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Glossary of Test 3 Spinework

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Created by cowgirl0288

_____and ____are called primary curves because they are present at birth
thoracic and pelvic
____and _____are called secondary or compesatory because they develop after birth
cervical and lumbar
_____is the least pronounced and develops at 3-4 months of age when the child begins to hold their head up and begins to sit at 8-9 months of age
cervical
___begins to develop at about 1 to 1.5 year of age as a child begins to walk
lumbar
the lumbar and sacral curves join at an obtuse angle and varies between patients
lumbosacral angle
Upper limbs are supported via the ____which articualte to the sternum
ribs
The sternum articulates with the _____
shoulder girdle
the verterbral column articulates with the
hipbone at sacroiliac joints

the ____and ____are convex anteriorly and referred to as lordotic curves
cervical and lordotic
the ___and ____are concave anteriorly and referred to as kyphotic curves
thoracic and pelvic
vertebrae are separated by_____
disks of fibrocartilage which act as cushions
_____is held together by ligaments and curved for flexibility and resilience
vertebral column
The vertebrae normally increase in width from the ____to the ____then decrease sharply
2nd cervical to the superior part of the sacrum
movable consists of upper 3 regions
true
fixed change in adulthood
false
apx ____percent has 6 lumbar and ___percent has 7 lumbar with no ribs on T 12
2% and 7%
Abnormal increase in the anterior concavity(posterior convexity) of the thoracic spine
Kyphosis
• Abnormal increase in the anterior convexity (posterior concavity) of the lumbar or cervical curve
lordosis
formed by 2 pedicles and 2 laminae that support 4 articular processes, 2 transverse processes, and 1 spinous process
vertebral arch
it is ringlike with no body and a short spinous process
atlas
• The ring formed by the arches is divided into an anterior and posterior portion by a ligament
atlantal ligament
• The anterior portion receives the dens (odontoid process)
atlas
• The articulation between C1-C2
atlantoaxial ligament
All cervical vertebra have three foramina
right and left transverse and vertebral foramina
• The superior and inferior articular processes of the cervical vertebrae are located posterior to the transverse processes forming a thick pillar of bone called the
articular pillars
• The zygapophyseal joints of C2-C7 are at a right angle to the MSP visualized in the _____projectoin
lateral
The intervertebral foramina are directed ______ at a 45 degree angle from MSP and 15 degree _____ from horizontal
anteriorly, inferior
The body of the “typical” thoracic vertebrae T3-T9 are ______ in shape
triangular
T1 has a _____ facet at the superior border for the 1st rib and _____ facet at the inferior border for the 2nd rib
whole; demi
T2-T8 have ____ facets superiorly and inferiorly
demi
T9 has ____ ______ -____facet
only a superior demi
T10-T12 have a ____ ____ facet superiorly
single whole
All but ______&____ have a facet for articulation with the rib tubercle forming the costotransverse
T11 and T12
Spinous Processes are long the _______
• They project sharply inferiorly and overlap each other. The palpable tip of these corresponds to the interspace ______ the vertebra from which it projects


5th through the 9th ; below
In thoracic, To demo the Zygapophyseal joints radiographically you rotate patient apx. _____ degrees from lateral position or _____from anatomic position
15 to 20; 70 to 75 degrees
Bodies are large bean shaped increasing in size from ____ to ____ deeper anteriorly than posterior.
1 to 5
in lumber the transverse processes are ____than the thoracic vertebrae
smaller
large thick blunt and almost horizontal projection posteriorly. Tip corresponds to the interspace below the vertebrae of orgin ( in lumbar)
spinous processes
a projection on the back of each superior articular process
mammillary process
located at the back of the root of the transverse process in lumbar
accessory process
part of the lamina b/w the superior and inferior articular processes ( in lumbar)
pars interacticularis
The intervertebral foramina of L1-L4 are at right angles to MSp seen in the ____ projection, the 5th turns slightly _____
lateral,anteriorly
Sacrum is formed of ___ fused elements.
5
The superior portion of the first sacral segment resembles the ___ and sorresponds to the size and shape
L5
the superior surface forms the lumbosacral junction
base
Ridge at superior anterior margin of base
sacral promontory
located behind the bodies. It is a continuation of the vertebral canal and transmits sacral nerves and blood vessels.
sacral canal
There are ___ pair of sacral foramina
4
large winglike lateral mass on each side of the sacral base
ala
lateral part of the ala, articulates with the iliac bones of the pelvis
auricular process
articulate with the inferior articular processes of the last lumbar vertebra to form the last pair of zygapophyseal joints
superior articular processes
3 to 5 vertebra that fuse in adulthood. May have slight deviation from midline
coccyx
centering for L5 S1 spot
Center on a coronal plane 2 inches posterior to ASIS and 1 and a half inch inferior to iliac crest
structures shown for AP axial SI joints
o Structures Shown: shows the sacroiliac joint fartherst from the IR and an oblique
centering for Lateral sacrum/coccyx
o Perp. CR at level of ASIS and 3 and ½ posterior
AP obliques demostrate joints closer or furthur from the IR?
demonstrate the joints closest to the IR
Centering for AP Obliques L spine
2 inches medial and 1 1/2 above iliac
History for spine
trauma; pain; numbness; popping; surgery;
Gowning for C-spine
remove shoulder up- bra, all metal
gowning for T-spine
everything off waist up; gown open to back
gowning for L-spine
remove everything waist up; gown; bra-off;
when the joint is not well demonstrated and the pedicle is anterior on the vertebral body, the patient is what
not rotated enough
when the joint is not well demonstated and the pedicle is posterior on the vertebral body whats wrong?
the patient is related too much
centering for ap oblique SI joints
1 inch medial to elevated to ASIS
• Which intervertebral foramina are demonstrated on a AP axial oblique projection of the cervical spine?
those farthest
• The interveterbral foramina of the superior four lumbar are situated how many degrees from MSP?
90
• Which thoracic vertebrae contain only a single costal facet on its body
T10-T12
• The intervertebral foramina of the C spine open
45 anterior and 15 inferior

• For the swimmers the recommended position of the humeral head closest to IR is____?
move anteriorly
• The average range of the angle of L4-S1 z-joints are
45 to 60 degrees
• Spinal nerves and blood vessels exit the spinal column through the
intervertebral foramina
• Articulating facet on the inferior articular process of the vertebrae is located on its ____surface.
anterior
• Which vertebral process projects posteriorly form junction of laminae and pedicles?
spinous process
• How much is the body rotated from the lateral position to demonstrate the z-joints of the thoracic region?
15 to 20 degrees
• For cervicothoracic region lateral projection(swimmers) recommended position of humeral head fartherst from IR is____?
move posteriorly
• The z-joints of the lumbar spine form an angle of how many degrees from the posterior MSP?
30 to 50
• The average range of the angle L1-L3 z-joints are:
15 to 45
• Which thoracic vertebrae contain costal facets of the transverse processes?
T1 - T10
• The intervertebral foramina of the thoracic spine form an angle of how many degrees with MSP?
90 degrees
• The Z-joints of the thoracic spine form an angle of how many degrees with the MSP?
70- 75
• Which intervertebral foramina are demonstrated on the PA axial oblique projection of the cervical spine?
side closest to IR

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