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Glossary of Textiles class

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Created by arbrick

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Heddles

each thread in the warp passes through a heddle which is used to determine the pattern of the cloth
the heddles and harnesses separate the warp threads so the weft threads can pass through
Intarsia Knit
look like Jacquard Knit
no floats on the back
more expensive
higher quality


Jacquard Knit
a knit fabric with more than one color in the same row (when a color isnt being used it floats on the back of the fabric) the floats can be hidden with a lining or by a double knit
Jacquard Weave
a novelty weave with intricate, sometimes multicolored patterns produced on a jacquard loom

damask
brocade


Leno Weave
a novelty weave where pairs of warp yarns are twisted together after each weft thread is placed

produced very open but stable structure
ex curtains, chanille yarns


Missoni
an italian fashion house that is famous for unique knitwear such as multi-colored warp knits
Momie weave
novelty weave with a grainy texture formed using small random floats
Pile Knit
single or double filling knit with extra yarns that form loops on the surface

velour
knit terrycloth
fake fur



Pile Weave
novelty weave
adding extra warp or filling yarns in order to create a pile of loops on the fabrics surface

corduroy
velvet
velveteen




Pique weave
small geometric pattern and a noticeable texture (using diff sized yarns) indented areas in the cloth help trap air and/or absorb water
ex dish towels, cloth baby diapers, thermal blankets
Plain Weave
Basic Weave
passing each filling yarn over and under each warp yarn with each row alternating

-front looks exactly like the back
-easy
-cheap




Reed
part of the loom that keeps the warp threads separate and evenly spaced (comb like)

beat weft threads into place

Repp Weave
variation of plain weave with thicker yarns in the WEFT that form ribs (like a ruffles potato chip)
Rib Weave
variation of plain weave where thicker yarns are used in some parts of the WARP

makes fabric stronger
gives it a more permanent rippled look


Satin Weave
basic weave
has a float like a twill weave but the floats are stronger

smooth compact surface, no distinguishable wales

filament fibers- thread needs to be very thin
staple version= sateen





selvedge
woven edge of a fabric

runis in the same direction of warp

Shuttle
a device used to push the WEFT yarns through the warp

can also be done with air or water(which shuttle wouldnt be needed)

Skew
woven fabric
a condition in which the weft yarns do not run perfectly straight across fabric

diagonal line


Slack-Tension Weave
woven fabric made by using 2 warp beams

1 beam has yarn with normal tension
1 beam has yarn with loose tension

creates ripples (seersucker)
or loops (terrycloth)
on both sides






thread count
woven fabric
# warp threads plus the # of weft threads per a square inch

ex 100 X 150= 250


Twill Tape
flat ribbon made from a very narrow twill weave fabric

ex drawstring

Twill Weave
basic weave

threads that float over 2 or 3 other threads
commonly used for pants
strong



wales
in a twill weave fabric wales are diagonal lines created by stacks of floats

in single/double filling knit walres are the vertical columns of V shapes

warp
set of threads that go through the loom
perfectly straight
runs parallel to the selvedge

warp beam
holds all the warp threads while cloth is being produced
weft
threaded through the warp using a shuttle

weft threads can be more decorative

PLAIN WEAVES
Chambray
China Silk
Georgette
Gingham
Lame
Linen
Madras
Muslin
Organza
Shantung
Silk Noil









MOMIE/ CREPE WEAVE
crepe
DOUBLE WEAVE
matelasse
RIB AND REPP WEAVE
ribstop
DOUBLE FILLING KNIT
Double knit
Interlock
SINGLE OR DOUBLE FILLING KNIT
Fleece
-shirts = single
-polar = double
Jacquard Knit
Rib Knit



SINGLE FILLING KNIT
French terry
Jersey
Terrycloth (pile knit)
Velour (pile knit)


WARP KNIT
Lace
Net
Tricot
Tulle


Basket Weave

Checkered pattern that resembles the side of a basket

created by using 2 or more warp/weft yarns traveling together

ex oxford monks cloth



Bow

a defect in woven fabrics where the weft makes a wavy line across the fabric instead of a straight line

Cable Knit
a style of knitting most commonly used in sweaters

simple stitches of knits and purls are twisted around each other to create rope patterns

Circular Knit
used to make a seamless tube of fabric

Cloth Beam
a roller, located at the front of the look at which the woven material is wound as its produced
Courses
rows of bar-shaped stitches going from side to side in a knit fabric
Crepe (momie) Weave
a novelty weave with a grainy texture formed using small random floats
Dobby
a fabric with small repeating geometric patterns woven into the surface

fabric woven on a dobby loom

extra-yarn weave
a novelty woven fabric that has extra warp or weft threads to form a decorative pattern
Filling (weft)
woven fabrics- the width wise (horizontal) yarns carried over and under the warp
Floats
threads in a woven fabric that go over/under at least 2 other threads

found in fabrics like crepe and satin

Full-fashioning
a technique for making parts of garments by increasing and/or decreasing the number of stitches

gives the garment a more polished look

gauge
number of stitches per square inch (horizontal direction) on a knit fabric
Grosgrain ribbon
a ribbon made from a narrow piece of repp weave fabric gives it a distinctive rippled texture and matte appearance
Harnesses
wooden frames that lift sets of heddles

# of harnesses= complexity of the pattern

plain weaves- need 2
twill weaves- need @ least 3
satin weaves- need @ least 5
some novelty (dobby)- need more than 20










Pile Knit
single filling knit
Fleece- sweatshirt
velour
knit terrycloth - stretchy

Twill Weaves
(Fact Card)
-more resilient than plain weave
-has diaganol lines called WALES
formed by stacks of FLOATS
-often looks diff on the front and back

denim gabardine glen plaid herringbone houndstooth surah

twill tape= drawstring usually herringbone






Satin Weaves
(Fact Card)
has floats like twill weave but are stronger
-no distinguishable wales
-smooth
-filament fibers= thread needs to be very thing
-staple fiber= sateen

charmeuse, satin, sateen





Extra-Yarn Weave
(Fact Card)
extra yarn embroidery

back is a plain weave, front has lots of extra threads that have been cut to form "eyelashes"

Pique Weave
(Fact Card)
sometimes called dobby
more insulating
never smooth
geometric pattern

pique towels are more absorbent than plain weave towels

Birdseye pique- cloth diapers

wafflecloth








Pile Weave
(Fact Card)
Plush surface

velvet- filament fibers; moves well
velveteen- staple fibers; not as shiny
corduroy; has ribs; wears out easily



Slack-Tension Weave
(Fact Card)
made using 2 warp beams
has ripples
or loops on both sides

seersucker
terrycloth




Double Weave
(Fact Card)
2 warp beams
2 pieces of cloth are made at the same time and locked together
front and back usually have completely different structures

matelasse



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