Glossary of Theatre History II
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- An interest in the past, in getting things right. Accurate, realistic costumes, sets.
- Hugo Ball
- A Dadaist. He would make poems out of random words. Started Cafe Voltaire.
- Barker, Harley Granville
- An actor, playwright, director. Wrote about how to solve problems as a director. Invented dramaturgical scholarship. Combines Poel's simplicity with Craig's fantastic, abstract costumes and scenery.
- Beerbohm- Tree Herbert
- Took victoriam pictorialism to its worst level; imported real rabbits, real grass, in his Midsummer Night's dream.
- Bruitisme/ Art of Noises
- Futurist experiment. They would make 'music' out of strange, noisy apparatuses, hammers, horns, crowds.
- Cabaret Voltaire
- Started by Hugo Ball and Hennings; a cafe. It was an artistic entertainment center, the place to be for art; poems, tunes, dances. Futurist poems would be read. Where these guys got together with Taza and formed Dadaism.
- Cocteau, Jean
- An early symbolist writer. He was interested in psychology, freud, mythology. Made plays and films; his beauty and the beast's beast was strangely sexy. Also directed orphee, a modern retelling of orpheous myth.
- Craig, Edward Gordon
- High Modernism. Well connected in the theatre world, but really a bastard, didn't work well with people. Known for his ideas about theatre of the future. He was all about creating a mood. He used shapes.
- Heavy futurist influence. Performance poetry. Very left wing, anti war. Irony. Chaotic, nonsense, spontaneous, multifocused.
Phase 1- zurich- goofing around. Phase 2- Berlin- Taza made it a political thing. Phase 3- less political, turning into surrealism.
- A subset of antiquanarism. This is Poel's baby- he wanted to show plays as they were actually performed. So moving in the other way as victorianism in simplicity, but still going for 'hyper realism'. Speed and simplicity- lots of things worked here.
- Moving foward. Pro technology. Short plays. Manifestos. Anti-intellectual. Variety acts. Dehumanizing. The lifestyle of the artist. Attacked tradition. CONCEPTUAL! Willing to provoke. Nonlinear. Prowar-"clensing".
- Total Art Work. Richard Wagner. Integrating all elements into one thing, less about literature and more about the elements.
- High Modernism
- Serious art! Expresisonism, Absurdism, synbolism. really took itself seriously. Picasso. Antirealism. Art for the sake of art, meta art.
- Historical Avant Garde
- The other kind of modernism. Not text based. Futurism, Dadaism, constructivism. Playful, spontaneous, a reaction against high modernism.
- Irving, Henry
- victorian Pictorialism. Followed in the steps of Kean and Banquos. Bigger, brighter. Experimented with gas lighting, different moods. Darkened the house. Focused attention. Spectaclized, 'show it, don't say it', cinematic, realistic.
- Jarry, Alfred/Ubu Roi
- Symbolism! Antirational, not about the real world. Rejecting rules. A puppetshow like quality. A farce. Caused an uproar.
- Kean, Charles
- Antiquanarism. An actor-manager. Blended the high class and the low class by getting rid of variety acts, promoting Shakespeare, patriotic history plays.
- Lugne-Poe, Aurelien
- A symbolist guy. Owned the famous Theatre de l'Oeuvre, where Ubu Roi was performed.
- Martinetti, F.T.
- An Italian poet. Published Futurist Manifesto of 'incendary violence'. Attacked established artistic values. Married futurist ideas to stirring of nationalism and colonialism. Wrote 'war, the only hygiene'. Liked to infuriate the audience!
- Maurice Maeterlink
- His most famous play is Pelleas & Mellisande- 1892- a midevel romance- robinhood- made his own version; abstract, craiglike scenery, dim lights, mist-like scrim, abstract-form-hiding costumes, chanting, experimented with puppetry.
- Paris- A ballet. A collaborative work of four artists. Against the press. Costumes resembled Picasso's works. Set the tone for performance in the postwar years. Noise- music of typewriters.
- Poel, William
- Poel did the Elizabethanism thing. He was obsessive and with a nutsy idea; wasn't all that effective but it taught the world some things about what a play can be.
- Antirationality, Anticivilization. A product of the industrial age, a desire to harken back to a simpler, purer time. Closer to nature.
- Rachilde/The Crystal Spider
- High modernism. Antirational, not about the real world.
- The gradual disappearing of the narrator and the idea of the 'performance', into something more real. The 4th wall appears. Happens in other artforms first. Boils down to 19th century faith in progress. Idea of theatre as an experiment. Issues could be discussed with the reality. Naturalism- Extreme realism. Book shelf, real books, the *right* books.
- A play/ballet, focused on sensation of new, of pleasure. Backdrop of metal disks. Shows a movie in between acts. It's the start of surrealism.
- Melodramas and the like, the romantic idea.
- A romanticism term. A super elitist idea in art of the artist as God. Focus on originality, authenticity, and innovation.
- A reaction against realism. Against Zola's the theatre as lab idea. Interested in irrational, subjectivity, the mysterious, getting underneath surface reality to Truth. No plot, dialague serves mood, not plot, short and intense, coorespondance of color and sound.
Problems- trying to represent unrepresentable. interested in inspecific, in absence, while theatre is about presence. Short lived in theatre world.
- Theatre de l’oeuvre
- Hosted Ubu Roi and lots of riots. Aurelien Lugne-Poe was the owner.
- Tzara, Tristan
- A major Dadaist! Was interested in making Dada a movement, a political message, a literary movement.
- Idea of replacing the performer with a giant puppet, an ubermaronette.
- Victorian Pictorialism
- A Henry Irving thing. Lavish sets, historical accuracy. Consultations with scholars advertised! Very visual. Cutting text.
- Wagner, Richard
- came up with Gesamptkunstvoerk, 'total art work' The integration thing. There's a connection to fascism here; Hitler was very interested in Wagner. Liked the myths of strong gods stuff. Mystical elements of nazism.
- A kind of melodrama. Notorious for its complex, overplottedness. Abundence of incident.
- Zola, Emile
- Idea that the audience is the scientist, the actors are the lab rats, and the stage is the environment.
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