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Glossary of The Historical Perspective of Distance Education

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Created by hbeezley

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Summative assessment
occur at the end of instruction. examples: unit tests, projects

Goal - establish how well the learner has achieved the knowledge and skills associated with that unit - certify achievement, assign grades

Formative assessment
occurs throughout and during the unit of instruction.

Goal to help ensure high achievement at the end of instruction.

Can be informal



Validity
degree to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure
Sampling error
occurs when there is a difference between responses provided by the sample and responses that would have been obtained had the entire population participated
Generalizability
an approach used to evaluate sampling error.
The four generations of distance education
1. single technology
2. multiple technologies (no computer)
3. multiple technologies with computer (no high bandwidth network)
4. multiple technologies with computer and high bandwidth


Assessment issues introduced with single technology distance education
Does learning achieved at a distance equal learning achieved face-to-face?

With learners at a distance, how does one achieve formative assessment?

With learners at a distance, how does one go beyond measuring declarative knowledge?



Assessment issues introduced with multiple technologies distance education (without a computer)
How can one validate the assessments? Construct and content-related approaches are the primary means of validation
Assessment issues introduced with multiple technologies distance education (with a computer and no high speed network)
With randomized questions, how can one ensure each student\'s tests is equally difficult when different sample of items are used with each administration?

Would decisions about a student\'s level of mastery be the same if a different sample of items were included in the test?

Assessment issue introduced with multiple technologies distance education (with a computer and with high speed networks)
How does one assess higher-level skills? Is the use of advanced media synonymous with assessing higher-level skills?

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