Glossary of Test 3 Ron Wright HIST 1302
Created by tipposan
- What were two effects of the prosperity of the 1920's?
- Buying sprees of new technology and mass advertising
- The mass advertising in the 1920's was aimed mostly towards who? and what were they trying to market?
- Advertised to women promoting appliances (don't be a slave to your household mentality)
- * 4 Causes of the Great Depression - why we go from economic prosperity to a collapse.
3)Weakened economy b/c of WWI
- What does underconsumption mean relating to its part in causing the Great Depression?
- There were too many goods on the market - not enough people to buy them
- What was the "weak link" in regards to the causes of the Great Depression?
- The 40% of the US population that were farmers. They were already in a depression.
- What was the national governments role in causing the Great Depression?
- Tariffs were raised to protect American goods
- What was the result of raised import tariffs?
- Trade wars and the decline of world trade to 55%.
- *What is the vicious cycle of a depression?
- 1)Businesses cut production
2)Cut wages/Unemployment goes up
3)Public cuts back spending (return to 1)
- What 3 things did Herbert Hoover do during his administration to try and right the depression?
- 1)Reconstruction Finance Corporation
- What was Herbert Hoover's Reconstruction Finance Corporation and was it a success?
- It made loans to businesses and banks; failure
- Why did Herbert Hoover increase taxes during the US' depression, and did it succeed?
- Tried to balance deficit spending; failure
- Hoover was very conservative when it came to helping the US population via what?
- welfare for the poor
- Hoover became what sort of representative for the Great Depression?
- the scapegoat
- People living during the Great Depression referred to it as what and what was the % of typical US wealth?
- Hard Times; 50
- *What was the unemployment rate during the Great Depression?
- What disease most heavily effected men in their 30's and 40's during the "Hard Times?"
- Depression Sickness
- What was the irony of food production during the Great Depression?
- Too much food was produced, but the urbaners couldn't buy it.
- During what years was the Great Depression?
- What was the average wage during the Great Depression and what was the typical wage cut?
- $16/wk; 40%
- What was the first thing sold by households to try and reduce spending/make money?
- What were the effects on the birthrate, suicide rate, and major crime rate during the Great Depression?
- Birth down; Suicide up; Crime down - people helped each other
- Who ran in the 1932 election and what was their campaign?
- Hoover-Rep: no welfare or direct payments!
FDRoosevelt-Dem: was a pragmatist, experimentation
- What was the name of Roosevelt's plan to fix the US during the depression?
- The New Deal
- What was the "Brain's Trust?"
- the idea men behind the New Deal
- In what 3 ways was relief provided to Americans via the New Deal?
- welfare, FERA, and CCC (both organizations disbanded in 1941)
- What was FERA?
- Federal Emergency Relief Administration
- What was the CCC?
- Civilian Conservation Core - participants had to finish high school or learn a trade
- What 4 things were done under the recovery goal of the New Deal?
- 1)AAA created
2)City people taxed
3)Forced wealth transfer
4)WPA set up
- What was the AAA and what did it do?
- Agricultural Adjustment Act- for farmers only; farmers were paid NOT to produce goods (25% less)
- What was the WPA and what was it supposed to accomplish?
- Works Progress Administration - for Urban unemployed; "pump priming" via public works jobs
- WPA was mocked with what name because of what occurrences?
- "We Poke Along"; boondoggling- gv't paying for silly things (ditch story)
- What issues were faced by Roosevelt with the 1935 election?
- unemployment at 17%, unhappy conservatives "Raw Deal," and unhappy liberals/radicals "the No Deal" wanted more gv't aid
- Who ran against Roosevelt in the 1935 elections?
- "Kingfish" Huey Long - virtual dictator of Louisiana
- What was Huey Long's election campaign?
- Sharing of Wealth
- What 3 things exemplified Huey Long's "rule" of Louisiana?
- 1)Demanded 5% of income
2)Everyone had to vote and bring 5 people or they lost their jobs
3)Said he was going to run for president
- Why did Huey make alot of enemies, and what were the results of this?
- Stepped on people; assassinated
- *What were the 3 goals (3 R's) of the Brain's Trust?
- Relief, Recovery, and Reform
- What was the goal of Reform legislation
- Create a fixed economy, no more depression
- What 3 pieces of Legislation were for "Reform"
- 1)Wealth Tax Act
3)Social Security Act
- Wealth Tax Act
- Raised income tax and corporate tax
- Wagner Act
- With unions on the rise; the gv't is pro-union
- Social Security Act
- Most important New Deal law; old age retirement plan taken from Germany, made us a "National Welfare State"
- Who was pushing for the Social Security Act?
- Francis Perkins (female)
- Fair Labor Standards Act
- Minimum Wage - benefits unions and hurts the poor; no wage bargaining
- What 3 things marked the end of the New Deal?
- 1)Spending cut (unemployment up, taxes up, economy down)
3)WWII is on the way
- What was the Conservative Coalition with respect to the end of the New Deal?
- made it harder for the president to pass laws.
- What solved the depression?
- WWII? NO, it didn't end the depression, it killed unemployment.
- When did Wilson convince the US to join the League of Nations?
- Washington Conference
- Naval disarmament to the point of destroying some ships, "Open Door Agreement"
- What was the US stance on foreign policy in the 1920's?
- Pacifism, we had no standing army
- Kellogg-Briand Pact
- Signed by 62 nations, war was outlawed, and disputes had to be solved by negotiation.
- What was the result of the Kellogg-Briand Pact?
- Democratic nations where encouraged to disarm and isolate.
- In 1931 Japan was going through a huge depression and the military came to power, the result...
- was the attack on Manchuria for food and resources.
- What happened when China appealed to the League and then the US for help?
- League didn't respond, US was too far away with no army, in a depression, and isolationist
- What was the US response to Japan attacking China?
- Stimson Doctrine
- *Stimson Doctrine
- If you attack another country and claim territory the US will not recognize it. Speaking against the act but avoiding war; "moral condemnation"
- What 3 totalitarian regimes came about as a result of WWI?
- USSR, Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany
- USSR post WWI
- Communist "class struggle"- Stalin (Man of Steel)
- Fascist Italy
- Nazi Germany
- "struggle of the races" Aryans-> Slavs-> Jews
- What's Lebenscraum
- Hitler's plan to bust out of Germany to gain food and resources, eventually taking out Russia, 2/3 would be killed, the rest would be slaves
- What are the 3 parts of the Neutrality acts?
- 1)American companies cannot sell to nations at war
2)American banks can't loan money to same
3)American's can't travel on ships owned by same
- Hitler took Austria with
- no effect from Froance or Britain
- Munich Conference
- England and France met to negotiate with Hitler and ended up giving him part of Czechoslavakia
- Results of the Munich Conference
- Hitler was appeased and believed he could get away with anything -> finished taking Czech
- When Hitler went after the previously German piece of Poland...
- Stalin threatened to join France and England; later agreed to work w/ Germany
- Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Act
- permanent friendship btwn Stalin and Germany; Stalin gets the Baltic states and 1/2 of Poland
- Germany attacks Poland
- Poland falls with help from Russia
- Results of Germany's attack on Poland
- France and England declare war on Germany
- In 1939, FDR asks for a revision to the Neutrality Act to do what?
- "cash and carry" - we make stuff for the allies, they come get it, and pay with gold
- Summer 1940 Hitler attacks
- France, takes Paris, and the country falls in 6 wks
- What nation suffered the most casualties?
- What nations broke Germany?
- Russia, England, US
- lightning war; offense -> mobility, win quickly
- what technologies were used in the blitzkrieg?
- tank, aircraft, and radio (most important)
- Prime Minister of Britain
- 1940 FDR did what 2 things?
- Increased the military, passed the Selective Service Act
- Selective Service Act
- first peacetime draft (passed by 2 votes), "Fortress America"
- FDR was the first president to
- run for a 3rd term
- Lend Lease Act in 1941
- Lent equipment to England to fight Germany
- Germany attacks USSR
- Operation Barbarosa - failure
- USS Greer
- FDR declared "shoot on sight," "armed neutrality"
- Arsenal of Democracy
- Detroit, Michigan; automotive factories -> armaments
- Pearl Harbor Date
- Dec 7 1941
- Dates of WWII
- *What 3 countries was WWII fought in?
- Germany, Japan, and Italy
- Who planned the attack on Pearl Harbor
- What did FDR refer to WWII as?
- the survival war
- US Military composed of
- 15 million men (more were wanted, pres said no)
- Women's Army Corps
- worked very well, by the end of the war, 200,000 were involved
- Office of Price Administration
- rationing of food, and gasoline (to save rubber)
- 3 OPA classes
- C - unlimited (public service, doctors, etc.)
B - truckers and farmers
A - commoners (3 gal/wk)
- FDR coined the phrase
- "the war of smokestacks"
- Despite low German expectations
- the US produced way more war weapons than all the axis powers
- info, facts and mistakes from past battles, include interviews of captured generals, etc.
- Marshal Kessler
- interviewed for a greenbook; US greatest asset? production companies
- WWII was a war of
- Turning point in WWI
- Battle of Stalingrad
- Battle of Stalingrad
- Generals urged Hitler to attack Moscow, but he went after oil instead; last great blitzkrieg (fail), 6th army surrounded
- US influence in Europe (3 things)
- 1)Defeat the Uboats (read german mail)
- Second Fronts
- Invade France (Nazi ruled) from Britain, Invaded N Africa, and Italy (Mussolini overthrown)
- Air Bombing Campaigns had what results
- more civilian casualties than soldier
- terror bombing
- done by the british to germany after heavy plane casualties, strengthened german resolve
- daylight bombing
- US upon germany- attacked plane factories (inefficient), switched to oil industry
- US forces landed on france and Germans failed
- FDR proclaimed "unconditional surrender" when
- it was suspected that stalin was double-dealing the US
- VE Day
- Victory over Hitler
- Pacific war was
- the greatest naval battle ever
- Yamato was to
- take islands and supplies from the US
- For Yamato to succeed
- 1)Hitler had to win WWII
2)Japan had to destroy US aircraft carriers
- Turning point of the Pacific War
- Battle of Midway- Japan tried to ambush us (we were reading their mail), and we ambushed them
- What broke the japanese code
- US influences in the pacific (4 things)
- 1)Island Hopping campaigns (beat Jap)
2)Battles of Attrition (Jap couldn't afford)
3)Silent Victory (US subs- decisive)
4)Air Bombing- cities
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