weight gain for signs of problems
- 3 H's
- Biggest killer of puppies
- Treatment of 3 H's
- warm up first, then feed & water.
If cold GI tract not working properly.
- Weight gain of newborns (C)
- Should be ~ 10% of birth weight/day.
Should be monitored, can be 1st sign of real problem.
- Postpartem diseases (B)
Subinvolution of placental sites
- Metritis (B)
- Inflammation of whole uterus.
Usually following abortion, dystocia (can be normal birth).
Facilitated by retained placenta or fetal tissue, delayed uterine involution.
- Signs of metritis (B)
- Vulvar discharge, fever, depression, neglect of pups
- Diagnosis of Metritis (B)
- Guarded swab for vaginal cytology
- Treatment for Metritis (B)
- PGF2α to evacuate uterus
- Mastitis (B)
- Enlarged, hot, painful mammary glands
Tends to reoccur in subsequent pregnancies
- Treatment of Mastitis (B)
- Broad spectrum antibiotics, until culture/suseptibility tests return
Strip & hot pack
- Hypocalcemia (B)
Can be nutritionally induced
Panting, pacing, trembling
- Treatment of eclampsia (B)
- IV Calcium gluconate
then oral calcuim through lactation.
Wean if old enough or if reoccurs.
- Subinvolution of placental sites (B)
- Placental sites that don't heal properly.
lead to postpartum bleeding.
- Treatment for subinvolution of placental sites (B)
- Give PGF SC for 5 days. Repeat if bleeding persists.
- Options for estrus control (B)
- Progestin-megestrol acetate
not for cats=can cause diabetes
Daily oral tablets to prevent next estrus cycle
8 days @ 1st 3 days of proestrus or 32 days in late anestrus
- Cheque Drops
- Not for cats
Or dogs w/ liver disease,
or breeding bitches (can't predict next estrus)
daily oral dose, begin 30 prior to predicted proestrus
- Testosterone in bitches
- common practice in racing greyhounds weekly IM or bi-weekly oral.
Start before puberty.
Usually return to normal estrus after cessation.
- A GnRH analogue implant.
Not in US.
SQ implant= reversible.
Every 6 months
Can induce estrus. Or use with progesterone during anestrus to prevent.
- Occurs after every estrus in the bitch and in bred queen that don't conceive.
- Mismating shots (B/Q)
- Estrogen injections, not recommended... only do once.
- Estrogen injections for mismating (B/Q)
- Causes tubular lockage, slows passage of embryos, so that can't implant
- Problems with estrogen injections in (B/Q)
- Cause bone marrow suppression if repeated dosing w/in 30 days (only B),
↑ risk of pyometra
- Other options for mismating
wait til day 28-30 for definitive diagnosis, then use other hormones to abort:
- Prolactin inhibitors
- Reduces prolactin causing lyses of CL, thus abortion.
Best in 2nd trimester.
- Prostaglandins for mismating
- Many small injections lyse CL and abort pregnancy.
Best in 2nd trimester.
- Puppy vaginitis
- Purulent discharge in puppies.
"scientific neglect", will resolve by or @ first estrus.
Don't spay until clears or 1st heat.
- Adult vaginitis
- Mostly spayed bitches.
Rule out skin disease, UTI and others conditions.
Treat underlying conditions
- Possible treatment of Adult vaginitis.
Removal of excessive skin dorsal & lateral to vulva.
- When to breed bitches
- 1st day she'll stand, every 2-3 days until she won't stand anymore
- Progesterone monitoring for breeding (B)
- usually <1ng/ml
1st rise=LH peak~ 2ng/ml
5ng/ml= ovulation occurs
- LH monitoring for breeding (B)
- Important when using frozen semen, to identify best time to inseminate
- Breeding management of queen
- breed 2-5 times in 48 hours
Take her to male's territory.
Make take several days for her to adjust & become receptive.
- When they get Pyometra
- a diestral disease-progesterone phase.
Usually 3-5 weeks after estrus in bitch.
Anytime in queen.
- Signs of pyometra
purulent discharge if cervix open (usually queen)
- Treatment of pyometra
- Surgical or Medical intervention
- Surgical treatment of pyometra
- Best option for non-breeding females.
Fluids, antibiotics to support.
Support until stabilize enough for surgery.
- Medical treatment of pyometra
- Prostaglandins PGF2α
- Macroscopic evaluation of semen
- Microscopic evaluation of semen
- Factors of Sperm motility
- Gross motility- swirling field on low power
Individual motility-moving in straight lines?
- Influences of sperm motility
Mechanical (aggressive aspiration)
Osmotic pressure (water contamination)
- Sperm viability
- # alive:# dead
Use vital stain=live sperm don't take up stain, dead ones do.
Not used much b/c no correlation to fertility
- Sperm concentration
- #sperm/ml*total volume=total sperm/ejaculate.
Can be counted or estimated based on cloudiness, or scrotal circumference (bulls, rams, bucks)
- Sperm morphology
- done @ 1000x!
Normal vs. abnormal
primary vs secondary abnormality
percentages by counting 100 sperm
- Primary abnormalities of sperm
- Occur in the testicle, reflect testicular function
- Secondary abnormalities of sperm
- Occur in the epididymus
- Estrous cycle of the Mare
- Seasonally polyestrous
long day breeders
average 21 day cycle
- Anestrus in the mare
- ~80% will go through winter anestrus
- Transition phase
- Transition from winter anestrus into breeding season.
Main cause of early season infertility
Ovaries begin activity
Ends w/ 1st ovulation
- Behavioral signs of estrus (E)
- Raise tail
acceptance of males
Some show no overt signs
- Length of estrus (E)
- 7-9 days early in season
3-5 days late in season
- Estrus in Mare
- Cervix & uterus relax
ovulation 24-48 hours before end of estrus
- Foal heat
- "9 day heat"
1st estrus postpartum
usually occurs around 9th day
↓success when bred on foal heat, b/c uterus not completely recovered
- Diestrus in the mare
- 14-16 days
cervix & uterus tone
no longer receptive to male
- biphasic wave of FSH
- cycle of FSH release continously occurring, 1st cause ovulatory follicle, 2nd cause diestrus follicle that don't usually ovulate
responsible for 2ndary CL's that maintain pregnancy
-occurs in 80% of mares
ovaries are small & inactive
cervix & uterus very relaxed
passive towards stallions
- Causes of persistent estrus (E)
-most common during spring transition phase
-hormonally active granulosa cells
-chromosomal abnormalities (XO)
- 3 conditions caused by granulosa cell tumors
- most common ovarian tumor
hormonally active tumors cause=
1. persistent anestrus
2. persistent estrus
3. stallion-like behavior
↑ testosterone & inhibin
other ovary atrophies
- Diagnosis of granulosa cell tumors
- "Granulosa Cell Panel"=
Serum tests for:
- Chromosomal abnormalities of concern(E)
Can cause persistent estrus or anestrus
- Normal (nonpathologic) causes of persistent anestrus
- winter anestrus (80%)
post-partum anestrus (after foal heat)
- Abnormal causes of persistent anestrus
- chromosomal abnormalities
granulosa cell tumors
ovarian senescene (menopause-like)
persistent CL/anovulatory follicle
- Causes of shortened luteal phase
-all cause inappropriate release of PGF2α
- 3 phases of pregnancy in the mare
- Early =ovulation→Day 40
Endometrial cup phase=Day 40→Day 100
Placental phase=day 100→day 330 (parturition)
- Time frame of embryo implantation
- Fertilized in uterine tubes
day 6-7-reach uterus
day6-16-wanders throughout the uterus=prevents PGF release
day 16-embryo implants
- Endometrial cup phase of gestation
- Day 40-100
Endometrial cups produce eCG→LH-like activity in mare
lutenizes 2ndry follicle to 2ndry CL=progesterone to maintain pregnancy
- Abortion during endometrial cup phase
- Even if it occurs, endometrial cups remain & produce eCG, so she won't go back into estrus till after day 100
- Placental maintenance of pregnancy
- Estrogen from fetal gonads sustains pregnancy
Estrogen ↓near parturition
Progesterone ↑near parturition
- Conditions of concern during pregnancy of mare
- Prepubic tendon rupture
- Prepubic tendon rupture in mare
- occurs late in pregnancy
-usually in draft breeds
- Uterine torsion in mare
- occurs late in pregnancy
-presents as colic
diagnose by rectal palpation of broad ligament
treat surgically or by "rolling"
-plank in the flank
- Hydrops in mare
- excessive fluid accumulations in amniotic and allantoic sacs
pressure can kill fetus, or rupture prepubic tendon
treat by inducing abortion
- Predicting parturition in mares
- Monitor Ca levels in milk
->200ppm=will foal w/in 72 hours (most sooner)
increased size of mammary glands in last month
relaxation of vulva & pelvic tendons= tailhead rises
- Gestation length of mares
- 11 months, 11 days
(330-345 days average)
will be longer if foaling in winter, or carry males
- Pregnancy diagnosis in mare
- Fetal heartbeat detectable via U/S by day 24
Palpable by day 28-30
- Growing size of fetus for sports fans
- Day 28-golf ball
- 3 Stages of parturition
- Stage 1-preparatory stage
Stage 2-expulsion of fetus
Stage 3-passing of placenta
- Preparatory stage of parturition
- Mare is sweating, restless
Foal repositions itself @ cervix
Mare can stop & wait hours or days if bothered
- Stage 2 of parturition
- Can last 10-40 minutes (20 average)
Chorioallantoic membrane bursts=breaking water
Fetus enters pelvic canal
Mare lays on side to push
ends when hips pass vulva & she stops pushing
- Ferguson's reflex
- when fetus enters pelvic canal, causes oxytocin release
- Stage 3 of parturition
- contractions of myometrium cause the placenta to detach, should pass within 3 hours after foal is.
should be smooth & gray on outside (gets turned inside-out)
- Parts of Mare breeding soundness exam
- History portion of breeding soundness exam
- Age-older than 12 may have reduced fertility & comformational changes
Breeding history-previous pregnancies/births, any infertility, Uterine infection
- Mare status of breeding soundness exam
- Foaling Mare-most fertile
Barren Mare-most problematic
- Maiden Mare
- Unproven reproductive status
younger mares considered normal until proven otherwise
Older mares may have problems
- Barren mare
- Has history of foaling, but not this year. Includes mares that have bred, but not convceived/foaled and those just not bred
- Physical exam part of breeding exam
- General health
Uterine endoscopy, cytology, culture & biopsy
- What to look for during external genitalia exam
- tight seal of vulva-doesn't suck air when open
perpendicular of ground
most below the ischatic arch
- What to look for during rectal exam
- Repro tract-abnormal pelvic canal
uterus-tone, size, make sure not pregnant already
ovaries-size activity, ovulation fossa
- What to look for during Vaginal speculum exam
- health of vagina & cervix
discharges, pooling of urine, injury, vaginitis
must exam immediately after opening, b/c air will make appear hemorrhagic
- What to look for during U/S exam
- fluid in uterus
- What to look for during uterine cytology
- inflammatory cells (mainly neutrophils)
- What to look for during uterine culture
- use a guarded swab to rule out bacterial/fungal endometritis
must do cytology or biopsy to interpret
- What to look for during uterine biopsy
- Grades describe endometrium
Grades I, IIA, IIB, III
- Grade I uterus
- Normal endometrium
>80% chance of normal foaling
- Grade IIA
- inflammation present w/ or w/o fibrosis
~75% chance of normal foaling
- Grade IIB
- inflammation w/ or w/o fibrosis
~50% chance of normal foaling
- Grade III
- extensive fibrosis w/ or w/o inflammation <10% chance of foaling
- What to look for on chromosomal karyotyping
- only needed on maiden mares, w/ congenital abnormalities-small repro tract/ovaries, flaccid uterus/cervix
- What to look for during uterine endoscopy
- may be needed in mares w/ history of infertility, uterine trauma/dystocia.
Identify UT junctions, adhesions, other endometrial abnormalities
- the most common cause of infertility in mares.
Caused by mare's inability to deal w/ or clear bacterial contamination
- Common uterine pathogens
- Strep, E. coli
Venereal-pseudomonas & klebsiella
- Prognosis of chronic endometritis
- usually a life-long problem of recurrent infections, leading to fibrosis & infertility
- Contagious Equine Metritis
Caused by Taylorella equigenitalis
must quarantine imported breeding stock from endemic areas
- Treatments of endometritis
- Intrauterine antimicrobials
minimal contamination breeding techniques
- Intrauterine antimicrobial therapy
- large volumes for adequate coverage of uterus, must base of sensitivity tests
Administered warm, 3-5x/day
- Systemic antibiotic therapy
- used in mares w/ signs of systemic infection, usually in postpartum mares
Broad spectrum antibiotics
- Uterine lavage
- large volumes of warmed fluids (+/- antibiotics)
helps clear debris
- Minimum contamination breeding techniques
- breeding w/ semen mixed with antibiotic extender
or deposit antibiotic extender before natural cover
- Oxytocin for treatment of endometritis
- helps clear debris
can be given post breeding
may need multiple doses
- DMSO for treatment of endometritis
- helps clear inflammation & reduce fibrosis
multiple treatments, 3x/day
- Caslick's surgery
temporary remedy for chronically infected
staple vulva closed until pregnancy diagnosed
- mechanical or chemical scrapping of uterine lining
- Anatomic abnormalities
- Vulvar conformation, Urine pooling, Persistent hymen
Vaginal adhesions, Cervical tears/scarring, endometrial hypoplasia/ atrophy/ fibrosis/ cysts, uterine adhesions/foreign bodies/tumors/abscesses
- Vaginal adhesions
- usually caused by traumatic dystocia, vaginal walls grow together to close reproductive tract, preventable, sometimes fixable
- Cervical tears/scarring
- usually after dystocia or forcefull removal of fetus, but can be after normal foaling.
scars prevent cervix from closing tightly, fixable w/surgery
- Endometrial hypoplasia
- usually in mares with chromosomal abnormalities and/or intersexes.
- Endometrial atrophy
- in old/debilitated mares,
confirm with biopsy
- Endometrial fibrosis
- Degenerative change, caused by chronic infections/harsh therapy
can be helped with DMSO
- Endometrial cysts
- must differentiate from actual pregnancy, many can carry with multiple cysts
- Uterine adhesions
- caused by trauma following foaling/dystocia/uterine therapy
- Uterine foreign bodies
can remove & restore fertility
- Uterine tumors
- rare, but may be able to remove
- Uterine abscesses
- from trauma
- Prostaglandins in mare
- Primarily for luteolysis, though not effective till 5 days post-ovulation
- Uses of Prostaglandins in mare
- Shorten luteal phase
Elective abortion-before day 40
Treat uterine infections-get back under estrogen control helps clearing
- Uses of oxytocin in the mare
- Induce parturition
For retained placenta
evacuate the uterus & promote involution
- Uses of hCG (E)
- LH activity
Induce ovulation 24-48 hours after injection
- an oral progestin, daily administration
used to end transitional phase-ovulatory heat 3-5 days post injection
Controlling estrus behavior in performance mares
Maintain pregnancy-1st 100 days
- Progesterone use (E)
- Controlling stallion-like behavior in geldings & estrus behavior in mares
Delaying postpartum estrus
- Used in many to improve fertility & maintain pregnancy
"stressed mares may be euthyroid"
- Deslorelin (E)
- GnRH analogue
used to stimulate ovulation
may cause problems next estrus, if they don't get pregnant
- Breeding management of the mare
- breed on day 2 of estrus & every other day, until out
Pasture breeding best
hand/artifical breeding easier w/hCG/deslorelin
- Lighting effect
- place under increasing light @ least 60 days before you want to breed her
(usually 15 Dec-to breed 15 Feb)
Best added @ end up day up to 16 hours
- Encouraging early cycling
- Other breeding management factors to consider
- Rectal palpation/ U/S of uterus & ovaries
Shipped cooled semen vs froze semen
- figure out who's in estrus
- U/S / palpation of ovaries & uterus
- measure follicles-ovulatory follicles~3.5-4cm
- Shipped cooled semen
- shipped overnight in Equitainer
dose placed directly into mare w/o warming
sometimes split & 2nd dose implanted next day
- Frozen semen
- short-life span
must be placed within 4-6 hours of ovulation
have to follow thawing instructions exactly
- U/S Diagnosis of pregnancy
- 12-14 days post-ovulation
check for twins
continue to recheck
- Diagnosis of pregnancy w/o U/S
- teaser male 14 days post ovulation, to check for estrus
no estrus by day 21-rectal palpation
repeat day 30-35
- Twinning with mares
- #1 cause of non-infectious abortion
- what to do w/ twins
- if detected prior to day 16, 1 of the amnion vesicle is crushed
reduce feed-negative feed balance to resorb one
transvaginal aspiration of one
per rectal decapitation
- Vaccinations for pregnant mares
- Rhinopneumonitis virus-EHV-1
- Rhinopneumonitis virus
#1 viral cause of abortion
vaccinate @ 5,7 & 9 months
keep mares isolated from traveling horses
- Symbiotic relationship with Acremonium coenophialum, a fungus.
- Fescue toxicity (E)
- prolonged gestation
- Prevention of fescue toxicity
- remove mares from fescue pasture @ day 300 prevents all adverse effects
- Treatment of fescue toxicity
- 3 factors of stallion fertility
- Breeding soundness exam of stallion
semen collection & eval, longevity
- Physical exam concerns of stallion
- musculoskeletal issues,
rear lameness of particular concern
- Exam of genitalia of stallion
- palpate scrotum/testes
- Bacterial cultures for stallion
- from urethra before & after ejaculate
look for Klebsiella, pseudomonas, CEM
- Semen collection of stallion
- artifical vagina
- Semen eval for stallions
- >1 billion normal sperm in 2nd ejaculate 1 hour apart
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