Glossary of Sta 2023
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 What is stats?
 the art and science of making sense of data
 NAME
this is the art and science of making sense of data  stats
 In stats we use (1) and (2)to extract info from data
 methods and procedures
 NAME
in this we use differ methods and procedures to extract info from data  stats
 In stats we use differ methods and procedures to extract (1)
 info from data
 What is the goal of stats?
 to make sense of data
 NAME
the goal of this is to make sense of data  stats
 T or F
a list of data is a peice of info  false
 is a list of data a peice of info?
 no
 What is the population?
 refers to all the observations under a specfic study
 NAME
this refers to all the observations under a specfic study  population
 CASE: a study on all traffic accidents in gainvsille
what is the population?  all traffic accidents in gainvislle
 What is a sample?
 refers to part of the population
 NAME
this refers to part of the population  sample
 in stats we make (1) about pop using sample info based on incomplte info
 descions or inflenece
 In stats, we make infelence decision about pop using (2) based (3)
 (2)sample info incomplete info
 What are (2) types of data?
 categorical data (2)numerical data
 NAME
there are (2) types categorical and numerical  data
 What is numerical data?
 inolves numbers
 Catergorical data can also be called (1)
 qualatitave data
 (1)can also be called qualiatitave data
 catergorical
 numerical data can also be called (1)
 quantative data
 (1)data can also be called quantative data
 numerical
 NAME TYPE OF DATA IF NUMERICAL NAME WHAT TYPE IT IS
gender  catergorical
 NAME TYPE OF DATA IF NUMERICAL NAME WHAT TYPE IT IS
types of relgions  catergorical
 NAME TYPE OF DATA IF NUMERICAL NAME WHAT TYPE IT IS
number grades  numerical and continous bc you can get a grade of 89.9 percent
 NAME TYPE OF DATA
letter grades  catergorical
 NAME TYPE OF DATA IF NUMERICAL NAME WHAT TYPE IT IS
lists of people's incomes  numerical and continous bc income can be listed as a decimil ex 33,000.34 per yr
 What are (2) types of numerical variables?
 (1)descrete (2)continous
 NAME
this has (2) types of variables:descrete and continous  numerical
 What are descrete variables?
 are countable values
 NAME
these include countable values  descrete variables
 What are countinous variables?
 include fractions and decimils and u can not count them
 NAME
these include fractionsa and decimils and u can not count them  countinous variables
 discrete variable are (1)
 random variables
 (1)variable are random variables
 discrete
 NAME TYPE OF DATA IF NUMERICAL NAME WHAT TYPE IT IS
# of children born in a hostpal  numerical and descrete data
 NAME TYPE OF DATA IF NUMERICAL NAME WHAT TYPE IT IS
number of traffic accidents in a day  numerical and descrete
 NAME TYPE OF DATA IF NUMERICAL NAME WHAT TYPE IT IS
number of bad checks written at walmart today  numerical and descrete data
 NAME TYPE OF DATA IF NUMERICAL NAME WHAT TYPE IT IS
a list of people's incomes  continous
 NAME TYPE OF DATA IF NUMERICAL NAME WHAT TYPE IT IS
a list of people's hieghts  continous
 NAME TYPE OF DATA IF NUMERICAL NAME WHAT TYPE IT IS
a list of grades (ex A,B,C,D, and F)  catergorical
 NAME TYPE OF DATA IF NUMERICAL NAME WHAT TYPE IT IS
here is a list of people's grades.
70, 70, 88, 99, 100  numerical and continous
 How does stats use data? (3)
 by collecting data (2)analzying it (3)interpeting the data;s results (making descions)
 Make a pie chart using the following data
A's= 60
B's= 70
Cs= 50
Ds=20
Fs= 10  A=30%
B=35%
C=20%
D=10%
F=5%
 What is the frequency?
 is the # of times a observation ocurs
 NAME
is the # of times a observation occurs  frequency
 If this was a bar chart fill in the blanks
!
!
!
!
(a) !
(b)  a= frequency (y axis)
b= catergories or observations
 Click on the link and answer the following questions
http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v675/rrmagure/Statschart1.jpg
a)what is the % of rain?
b)what precent of did the forcast predict it would rain?
c)Compare the wea  (a)93%
(b)24.7%
(c)80.8% ((27 + 268)/365)
(d)268/275= 97%
 use the following
10 2 8
10 7 25
4 15 8
6 5 5
12 19 10
10 20 10
8 15 17
5 5 8
5 6
FIND the interveal (2)frequency of each (3)relative frequency (4)cummulative frequency  see notes
 Why would you use cummulative frequency?
 to show you information about the data
 What are some of the differ ways that catergorical data can be graphed? (5)
 (1)frequency table (2)distributio (3)bar chart (4)pie chart (5)contingency table
 What is marginal distribution?
 refesr to the distrubtion of either variable alone
 NAME
this refers to the distrubtion of either varaible alone  conditioned distribution
 What is conditional distrubtion?
 refers to the distrubtion of a variable restricting the Who only considering a smaller group of indivudals
 NAME
this refers to the distrubtion of a varaible restricting the WHO only considering a smaller group of indivudals  conditional distrubtions
 What is the purpose of distribution of variables? (2)
 (1)to show the possible values of the variable end (2)the relative frequency of each value
 NAME
the purpose of this is to show the possible values of the variable end and the relative frequency of each value  distribution of variables
 How do u find the relative frequency?
 divde the frequency by the total and multiple by a 100
 NAME
to find this you whould divide the frequency by the total and multiple by a 100  the relative frequency
 What is the purpose of a cummulative frequency?
 to show u how the data can saysomething such as 70% of student at Santa Fe travel btwn 9.6 and 13.5 miles to get to school
 How do u find the midpoint?
 (x1+x2/2, y1+y2/2)
 NAME
is the foundation of stats  the histogram
 the histogram is the (1)of stats
 the foundation
 What is frequenstastics?
 is the based on using a histogram
 NAME
this is based on using a histogram  frequenstastics
 NAME
this means that there is more than two modes  polymodel
 What is the simpson paradox?
 refers to averaging differ groups which my result in a contradiction
 NAME
this refers to averaging differ groups which my result in contradictions  simpson paradox
 Using the data, make a stem and leaf plot
3.72
3.75
3.79
3.81
3.82
3.61
3.62  Stem Leaf
3.6 1 2
3.7 2 5 9
3.8 1 2
 What does increments does the stem and leaf plot have to be in?
 1 not zero
 What are some things that the center or central tendency can be used to measure? (4)
 (1)mean (2)mode (3)median (4)med range
 What is the mean?
 the average of numbesr
 NAME
this refers to the average  mean
 What is the mode?
 refers to the most frequent occuring number
 NAME
this refers to the most frequent occuing number  mode
 What is the median?
 the middle number
 NAME
this refers to the middle number  median
 What is the mid range?
 the (highest + the lowest)/2
 −
What does X ?  the mean
 What is the symbol for the mean? (2)
 −
X or u
 What is the formula for finding

the X ?  ∑ X/ n
 What does the symbol ∑ stand for?
 the sum of a observation
 What does n stand for?
 number
 NAME
this represents the center of the data for a skewd graph  mediain
 What represents the center of the data?
 the mean
 The mean represents the (1)of the data
 center
 The mean is highly affected by the (1)
 extreme values
 NAME
this is highly affected by the exterme values  mean
 WEIGHT OF TURKEYS IN FL
17, 18, 20, 21, 17, 25, 12, 17, and 22
1)what is the mode?
2)and what can you conclude based on the mode?  (1)17 (2)that most turkeys in Fl wieght 17 pds
 75, 80, 90, 65, 100, 95, 82
1)Find the median  NOTE: put in order first
1)82
 110, 100, 90, 150, 120, 200, 90, 95
1) what is the mediain?  NOTE: put data in order first
median= 110 + 120/2 = 115 lbs
 What function in the graphing calculator can u use to find the average, the lower and upper quartiles, the max, and the mean?
 1var stats
 What does Q1 represnt?
 the first 25 percent of the data
 NAME
this represnets the first 25 percent of the data  Q1
 What does Q3 represent?
 75% of the data
 NAME
this represents 75% of the data  Q3
 What is the 5 number summury in order that you use for the box plot? (5)
 (1)min (2)Q1 (3)median (4)Q3 (5)max
 Draw a basic box plot
Use labels  see notes
 Using Graph 8, tell what the labels represnt on the box plot?
 (a)outliners (b)min (c)Q1 (d)median (e)Q3 (f)max
 What is frequency table?
 records the total of category names
 What kind of Graph is graph 9 and what type of data does it display?
 a frequency table (2)categorical
 What kind of graph is a graph 10, and what kind of data does it have?
 (1)a relative frequency table (2)categorical data
 What is a relative frequency table?
 records the total category names of data in percents
 NAME
this records the total category names of data in precents  relative frequency table
 What kind of graph is graph 11, and what kind of data does it have?
 (1)bar chart (2)categorical data
 What kind of data does the pie chart or graph 12, display?
 categorical data
 Using graph 14,
(1)What kind of graph is it? (2)what kind of data does is display?
(3) describe the distrubution  (1)contingency table (2)catergorical data
(3)marginal distribution
 Using graph 14,
(1)what is the type of graph?
(2)what kind of data is being displayed?
(3)What is the distribution?  (1)contingency table (2)categorical data (3)conditional distribution
 Using graph 15,
(10 what is the type of graph?
(2)what kind of data is being displayed?  (1)segmented bar chart (2)categorical data
 Using graph 16, find the marginal distrubution?
 see whole chart
 Using graph 16, find the conditional distribution of blood ?
 seperate each varaible on its own
 Use graph 17,
(1)what type of graph is it?
(2)what kind of data is it displaying?  (1)histogram (2)numerical
 Use graph 18,
(1)what kind of graph is it?
(2)what kind of data is being displayed?  (1)stem and leaf plot (2)numerical
 What does the shape of the distribution refer to? (4)
 (1)the mode (2)the distrubtion (wheteher skewd, symetric, or uniform) (3)outliners (4)gaps
 NAME
this refers to the mode, the distrubtion (whether skewed, symetric or uniform), outliners, and gaps  shape
 Use graph 19,
(1)what kind of graph is it?
(2)what kind of data is being displayed?  (1)time plot (2)numerical
 What kind of graphs can display numerical data? (4)
 (1)histogram (2)stem and leaf polt (3)dot plot (4)time plot
 What is the spread?
 refers to the disburtion of the numbers from start to end
 NAME
this refers to the distrubtion of the numbers from start to end  spread
 How do you find the IQR?
 is the Q3Q1
 What does IQR stand for?
 interquartile range
 For skewed data, it is better to report the (1)than the (2)of the data
 (1)median (2)mean
 NAME
the center is represented by this if the data is symmetric  average
 What is a census?
 is a sample of a whole entire population
 NAME
this is a sample of a whole entire population  census
 What is the greek letter for the
−
mean or y ?  u
 What does the greek letter u stand for?
 mu
 What is the u?
 the greek letter for the mean
 Using the data in your calculator L1, sketech a histogram
(1)what are the interverals?
(2)what are the students frequency's?
(3)What are the relative frequency?
(4)What are the cummulative frequency?  see section of notes for specfic answer
 Using the data in your calculator L1, sketech a histogram,
(1)What is the spread of the data?
(2)what is the shape of the data?
(2)what type of data is it?
NOTE u dont not need to give the outliners  (1)2 to 25 (2)distrubtionskewd to the right, mode=unimodal, gap=btwn 21.167 and 25 (2)numerical and discrete data
 How do u find the outliners? (2)
 (1)Q3+1.5IQR
(2)Q11.5IQR
 Using graph 20,
(1)what is a?
(2)what is b?  (a)y or frequency (2)catergories
 What are outliners?
 are observations which are differenet from the rest of the data
 NAME
these are observations that are differ from the rest of the data  outliners
 How do u find the IQR?
 Q3Q1
 What can u tell IQRis a large number?
 that the data is spread far out
 What can u tell if IQR is a smalll number?
 then the data is close together
 How do u find the outliners?
 (1)Q3+ 1.5(IQR)
(2)Q11.5(IQR)
 If Q3=110 and Q1= 70
By hand tell if the outliners are 5, 10 ,and 150?  IQR=40
outliners= 170 and 10
thus, 200 and 10 are the outliners while 150 is not
 Use the data in L1 of your calculator,
(1)what are the outliners?  they are 55, 60, 70
 The average income of a family is 45,000 and the σ=5.
By hand tell, what percent of have families have a income more than 45,000?  50%
 The average income of a family is 45,000 and the σ=5.
By hand answer the question
(1)What percent of families have a income btwn 40,000 and 50,000?  u+/σ = 45,000+/5,000
=40,000 btwn 50,000=68%
68%
 the area is equal to the (1) in normal distrubtion
 percent
 the (1)is equal to the percent in the normal distrubtion
 area
 The average income of a family is 45,000 and the σ=5.
By hand answer the question
(1)What is the percent of families that have a income more than 50,000?  68%/2 = 34%
50%34%=16%
 The average income of a family is 45,000 and the σ=5.
Using you calculator, answer the following question
(1) what are the percent of families that have a income btwn 37,00 and 49700?  lower= 37000
upper=49700
mean or u= 45,000
σ= 5,000
answer= less than 1 percent
 The average income of a family is 45,000 and the σ=5.
Using you calculator, answer the following question
(1)what are the percent of families have a income greater then 45,000?  lower= 45,000
upper= 100,000
mean or u=45,000
σ = 5,000
answer= 50%
 The average income of a family is 45,000 and the σ=5,000.
Using you calculator, answer the following question
(1)what are the percent of families have a income btwn 40,000 and 50,000?  lower= 40,000
upper=50,000
u= 45,000
σ = 5,000
answer= 68%
 The average income of a family is 45,000 and the σ=5,000.
Using you calculator, answer the following question
(1)what are the percent of families have a income more than 50,000?  lower= 50,000
upper=200,000
mean or u= 45,000
σ= 5,000
answer= 15%
 What is the mean of a standard normal?
 0
 The (1)of a standard nomral is 0
 mean
 What the s of a standard normal?
 1
 What is the s of a standard normal?
 1
 What does the z score represent?
 a random varaible
 NAME
this represents a random varaible  z score
 Using graph 29,
(1)what is the area from 1 to 1?  68%
 Using graph 29,
(1)what is the area from 2 to 2?  95%
 Using graph 29,
(1)what is the area from 3 to 3?  99.7%
 Using graph 29,
what is a observation that can be made?  that the proptional area does not chane but the mean and s does change
 How do u find the z score?
 z= xu/σ
 The average income of a family in gainsville is 45,000 and the σ is 5,000.
(1)By hand find the z score of a person who has a income of 45,000  z= xu/σ
45,00045,000/5,000 = 0
 The average income of a family in gainsville is 45,000 and the σ is 5,000.
(1)By hand find the z score of a person who has a income of $55,000?  z($55,000)
z=(xu)/σ
55,00045,000/5,000= 2
 The average income of a family in gainsville is 45,000 and the σ is 5,000.
Answer the following question by hand
(1)A person has a z score of 1, what was there income?  z=xu/σ
1=(x45,000)/5000
income= 50,0000
 The average income of a family in gainsville is 45,000 and the σ is 5,000.
By hand answer the following questions
(1)What is the z score for the people whose income fell btwn the range of 40,000 and 50,000?  z($40,000)
40,00045,000/5,000
z(50,000)
5045,000/5,000
z score = 1<x>1
 z= (xu)/σ
What is the x called?  row score
 v going up is (1)
 negative
 v going (1)is negative
 up
 V going down is (1)
 postive
 What is the differ btwn the postive and negative values of g and v? (2)
 (1)v going up is postive and v going down is  (2)while g going up is negative and v going down is postive
 What are the (2) frames of reference for a boat crossing a river?
 (1)shore (2)water
 What are (2) frames of reference for a airplane in a cross wind?
 (1)ground (2)air
 How can a reference frame move?
 either by translation or roatation
 the earth is a (1)and (2)frame
 roatating and transalating
 When does the earth rotate?
 every 24 hours
 Why can we feel the roating of a merry go round?
 bc a merry go round rotates faster than the earth
 What does vector r mean?
PB  it means vector r in postion relative to B
 What does vector r mean?
PA  it means vector r in postion relative to A
 vector r = (1)
PB   vector r
PB
  vector r= (1)
PB  vector r
PB
 vector r = (1)
PA   vector r
PA
  vector r = (1)
PA  vector r
PA
 Using graph M (notecard),
how would u find vector r ?
PA  vector r = r + r
PA PB BA
 Using graph M (notecard)
How would u find the vector v?
PA  vector v = v + v
PA PB BA
 Using graph M (notecard),
How would u find the vector r?
PB  vector r = r + r
PB PA AB
 Using graph M (note card),
how would u find the vector v?
PB  vector v = v + v
PB PA AB
 Using graph N (note card)
(1)what do does 1 and 2 represent?  (1)=θH
(2)=θC
 What does θC stand for?
 the course angle
 What does θH stand for?
 the heading angle
 What is the course of the boat?
 is the line of the surface of the earth
 What is the heading of the boat?
 is where the boat is headed to on shore
 Using graph N,
how would u find the vector v?
BS  vector v = v + v
BS BW WS
 Using graph N,
what are are the (1) and (2) represent?  (1)= θH
(2)=θC
 Draw sketches of the two types of model problems of boats that have right angles
 See Graph G (answer)
 Using graph P (notecard)
how would u find vector v?
PG  vector v = v + v
PG PA AG
 T or F
a bar chart can be skewed to the left  false
 Can a bar chart be skewed to the left or right?
 no bc it is catergorical
 T or F
catergorical data can be skewed to the left or right  false
 Can catergorical data be skewed to the left or right?
 no
 What type of data is can be skewed to left or right?
 numerical
 u= 50,000
σ =6,000
What is the mileage of the lower 3%?  (1)first draw a pic of what u want
(2)use InvNorm in calculator
area=.03
u=50,000
σ =6,000
(3)the answer is 38715.238
 When using the InvNorm funciton in the calculator, what/how do u put the data in the calculator? (3)
 in this order
(1)area
(2)u
(3)σ
 u= 50,000
σ =6,000
What is the mileage of the lower 1%?  (1)draw a pic of what u want to find
(2)area=.01, u=50,000, u= 50,000, σ= 6,000
(3)the answer is
 u= 50,000
σ =6,000
What is the mileage of the top 3 %?  (1)draw a pic of what u want to find
(2)area= 97%, u=50,000 and σ=6,000
(3)the answer = 61284.76
 u=80
σ=5
What is the the grade of the lower 16% of the class?  (1)draw a pic of what u want to find
(2)use InvNorm function
(3)area=.16, u=80, and σ=5
(4)the answer is 75.02
 For a normal table,
supose u=80 and σ=5?
P(74<x>86)
Find the percent of students with the above scores?  (1)use the number 2 selection on ure calculator
(2)lower=74
upper=86
u= 80
σ=5
(3)answer is 77%
 Suspose the area under a normal curve is .23, x=77, and σ=8? find u
 (1)draw a pic of what u whant to find
(2)use inverse norm on a calculator to find z to find u
area=0.23
u=0
σ=1
(u=0 and σ=1 bc a normal curve σ=1 and u is 0)
(3)Next plus the z score into the formula to find the u of the normal curve
(4)z=(xu)/σ
77u=0.7468
77+5.9=u
u=82.9
 What is the inverse norm used for?
 to find the range of data that is a certain area
 What is the normalcdf in the calculator used for?
 is used to find the percent of data for certain range of data
 NAME
this calculator function is used for find the range of data for a certain area  inverse norm function
 NAME
This calculator function is used to find the percent of data for certain range of data  normal cdf function
 NAME
this calculator function is used to find the range of data that a certain percent falls into  inverse norm function