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Glossary of The World and Its People 2005

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The study of the earth in all its variety is called ___________________ .
geography
Name two types of geography.
physical geography

human geography

This type of geography is the study of earth's land, water, plants, and animals.
physical geography
This type of geography is the study of people-where they live, how they live, how they change and are influenced by their environment, and how different groups compare to one another.
human geography
About 70 percent of the earth's surface is ______.
water
True or false. Most of the water on earth is drinkable.
False. Most of the earth's water is salt water which is not drinkable.
the process of wearing away or moving weathered material.
erosion
the breaking down of surface rocks into smaller pieces by water,
frost, chemicals, and plants
weathering
What are the three causes of erosion?
Water, wind, and ice
What causes weathering.
water, frost, chemicals and plants
group of planets and other bodies that revolve around the sun
solar system
The sun provides _____ and life for our planet.
heat
one complete orbit of a planet around the sun
revolution
imaginary line that runs through Earth’s center between the North and South
Poles
axis
Earth is tilted on its axis. As the Earth travels around the sun, its tilt makes the _________ change.
seasons
a year that has an extra day; occurs every fourth year
leap year
the day in June when the sun appears directly over the
Tropic of Cancer; the day in the Northern Hemisphere with the most hours
of sunlight

summer solstice
the day in December when the sun appears directly over the
Tropic of Capricorn; the day in the Northern Hemisphere with the fewest
hours of sunlight

winter solstice
the day in March and September when the sun appears directly over the
Equator; when day and night are of equal length in both hemispheres
equinox
area of land drained by a given river and its branches;
basin
area of land surrounded by lands of higher elevation
basin
Name the hemispheres.
Northern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
Eastern Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere


Name the three layers of the earth.
core, mantle, crust
The earth’s _______is its center.
core
How many parts does the core have? Describe them.
two; the center of the core is solid and the outer layer of the core is hot liquid metal.

layer of solid and melted rock surrounding the earth’s core
mantle
melted rock from the earth’s mantle that flows to the earth’s surface during
volcanic eruptions
magma
outer layer of the earth
crust
Magma is part of which layer of the earth?
inner layer
This layer of the earth also includes the continents.
crust
True or False. The ocean floors are part of the earth's crust.
True
underwater plateau that lies off each coast of a continent
continental shelf
a slow movement of the continents
continental drift
Name three types of landforms.
plains, plateaus, valleys, trenches, peninsulas, islands,
straits, channels, oceans, lakes




high latitude climate with bitter cold winters and near-freezing summers
subarctic
vast treeless plain with permafrost in the high latitudes
tundra
dry climate; receives less than 10 inches of rain a year.
Desert
In parts of the tundra and subarctic, the ground under the soil stays permanently frozen. This ground is called_______.
permafrost
the usual predictable pattern of weather in an area over a long period of time.
climate
One revolution of Earth around the sun roughly eaquals__________ days.
365
Earth has different seasons because of the way it ______ and _________ around the sun.

tilts;revolves

The earth's crust includes the seven _______ and the _____ floors.
continents; floors



continents; floors


Tropics has a ________ climate.
hot



hot


mid-latitude climates are sometimes called____________.


temperate climates


Name the four mid-latitude climates.

marine west coast climate
Mediterranean climate
humid continental climate
humid subtropical climate




marine west coast climate

mild, rainy winters, and cool summers

Mediterranean climate

mild rainy winters and hot dry summers
humid continental climate


humid continental climate

long cold snowy winters and short hot summers

humid subtropical climate


rain year around; hot humid summers; short and mild winters


What climate occurs on the coast and has hot, dry summers?



Mediterranean climate
What are the two types of dry climates. What is the difference?

desert and steppes; steppes get more rain than deserts

permanently frozen ground

permafrost

movement of water from oceans to air to ground and back to oceans
water cycle

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