Glossary of Strings Orchestration
Created by musichistsucks
- Tuning of the Four Violin Strings
- G D A E
- Tuning of the Four Viola Strings
- C G D A
- Tuning of the Four Cello Strings
- C G D A
- Tuning of the Four Double Bass Strings
- (C) E A D G
- non div.
- Players perform double/triple/quadruple stops.
- Right player on top, left player on bottom.
- da leggii
- Divide by stand.
- la meta
- Only players on the right side of the stand should play (the other half should not).
- All play.
- senza vibrato
- Without vibrato.
- sur Sol
- To be played on one string.
- portamento vs. glissando
- Portamento is a minimal slide, glissando is a slide at full volume.
- fingered glissando
- Written-out glissando -- every pitch is notated. Sounds like a blurred glissando.
- Non legato
- No slurs.
- One note per bow used, clearly articulated. Played in the middle of the bow.
- al tallone
- Played at the frog.
- Slightly separated notes as the bow is drawn across the string. Notated by dashes.
- Separate Bow Staccato
- Notes are played separated and with separate bows for each note.
- Slurred Staccato
- Separation of a series of short notes on one bow.
- Fast, well-articulated, heavy, separate stroke, resembling a sforzando.
- Conscious Spiccato
- In a slow or moderate tempo, the bow bounces lightly off the strings.
- Spontaneous Spiccato
- At a fast tempo, the bow bounces off the strings.
- Slurred Spiccato
- The bow bounces of the string, causing notes to be played in a single bow.
- The upper third of the bow is thrown on the string so that it will bounce, producing rapid pitches.
- A natural bounced arpeggio at a fast tempo.
- Executed by holding down the string of the pitch printed in the score with the appropriate finger and playing and releasing the next higher note with the adjacent upper finger as rapidly as possible for the entire value of the printed note.
- Bowed Tremolo
- A single pitch repeated as often as possible during the length of the written note.
- Fingered Tremolo
- An interval of a second or larger is quickly repeated.
- Sul tasto
Sur la touche
- Bow played on fingerboard, producing a soft and hazy tone.
- Sul ponticello
- Playing very near the bridge, producing a metallic, eerie sound. Usually combined with tremolo.
- Col legno tratto
Avec le bois
- Wooden stick dragged across string, creating a wispy sound.
In modo ordinado
- Resume normal bowing.
- Pizzicato, pizz.
- Plucking of the strings with the fingers.
- Resume playing with the bow after pizzicato.
- Left-hand Pizzicato
- When a cross (+) appears above a note, the string is plucked with one of the fingers of the left hands. Often, these are open strings.
- Snap Pizzicato
- Snapping the string against the fingerboard.
- Con sordino
- A mute is placed on the bridge to suppress harmonics.
- Senza sordino
- Take the mute off.
- Open strings altered in pitch.
- Back to original tuning.
- Natural Harmonics
- Pitches produced by touching a string lightly at various points called nodes. Harmonics/partials result.
- Touch Fourth Harmonics
- Pitch produced is two octaves above stopped note.
- Strike the tailpiece with the wood of the bow.
- Touch Minor Third Harmonics
- Pitch produced is two octaves and a fifth above the stopped note.
- Violin: G3 to B7
Viola: C3 to B6
Cello: C2 to E6
Bass: C1/E1 to G4
- Touch Major Third Harmonics
- Pitch produced is two octaves and a major third above the stopped note.
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