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Glossary of The Language of Medicine by Davi-Ellen Chabner, 7th edition

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adenoma
Tumor of a gland.
adenitis
Inflammation of a gland.
arthritis
Inflammation of a joint.
biology
Study of life.
biopsy
To view life; microscopic examination of living tissue.
carcinoma
Cancerous tumor.
cardiology
Study of the heart.
cephalic
Pertaining to the head.
cerebral
Pertaining to the brain.
incision
Process of cutting into; to section.
excision
Process of cutting out; to resection.
endocrine glands
Glands that secrete hormones within the body.
cystoscopy
Process of visual examination of the urinary bladder.
cytology
Study of cells.
dermatitis
Inflammation of the skin.
hypodermic
Pertaining to under the skin.
electrocardiogram
Record of the electricity in the heart.
electroencephalogram
Record of the electricity in the brain.
enteritis
Inflammation of the intestines.
erythrocyte
Red blood cell.
gastrectomy
Removal of the stomach.
gastrotomy
Incision of the stomach.
diagnosis
State of complete knowledge; information gathered about a patient's illness.
prognosis
State of before knowledge-prediction about the outcome of a condition.
gynecology
Study of females and female diseases.
hematology
Study of blood.
hematoma
Collection of blood (bruise).
hemoglobin
Blood protein found in red blood cells. Hemoglobin carries oxygen to the cells from the lungs and carbon dioxide away from cells to the lungs.
hepatitis
Inflammation of the liver.
iatrogenic
Pertaining to produced by treatment (physician).
leukocyte
White blood cell.
nephritis
Inflammaton of the kidney.
nephrology
Study of the kidney.
neurology
Study of nerves.
oncology
Study of tumors.
oncologist
Specialist in the study of tumors.
ophthalmoscope
"Instrument for visual examination of the eye. Proper pronunciation helps in the spelling of this term. The initial syllable is pronounced ""off"" and is spelled ""oph."" "
osteitis
Inflammation of bone.
osteoarthritis
Inflammation of bone and joints (actually degeneration of joint tissue).
pathology
Study of disease.
pathologist
"One who studies diseases, performs autopsies, and examines biopsy samples. "
pediatric
Pertaining to treatment of children.
psychology
Study of the mind.
psychiatrist
Specialist in the treatment of the mind.
radiology
Study of x-rays.
renal
"Pertaining to the kidney. Ren/o (Latin) is used with -al (Latin), and nephr/o (Greek) is used with -ic (Greek). "
rhinitis
Inflammation of the nose.
sarcoma
Tumor of flesh tissue (malignant).
resection
"Removal; excision. From the Latin ""resecare"" meaning ""to cut back, trim or curtail."" Thus a resection is an operation wherein an organ is ""cut back"" or removed. "
thrombocyte
Clotting cell.
urology
Study of the urinary tract.
cardiac
Pertaining to the heart.
neural
Pertaining to nerves.
arthralgia
Pain in a joint.
neuralgia
Pain of nerves.
nephrectomy
Removal (resection) of a kidney.
leukemia
Condition of increase in white cells (malignancy).
carcinogenic
Pertaining to producing cancer.
pathogenic
Pertaining to producing disease.
gastric
Pertaining to the stomach.
neurological
Pertaining to the study of nerves.
gynecologist
Specialist in the study of females and female disorders.
cystitis
Inflammation of the urinary bladder.
endocrinology
Study of the endocrine glands.
hepatoma
Tumor (malignant) of the liver.
nephrosis
Abnormal condition of the kidney.
leukocytosis
Abnormal condition (slight increase in numbers) of normal white blood cells.
enteropathy
Disease of the intestines.
adenopathy
Disease of glands.
endoscope
Instrument to visually examine within (the body).
endoscopy
Process of visually examining within (the body).
osteotomy
Incision of a bone.
gastroenterology
Process of study of the stomach and intestines.
anemia
Decrease in erythrocytes or hemoglobin.
autopsy
"Self view-examination of a dead body, understand its function. "
endocrinologist
One who specializes in endocrine glands.
epigastric
Pertaining to above the stomach.
epidermis
Outer layer of skin; above the dermis layer.
exocrine glands
Glands that secrete chemicals to the outside of the body.
hyperglycemia
Condition of increased blood sugar.
hypogastric
Pertaining to below the stomach.
hypoglycemia
Condition of low blood sugar.
pericardium
Structure surrounding the heart.
retrocardiac
Pertaining to behind the heart.
subhepatic
Pertaining to below the liver.
transhepatic
Pertaining to across or through the liver.
abdominal
Pertaining to the abdomen.
adipose
Pertaining to fat.
anterior
Pertaining to the front.
anabolism
Process of casting (building) up materials (proteins) within cells.
cervical
Pertaining to the neck.
chondroma
Tumor of cartilage.
chondrosarcoma
Flesh tumor (malignant) of cartilage.
chromosomes
Color bodies; contain genetic material and are located in the nucleus of cell.
coccygeal
Pertaining to the tailbone.
craniotomy
Incision of the skull.
cytoplasm
Contents (formation) of the cell (apart from the nucleus and cell membrane).
distal
Pertaining to far (from the beginning of a structure).
dorsal
Pertaining to the back.
histology
Study of tissues.
iliac
Pertaining to the ilium.
inguinal
Pertaining to the groin.
karyotype
Picture (classification) of the nucleus (and its chromosomes).
lateral
Pertaining to the side.
lumbosacral
Pertaining to the lumbar and sacral regions.
medial
Pertaining to the middle.
nucleic
Pertaining to the nucleus.
pelvic
Pertaining to the hip bone.
posterior
" Pertaining to the back, behind."
proximal
Pertaining to near the beginning of a structure.
sacral
Pertaining to the sacrum (lower back).
spinal
"Pertaining to the spine, backbone."
epithelial cell
Cell covering the surface of the skin and inner lining of body cavities and tubes.
thoracic
Pertaining to the chest.
thoracotomy
Incision of the chest.
tracheal
Pertaining to the windpipe.
umbilical
Pertaining to the navel.
ventral
Pertaining to the belly side of the body.
vertebral
Pertaining to vertebrae.
visceral
Pertaining to internal organs.
anabolic
Pertaining to casting up; building up substances (proteins) in the cell.
catabolism
Process of casting down; breaking down material in the cell to release energy.
hypochondriac regions
Pertaining to under the rib cartilages (area of the abdomen).
intervertebral
Pertaining to between the vertebrae.
metabolism
State of building up (anabolism) and breaking down (catabolism); processes in a cell.
otalgia
Pain in the ear.
myalgia
Pain of muscles.
rectocele
Hernia of the rectum.
cystocele
Hernia of the urinary bladder.
thoracocentesis
Surgical puncture to remove fluid from the chest (thoracentesis).
amniocentesis
Surgical puncture of the amnion.
abdominocentesis
Surgical puncture of the abdomen.
streptococcus
Berry-shaped (spheroidal) bacterium found in twisted chains.
staphylococci
Berry-shaped (spheroidal) bacteria in clusters.
pleurodynia
Pain in the chest wall muscles that is aggravated by breathing (literally: pain of the pleura).
laryngectomy
Removal of the larynx.
mastectomy
Removal of a breast.
ischemia
To hold back blood from an area of the body.
carcinogenesis
Condition of producing cancer.
pathogenesis
Condition of producing disease.
angiogenesis
Formation of blood vessels.
osteogenic
Pertaining to produced within bone.
myelogram
Record (x-ray) of the spinal cord.
mammogram
Record (x-ray) of the breast.
electroencephalograph
Instrument for recording the electricity in the brain.
electroencephalography
Process of recording the electricity in the brain.
angiography
Process of recording (x-ray) blood vessels.
bronchitis
Inflammation of the bronchi.
tonsillitis
Inflammation of the tonsils.
thrombophlebitis
Inflammation of a vein with clot formation.
ophthalmology
Study of the eye.
morphology
Study of shape or form.
hemolysis
Destruction of blood (breakdown of red blood cells with release of hemoglobin).
osteomalacia
Softening of bone.
chondromalacia
Softening of cartilage.
acromegaly
Enlargement of extremities.
splenomegaly
Enlargement of the spleen.
myoma
Tumor (benign) of muscle.
myosarcoma
Tumor (malignant) of muscle (a type of flesh tissue).
multiple myeloma
Tumor of bone marrow.
necropsy
Visual examination of dead bodies; autopsy (most often used for animals).
necrosis
Condition of death (of cells).
hydronephrosis
Abnormal condition of water (found) in the kidney.
cardiomyopathy
Disease of heart muscle.
erythropenia
Deficiency of red blood cells.
neutropenia
Deficiency in neutrophils.
thrombocytopenia
Deficiency of clotting cells.
acrophobia
Fear of heights.
agoraphobia
"Fear of being in open, crowded spaces (marketplace). "
achondroplasia
No (improper) development of cartilage.
angioplasty
Surgical repair of blood vessels.
blepharoptosis
"Prolapse, sagging of an eyelid. "
nephroptosis
Prolapse of a kidney.
arteriosclerosis
Hardening of arteries.
laparoscope
Instrument to visually examine the abdomen.
laparoscopy
Process of visual examination of the abdomen.
metastasis
Beyond control; spreading of a cancerous tumor.
hemostasis
Stopping the flow of blood (naturally by clotting or artificially by compression).
colostomy
New opening of the colon (to the outside of the body).
tracheostomy
New opening of the windpipe (to the outside of the body).
hydrotherapy
Treatment with water.
chemotherapy
Treatment with drugs.
radiotherapy
Treatment with x-rays.
laparotomy
Incision into the abdomen.
phlebotomy
Incision of a vein.
hypertrophy
Excessive development.
atrophy
No development; wasting away of tissue.
radiographer
"One who records x-rays; radiologic technologist. A person who, under the supervision of a physician, operates radiologic equipment and assists radiologists. "
pneumonia
Condition (abnormal) of lungs.
nephrologist
Specialist in the study of the kidney.
arteriole
Small artery.
venule
Small vein.
nephropathy
Disease of the kidney.
peritoneal
Pertaining to the peritoneum.
pleural
Pertaining to the pleura.
tonsillar
Pertaining to tonsils.
pulmonary
Pertaining to the lungs.
axillary
Pertaining to the armpit.
laryngeal
Pertaining to the voice box.
chronic
Long-term; over a long period of time.
pathological
Pertaining to the study of disease.
adenoids
"Resembling glands (lymphatic tissue in the throat, near the nose). "
mucous
Pertaining to mucus.
apnea
Not breathing.
anoxia
Without oxygen (decrease in tissues).
abnormal
Pertaining to away from the norm (rule); not regular.
abductor
One who (muscle which) leads toward the body. To admit means to send toward or permit entrance.
adrenal glands
Endocrine glands located above (toward) the kidneys.
analysis
To separate (apart). Psychoanalysis is a psychiatric treatment that explores the mind. Urinalysis (urin/o + (an)alysis) is laboratory examination of urine to aid in diagnosis.
ante cibum
Before meals.
anteflexion
Bending forward.
antepartum
Before birth.
antisepsis
Condition against infection.
antibiotic
Pertaining to against life (germ life).
antigen
A substance (usually foreign) that stimulates the production of antibodies.
antibody
Protein substance made in the body to destroy foreign antigens.
antitoxin
A substance (antibody) produced in response to and capable of neutralizing a toxin (such as those causing diphtheria or tetanus). Antirenin contains antitoxin specific for an animal or insect venom.
autoimmune
Related to making antibodies (immune substances) against one's own cells and tissues.
bifurcation
Forking (branching) into two; as the trachea bifurcates into two individual tubes.

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