## Glossary of Statistics- School Counseling

Created by erikasalls

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- Independent Variables
- Treatment

- Dependent
- Whats measured

The outcome

Depends on treatment(independent)

- Hypothesis
- educated guess

- null hypothesis
- a hypothesis of no difference

- Sampling methods
- random

stratified

systematic

cluster

purposive

convenience

snowball

multistage

- Random sampling
- best to use

- stratified sampling
- arranged in some way (alphabetical or by number)

- cluster sampling
- Take by cluster

ex. classroom, or every 5th case ect.

- purposive sampling
- they have a purpose for the study

- convenience sampling
- convenient to use them

- snowball sampling
- get one and then they tell someone else who tells someone else and so on

- multistage sampling
- large areas targeted then smaller areas randomly

- then in that large sample, they randomly seclect a smaller area

- Sample size
- larger the sample size, less sample error

- face validity
- on the surface, does it appear to measure what it is supposed to measure- to those taking the instrument

Ex: students leaving the exam were asked if they felt the exam covered what they expected it to cover

- Factual
- does it elicit truthful responses

ex: I developed an inventory that measures how ofeten sutdents met with faculty to prepare for the Comprehensive Exam. I piloted it on my own class and found that students reported meeting with me three times more often that my records indicated

- Experimental Approaches
- Cause and Effect

- true experiment

-group experiment

-time series

- quasi-experimental or pre experimental

- Research Designs: Time series
- Time series Individual

A B

A B A B

Multiple baseline

individual behavior over time

- Posttest only
- Experimental group Treat PT

control group Control PT

-weakness, no pretest so you do not know where they began

- One group pretest posttest
- Experimental group PT TR PT

-no control group, nothing to compare it too

- Factorial/independent groups comparison
- Factor 1

x y

a

Factor 2

b

This factor compared to that factor

- Mixed design

Pretest Posttest Control group - EXP Group PreT Tr PT

Control Group PreT control PT

- Soloman four group
- Perfect design

PreT exp Pret TR PT

Pret control PreT Cont. PT

Untest exp TR PT

untest cont Cont PT

- Wait control
- Immediate PreT T Post1 W Post2

Wait PreT W Post1 T Post2

pretest everybody

- Risks to internal validity
- Mortality

history

maturation

practice effects

experimentor bias

demand social accept.

rater/observer

istrumentation

regression to mean

- Risks: History
- history of peoples roles

ex: In a nursing home and people are answering depression survey after nurse died. Obviously going to feel depressed because nurse took after them.

- Risks: maturation
- change over time

ex: drives 16-25 do drivers ed program for 16 years old and test at 25, is it because of program or maturation?

- Placebo
- experimental only (fake)

- Hawthorne
- are they changing because they know they are being studied

- John Henry
- control group works harder-knows they are being studied

- experimenter bias
- start doing what they think the experimenter wants

- deman/social acceptability
- respond most acceptable way

- instrumentation
- create own instrument to test

- regression toward the mean
- if you give a test and get big spread in scores, next time you give test mean will be almost identical but will be closer to the mean causing less variance

- Risk to external validity
- can we generalize the results to the population?

-population sample differences

-artificiality of research

- take participants out of normal environment and put in room with a 2 way mirror

- Range
- high-low = range

- variance
- mean of the squared deviations from the mean of the distribution

- standard deviation
- the square root of the mean of the squared deviations from the mean of a distribution reflects the typical deviation from the mean

- Nominal
- identity

- ordinal
- have rank

- interval
- no zero point

- ratio
- has absolute zero

- Frequency
- how many scores fall in that interval

- percent
- take frequency/ # of scores x 100= %

- histograms
- bar charts

- graphs the frequency

-compares something

- line graphs
- graphs cum. frequency

- Pie Chart
- graphs percentages

parts of a whole

- Measures of central tendencies
- mean

median

mode

- Measures of variability
- range

- deviations
- distance from mean for each score

- Linear regression
- predicting one variable over another

- factor analysis
- groups questions together to measure something

- Parametric
- Assumes normal curve:

-Ttest

-anova (f test)

- F test
- compares 3 or more means

- Nonparametric
- does not assume normal curve

-chi square

- Type 1 Error
- rejecting the null, accepting the alternative

-there is a difference, when in reality no difference

- Type 2 error
- Retain the null, reject the alternative

-saying there is no difference when really there is

- Lower p value then..
- more likely to commit type 2 error, less likely to commit type 1

- increase sample size...
- will decrease type 2 error

- chi square
- nominal data

compares two or more sets of data

assumes random sampling

no cell is less than 5 cases

- Pearson R
- -straight line relationship

-both variables are at least interval

-random sampling

-normal distribution in sample under 30

-1.00 Perfect neg

-.60 strong neg

-.30 mod neg

-.10 weak neg

0 no correlation

.10 weak pos

.30 moderate pos

.60 strong pos

1.00 perfet pos

- Factors that affect reliability
- Test length

objectivity of scoring

variability of groups

difficulty of items

- Risks to test validity
- History: influence outside events

maturation: normal changes

testing threat: pretesting influences post testing

instrumentation: alternate forms may not be equivalent

statistical regression interaction: combination of the above

- Research Design
- -General idea: know more about the research

-review the literature: go out and review what we already know

-measurement: subjects, who is it were studying

-subjects: who is it were studying

-variables: what are we studying

-group assignment: random, non random

-analysis plans: analyze data

gathering data: experiment

-Treatment & Controls:

-Data Analysis: analyze data that was collected

-report results

-conclusions

- Ethics for Research
- Subjects rights:

-No harm to subjects

-right to privacy

-data confidential

-purpose

informed consent

-purpose for study

-what is being done

-potential benefit

-potential harm

-right to withdraw

-debriefing/remediation