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Glossary of Test 3 Ron Wright HIST 1302

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What were two effects of the prosperity of the 1920's?
Buying sprees of new technology and mass advertising
The mass advertising in the 1920's was aimed mostly towards who? and what were they trying to market?
Advertised to women promoting appliances (don't be a slave to your household mentality)
* 4 Causes of the Great Depression - why we go from economic prosperity to a collapse.
1)Underconsumption
2)"Weak Link"
3)Weakened economy b/c of WWI
4)National Gv't


What does underconsumption mean relating to its part in causing the Great Depression?
There were too many goods on the market - not enough people to buy them
What was the "weak link" in regards to the causes of the Great Depression?
The 40% of the US population that were farmers. They were already in a depression.
What was the national governments role in causing the Great Depression?
Tariffs were raised to protect American goods
What was the result of raised import tariffs?
Trade wars and the decline of world trade to 55%.
*What is the vicious cycle of a depression?
1)Businesses cut production
2)Cut wages/Unemployment goes up
3)Public cuts back spending (return to 1)

What 3 things did Herbert Hoover do during his administration to try and right the depression?
1)Reconstruction Finance Corporation
2)Taxes increased
3)Raised Tariff

What was Herbert Hoover's Reconstruction Finance Corporation and was it a success?
It made loans to businesses and banks; failure
Why did Herbert Hoover increase taxes during the US' depression, and did it succeed?
Tried to balance deficit spending; failure
Hoover was very conservative when it came to helping the US population via what?
welfare for the poor
Hoover became what sort of representative for the Great Depression?
the scapegoat
People living during the Great Depression referred to it as what and what was the % of typical US wealth?
Hard Times; 50
*What was the unemployment rate during the Great Depression?
25%
What disease most heavily effected men in their 30's and 40's during the "Hard Times?"
Depression Sickness
What was the irony of food production during the Great Depression?
Too much food was produced, but the urbaners couldn't buy it.
During what years was the Great Depression?
1929-1940
What was the average wage during the Great Depression and what was the typical wage cut?
$16/wk; 40%
What was the first thing sold by households to try and reduce spending/make money?
telephone
What were the effects on the birthrate, suicide rate, and major crime rate during the Great Depression?
Birth down; Suicide up; Crime down - people helped each other
Who ran in the 1932 election and what was their campaign?
Hoover-Rep: no welfare or direct payments!
FDRoosevelt-Dem: was a pragmatist, experimentation
What was the name of Roosevelt's plan to fix the US during the depression?
The New Deal
What was the "Brain's Trust?"
the idea men behind the New Deal
In what 3 ways was relief provided to Americans via the New Deal?
welfare, FERA, and CCC (both organizations disbanded in 1941)
What was FERA?
Federal Emergency Relief Administration
What was the CCC?
Civilian Conservation Core - participants had to finish high school or learn a trade
What 4 things were done under the recovery goal of the New Deal?
1)AAA created
2)City people taxed
3)Forced wealth transfer
4)WPA set up


What was the AAA and what did it do?
Agricultural Adjustment Act- for farmers only; farmers were paid NOT to produce goods (25% less)
What was the WPA and what was it supposed to accomplish?
Works Progress Administration - for Urban unemployed; "pump priming" via public works jobs
WPA was mocked with what name because of what occurrences?
"We Poke Along"; boondoggling- gv't paying for silly things (ditch story)
What issues were faced by Roosevelt with the 1935 election?
unemployment at 17%, unhappy conservatives "Raw Deal," and unhappy liberals/radicals "the No Deal" wanted more gv't aid
Who ran against Roosevelt in the 1935 elections?
"Kingfish" Huey Long - virtual dictator of Louisiana
What was Huey Long's election campaign?
Sharing of Wealth
What 3 things exemplified Huey Long's "rule" of Louisiana?
1)Demanded 5% of income
2)Everyone had to vote and bring 5 people or they lost their jobs
3)Said he was going to run for president

Why did Huey make alot of enemies, and what were the results of this?
Stepped on people; assassinated
*What were the 3 goals (3 R's) of the Brain's Trust?
Relief, Recovery, and Reform
What was the goal of Reform legislation
Create a fixed economy, no more depression
What 3 pieces of Legislation were for "Reform"
1)Wealth Tax Act
2)Wagner Act
3)Social Security Act

Wealth Tax Act
Raised income tax and corporate tax
Wagner Act
With unions on the rise; the gv't is pro-union
Social Security Act
Most important New Deal law; old age retirement plan taken from Germany, made us a "National Welfare State"
Who was pushing for the Social Security Act?
Francis Perkins (female)
Fair Labor Standards Act
Minimum Wage - benefits unions and hurts the poor; no wage bargaining
What 3 things marked the end of the New Deal?
1)Spending cut (unemployment up, taxes up, economy down)
2)Conservative Coalition
3)WWII is on the way

What was the Conservative Coalition with respect to the end of the New Deal?
made it harder for the president to pass laws.
What solved the depression?
WWII? NO, it didn't end the depression, it killed unemployment.
When did Wilson convince the US to join the League of Nations?
Never
Washington Conference
Naval disarmament to the point of destroying some ships, "Open Door Agreement"
What was the US stance on foreign policy in the 1920's?
Pacifism, we had no standing army
Kellogg-Briand Pact
Signed by 62 nations, war was outlawed, and disputes had to be solved by negotiation.
What was the result of the Kellogg-Briand Pact?
Democratic nations where encouraged to disarm and isolate.
In 1931 Japan was going through a huge depression and the military came to power, the result...
was the attack on Manchuria for food and resources.
What happened when China appealed to the League and then the US for help?
League didn't respond, US was too far away with no army, in a depression, and isolationist
What was the US response to Japan attacking China?
Stimson Doctrine
*Stimson Doctrine
If you attack another country and claim territory the US will not recognize it. Speaking against the act but avoiding war; "moral condemnation"
What 3 totalitarian regimes came about as a result of WWI?
USSR, Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany
USSR post WWI
Communist "class struggle"- Stalin (Man of Steel)
Fascist Italy
Mussolini
Nazi Germany
"struggle of the races" Aryans-> Slavs-> Jews
Lebenscraum
What's Lebenscraum
Hitler's plan to bust out of Germany to gain food and resources, eventually taking out Russia, 2/3 would be killed, the rest would be slaves
What are the 3 parts of the Neutrality acts?
1)American companies cannot sell to nations at war
2)American banks can't loan money to same
3)American's can't travel on ships owned by same

Hitler took Austria with
no effect from Froance or Britain
Munich Conference
England and France met to negotiate with Hitler and ended up giving him part of Czechoslavakia
Results of the Munich Conference
Hitler was appeased and believed he could get away with anything -> finished taking Czech
When Hitler went after the previously German piece of Poland...
Stalin threatened to join France and England; later agreed to work w/ Germany
Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Act
permanent friendship btwn Stalin and Germany; Stalin gets the Baltic states and 1/2 of Poland
Germany attacks Poland
Poland falls with help from Russia
Results of Germany's attack on Poland
France and England declare war on Germany
In 1939, FDR asks for a revision to the Neutrality Act to do what?
"cash and carry" - we make stuff for the allies, they come get it, and pay with gold
Summer 1940 Hitler attacks
France, takes Paris, and the country falls in 6 wks
What nation suffered the most casualties?
USSR
What nations broke Germany?
Russia, England, US
blitzkrieg
lightning war; offense -> mobility, win quickly
what technologies were used in the blitzkrieg?
tank, aircraft, and radio (most important)
Churchill
Prime Minister of Britain
1940 FDR did what 2 things?
Increased the military, passed the Selective Service Act
Selective Service Act
first peacetime draft (passed by 2 votes), "Fortress America"
FDR was the first president to
run for a 3rd term
Lend Lease Act in 1941
Lent equipment to England to fight Germany
Germany attacks USSR
Operation Barbarosa - failure
USS Greer
FDR declared "shoot on sight," "armed neutrality"
Arsenal of Democracy
Detroit, Michigan; automotive factories -> armaments
Pearl Harbor Date
Dec 7 1941
Dates of WWII
1939-1945
*What 3 countries was WWII fought in?
Germany, Japan, and Italy
Who planned the attack on Pearl Harbor
Yamamoto
What did FDR refer to WWII as?
the survival war
US Military composed of
15 million men (more were wanted, pres said no)
Women's Army Corps
worked very well, by the end of the war, 200,000 were involved
Office of Price Administration
rationing of food, and gasoline (to save rubber)
3 OPA classes
C - unlimited (public service, doctors, etc.)
B - truckers and farmers
A - commoners (3 gal/wk)

FDR coined the phrase
"the war of smokestacks"
Despite low German expectations
the US produced way more war weapons than all the axis powers
Greenbooks
info, facts and mistakes from past battles, include interviews of captured generals, etc.
Marshal Kessler
interviewed for a greenbook; US greatest asset? production companies
WWII was a war of
OIL
Turning point in WWI
Battle of Stalingrad
Battle of Stalingrad
Generals urged Hitler to attack Moscow, but he went after oil instead; last great blitzkrieg (fail), 6th army surrounded
US influence in Europe (3 things)
1)Defeat the Uboats (read german mail)
2)Lend-Lease
3)"Second Fronts"

Second Fronts
Invade France (Nazi ruled) from Britain, Invaded N Africa, and Italy (Mussolini overthrown)
Air Bombing Campaigns had what results
more civilian casualties than soldier
terror bombing
done by the british to germany after heavy plane casualties, strengthened german resolve
daylight bombing
US upon germany- attacked plane factories (inefficient), switched to oil industry
D-Day
US forces landed on france and Germans failed
FDR proclaimed "unconditional surrender" when
it was suspected that stalin was double-dealing the US
VE Day
Victory over Hitler
Pacific war was
the greatest naval battle ever
Yamato was to
take islands and supplies from the US
For Yamato to succeed
1)Hitler had to win WWII
2)Japan had to destroy US aircraft carriers
Turning point of the Pacific War
Battle of Midway- Japan tried to ambush us (we were reading their mail), and we ambushed them
What broke the japanese code
"magic"
US influences in the pacific (4 things)
1)Island Hopping campaigns (beat Jap)
2)Battles of Attrition (Jap couldn't afford)
3)Silent Victory (US subs- decisive)
4)Air Bombing- cities


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