Glossary of Sommelier Certification Test
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- State the major wine regions of California.
- North Coast
- Define AVA.
- American Viticultural Area
- State what agency regulates the US wine industry.
- Department of Treasury Specifically the Tax and Trade Bureau or TTB. Prior to 2002 though it was under the BATF (Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms)
- State the USA required percentage for varietal and AVA labeling.
- Varietal = 75% AVA = 85%
- Name 3 AVAs in Napa County.
- Calistoga (pending)
Wild Horse Valley
- Name 3 AVAs in Sonoma County.
- Northern Sonoma
Dry Creek Valley
Russian River Valley
- Define Meritage. (Pronounced like Heritage with an M)
- A California Bordeaux blend. Though many that qualify don't use the term because they don't pay the fees required. (e.g. Opus One is called simply red wine)
- State a synonym for Fume Blanc.
- Sauvignon Blanc
- State the origin of Zinfandel.
- Most likely Croatia.
It is known as the following:
Pimitivo in Italy
Crljenak Kastelanski in Croatia
- Name the top 4 wine producing states in the USA.
- 1. California 2. Washington 3. New York 4. Oregon
- Name the 1st AVA.
- Augusta, Missouri
- Name 3 AVAs of Washington.
- Columbia Valley* Columbia Gorge* Horse Heaven Hills Red Mountain Walla Walla Valley* Yakima Valley Puget Sound * = Area that crosses into Oregon as well
- Name 3 AVAs of Oregon.
- Columbia Valley
Walla Walla Valley
Red Hill Douglas County
- State the % requirement for Varietal and AVA in Oregon.
- Varietal - 90%
AVA - 100%
One Exception is Cabernet Sauvignon - 75%
- Name 1 AVA of New York.
- Finger Lakes
Hudson River Region
North Fork of Long Island
The Hamptons, Long Island
- Name the state where winemaking started in the USA.
- New York State.
- Name 2 important wine regions of Canada.
- Niagara Peninsula
- Name the country where winemaking began on the American Continent.
- Name the region Casablanca is within and what wines the area is known for.
- Country: Chile
Grapes: It is known for whites from Sauvignon Blanc and Chardonnay
- Name the region Maipo is within and what wines the area is known for.
- Country: Chile
Region: Valle Central
Grapes: Mainly known for Cabernet Sauvignon
- State what is unique about the vines from Chile.
- Chile has never had phylloxera and as a result has ungrafted 100% vitis vinifera vines.
- Name the obscure Bordeaux varietal that is important in Chile.
- State the minimum labeling % for Varietal in Chile.
- 75% Same goes for Region Name and Vintage.
- Name the most important region of Argentina.
- Name the most important grape of Argentina.
- Name the most important grape of Uruguay.
- Name 2 wine regions on New Zealand's North Island.
- Name 2 wine regions on New Zealand's South Island.
- Name the most famous region for Sauvignon Blanc. (New Zealand)
- Name the up and coming region for Pinot Noir in New Zealand.
- State which island Hawkes Bay is on and what grapes it is known for.
- North Island (New Zealand)
Grapes: Chardonnay Cabernet Sauvignon Cab Blends
- State why red wine grapes do well in some of the areas traditionally thought to be too cool for reds(New Zealand Specifically)
- Many because of micro climates, although rain shadow and a lot of sunlight both add to the ability to grow red grapes.
- State what two grapes were crossed to create Pinotage.
- Pinot Noir X Cinsault
- State the minimum % for Appelation labeling in South Africa.
- State the meaning of Cultivar.
- Describe Vin de Constance.
- A sweet wine made from Muscat de Alexandria and Muscat de Frontignan It comes from Constantia from some of the oldest vineyards in South Africa.
- Expalin how KWV impacted South African wine quality.
- The KWV mandated prices and negatively affected the quality of the wines.
- State what event led to a boom for South African wines in the 1990s.
- The end of Apartheid.
- State what "WO" is an abbreviation for.
- Wine of Origin
- Name two WOs of the coastal region.
And the Wards:
- Where is Walker Bay and what grapes is it known for?
- South Africa It is known for Pinot Noir and Chardonnay.
- State the minimum percent for varietal labeling in Australia.
- State the signifigance of the grape order listed on Australian bottles.
- They are listed from highest percent to lowest by law.
- State the grape of Penfolds Grange.
- Name 3 Australian States.
- New South Whales
- Name the Australian Super-Zone.
- South-Eastern Australia
New South Whales
Part of Queensland
- Name Austalia's legal term for a wine region.
- G.I. or Geographical Indication
- State the local name for the soil of Coonawarra.
- Terra Rossa Soil or "Red Earth"
- Name a grape grown in both Cognac and Armagnac.
- Ugni Blanc Colombard Folle Blanche
- Name the best Cognac and Armagnac regions and why they are the best.
- Cognac: Grand Champagne, Petite Champagne and if its from both its called Grand Fine Champagne Armagnac: Bas Armagnac Best regions in both are the Chalkiest regions in their respective areas
- State the main labeling age terms for Cognac and Armagnac.
- 3 Star or VS : Very Special : min 3 years
5 Star or VSOP : Very Superiore Old Pale : Min 4 years
Napolean or XO : Extra Old : Min 5 years
- Name the best region of Calvados.
- Pays d'Auge
- State the main flavoring ingredient in Gin.
- Juniper Berries
- State the source of sugar for the best Tequila.
- The sap from the Blue Agave.
- State the minimum sugar level in a liqueur.
- State a bitter liqueur suitable as an apertif or a digestive.
- Campari, Pernod, Fernet Branca, Dubonnet, Jagermeister, Cynar, and Lillet.
- Describe how cigar sizes are stated.
- By Length and ring size. I.E. 5 1/2 inches by 50 ring 50 ring would be 50/64 of a 1/4 inch
- State the ingredients allowed in the Bavarian Purity Law.
- Malted Barley
- State the 2 main categories of beer.
- Ale: Made with top fermenting yeast
Lager: Made with bottom fermenting yeast
- Name 2 styles of beer within each of the 2 main beer categories.
- State the steps of beer production.
- Soak the barley in water until germination. Bake barley in kiln to stop germination. Yeast is added to cause fermentation creating alcohol and CO2. Hops is now added if bitter flavor is desired.
- Name the premium sake quality levels.
- Junmai-Sho: 30% polished
Ginjo-Sho: 40% polished
Daiginjo-Sho: 50% polished
- Define albemic.
- Pot Still.
- Name 2 scotch regions.
- Highlands, Lowlands, and Islay.
Islay is the strongest, and generally either Islay or Highlands is the best.
- Define Bourbon.
- Must be made from 51% or more corn. It is distelled in a pot still making it a distilled beer. Also it must be aged for 2 years in new american oak.
- Name an AOC for Rosé wine from Rhone or Provence.
- Best answer is Tavel, but the following do make rosés as well:
Gigondas, Vacqueyras, Cotes du Rhone, Cotes du Rhone Villages, Lirac, Rasteau, and Muscat de Beaumes de Venise
And these make rose in Provence:
cotes du provence
Les Beaux de Provence
- Name the Sub-Regions of Burgundy.
- Cote de Nuits
Cote de Beaune
Chablis(Though it is closer to champagne it is considered part of burgundy)
- Name the grape of Beaujolais.
- Name an AOC of the Loire similar to Sancerre.
- Name the best sub-region of Graves.
- Define Sur Lie.
- Sur Lie or "On the Lies" is aging the wine on the dead yeast to create a premiere texture.
- Name the grape of Sancerre.
- Sauvignon Blanc
- State the difference between Northern and Southern Rhone red wines.
Single grape allowed
(In some areas they do allow the addition of some white varietals)
Blend of any of 23 grapes including Grenache, Mourvedre, and Syrah.
- Name an AOC for red wines from the Southern Rhone.
Cotes du Rhone
Cotes du Rhone Villages
- Define Vin Jaune.
- Vin jaune (literally "yellow wine") is an unusual wine made in the Jura region of France. The wine is made from late harvest Savagnin grapes, an unusual local white variety. They are fermented slowly and then kept in small old oak casks. The casks are not topped up, unlike most wines, so an air gap appears above the wine due to evaporation. A film (flor) of yeast grows over the wine, protecting it partially from oxidation.
- Name the major white grape of Burgundy.
- Name the AOC of Coulee de Serrant and Roche Aux Moines.
- Savennieres - Which makes wines from Chenin Blanc
- State the rough geographic location of Jura and Savoie.
- The French Alps near the Swiss border. East of Burgundy.
- Name the AOC used when dry white wines are made in Sauternes.
- Bordeaux AOC
- Define "Selection de Grains Noble"
- Dessert wines from botrytis fruit.
- Name the grape of Condrieu.
- State what the 2nd word is in most Cote D'Or village names.
- The grand cru vineyard within the village. (Ex: Gevery-Chambertin and Puligny-Montrachet)
- State the difference between Crozes-Hermitage and Hermitage.
- Crozes-Hermitage contains flat land with clay soils. Hermitage contains lots of slopes and a more granite soil.
- Name the major red grape of Burgundy.
- Pinot Noir.
- Name the most famous AOC of the Maconais.
- Define Marl soil.
- A calcareous soil.
- Name the still wine regional AOC of Burgundy.
- Name the most famous AOC of the Cote Chalonnaise.
- Name the grape of Vouvray.
- Name 1 Cru in Beaujolais.
Cote de Brouilly
- State the main labeling difference between Alsace and the rest of France.
- In Alsace they label their wines by varietal whereas in the rest of France it is by a place name.
- State what is different about Corton and Musigny compared to the other Grand Cru of their respective districts.
- Corton is the only Grand Cru red wine in Cotes de Beaune which is normally known for whites.
Musigny is the only Grand Cru white wine in Cotes de Nuits which is usually known for reds.
- State the production difference for Beaujolais Nouveau.
- Carbonic Maceration
- Name an AOC of the Loire that produces red wines from pinot noir.
- Define kimmeridgian soil.
- A greyish limestone.
- Define "Negociant"
- A grape buyer. They buy grapes then produce wines.
- Name the four sub-regions of the Loire.
- Pays Nantais
- Name two AOCs of the Loire that produce red wines from cabernet franc.
- Define Terroir.
- Anything to do with a sense of place.
- State the AOCs of Alsace.
- Cremant de Alsace
Alsace Grand Cru
- Name the portion of the Cote D'Or best known for whites.
- Cote de Beaune
- Name the portion of the Cote D'Or best known for reds.
- Cote de Nuits
- Name the rough geographic location of Languedoc and Roussillon
- Between the Meditteranean and the Pyrnees.
- Name the famous sparklig wine of the Languedoc.
- Cremant de Limoux
- Name the AOC for Sauvignon Blanc in Burgundy
- St. Bris Formerly Sauvignon de St. Bris
- Name 3 sub-regions of Bordeaux
Entre Deaux Mers
- Name a vin doux naturel (french)
Banyuls Grand Cru
Muscat de Rivesaltes
Muscat de Beaumes de Venise
- State the grapes of Bourgogne Passe tout Grains.
- Pinot Noir and up to 1/3 Gamay.
- State the regional AOC for the Rhone.
- Cotes du Rhone
- Name a fortified wine from the Rhone.
- Muscat de Beaumes de Venise
- Name two AOCs for sweet wine in Bordeaux.
- Name the sparkling wine of Burgundy.
- Cremant de Bourgogne
- Name a sub-region of Bordeaux with a classification for whites.
- Graves and Sauternes.
- Name a synonym for Muscadet.
- Melon de Bourgogne
- Name any 1 white Grand Cru vineyard in Burgundy.
- Any of the following work:
Cotes de Nuits:
Cotes de Beaune:
Corton Bâtard-Montrachet Bienvenues-Bâtard-Montrachet Criots-Bâtard-Montrachet Chevelier-Montrachet
- Name the lone Premiere Grand Cru of Sauternes.
- Chateau d'Yquem
- Define Vendage Tardive.
- Late Harvest.
- State the Noble Grapes of Alsace.
Pinot Gris (Tokay d'Alsace)
Sylvaner (only from one vineyard - Zoztenburg)
- Name the grape of cahors.
- Name the important white grapes of Bordeaux.
- Describe the typical style of Alsace wines.
- Mostly white, Dry, Crisp, and more alcohol than their german counterparts.
- State the quality levels of french wine.
- Vin de Table
Vin de Pays
- Name the best soil in chablis.
- Kimmeridgian soil and chalk.
- Name a sparkling wine AOC of the Loire.
- Cremant de Loire
Rose de Loire
- What is the viticultural key to the best sweet wines of Bordeaux
- Botrytis or "Noble Rot"
- State what major wine regions surround Sudouest(South-West).
- Bordeaux to the north. Spain to the south. Languedoc-Roussilon to the east. Rhone also to the east.
- Name the dominant grape for left bank reds.
- Cabernet Sauvignon
- Name the dominant grape(s) for right bank reds.
- Cabernet Franc or Merlot
- Name the red varietals allowed in Bordeaux.
- Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Malbec, and for bonus points Carmenere.
- Name two most important AOCs of the right bank.
- Pomerol and St. Emilion
- Name the top category within the Cru Bourgeois.
- Crus Bourgeois Exceptionnel
- Name the 1st growths of the Medoc.
- Chateau Lafite Rothschild
Chateau Mouton Rothschild
- Name three communes in the Medoc.
- St. Estephe St. Julien Margaux Pauillac and the less important Listrac
- Describe the classification of Pomerol.
- There is none.
- Name the grapes of Champagne
- Define Methode Traditionelle
- 2nd fermentation in this bottle Meaning the 2nd fermentation takes place in the bottle that is sold to you.
- Define Riddling
- Riddling is the process of turning the bottles sharply and slowly increasing their downward angle to make the lies and sediment pool in the neck of the bottle.
- State the difference between Extra Brut and Extra Dry
- Extra Brut has no sugar added during dosage. Extra Dry is a sweeter level taht was created for marketing to US and English customers.
- Define Tete de Cuvee
- It is the producers best blend in Champagne.
- State the minimum sur lie aging for NV Champagne.
- 18 months
- State the minimum sur lie aging for Vintage Champagne.
- 3 years
- Define the term for adding sugar just prior to corking.
- Define Blanc de Noirs
- White of Darks meaning Black grapes only so the champagne therefore contains only pinot noir or pinot meunier
- Define Blanc de Blancs
- White of Whites meaning white grapes only.
- Name the Premier Cru of the Coteaux du Layon.
- Coteaux du Layon - Chaume
Appelation Chaume Premier Cru Controlee is how it reads on a label
It is a sweet wine made from Chenin Blanc Grapes.
- Name an AOC in Loire known for sweet wines besides Vouvray.
- Coteaux du Layon
Chaume Coteaux du Layon
- Define Moelleaux.
- What is the soil in Champagne
- Chalky Soils.
- Name 2 white grapes of Austria.
- Gruner Veltliner
Weissburgunder (Pinot Blanc)
Grauburgunder (Pinot Gris)
- Name 2 red grapes of Austria.
Blauburgunder (Pinot Noir)
- Name 2 regions of Austria.
- Most Important regions:
- Define Ausbruch.
- A sweet botrytis wine that has a sugar level between Beerenauslese and Eiswein.
Made in Austria.
- Describe the style of Eger & name 2 grapes.
- A Dark red wine from Hungary Grapes:
- Name 2 grapes of Tokaji.
Muskatoly (Muscat Ottonel)
- Define Puttonyos.
- A 30 Liter Barrel/Scoop. Defines sweetness of a Tokaji based on the number of Puttonyos added to the dry must to create the sweet wine. This ranges from 3 Puttonyos to 6 Puttonyos.
- Define Aszu Eszencia.
- Means Essence and is the Sweetest style of Tokaji you can have.
- Define anbaugebiete and name 4 of them.
- Regions of Germany.
- State the 4 quality levels of German wine.
- Tafelwein - Table Wine
Landwein - Regional Wine
QbA - Qualitatswein bestimmter Anbaugebiete
QmP - Qualitatswein mit Pradikat
- State the 6 Pradikat levels for QmP wines from driest to sweetest.
- Define Erstes Gewachs.
- 1st Growth
- Define Halbtrocken and Trocken.
- Half Dry and Dry
- Define Sekt.
- Sparkling Wine
- Define Suss Reserve.
- Sterilized grape juice used to sweeten wines
- State why wine can be made at 51deg latitude & how they differ from Alsace.
- Due to rivers and planting on South Facing slopes to maximize sunlight. They are generally sweeter and less alcoholic than wines from Alsace.
- State the grape that Spätburgunder is a synonym for
- Pinot Noir
- State the grape that Weissburgunder is a synonym for
- Pinot Blanc
- State the grape that Grauburgunder is a synonym for
- Pinot Gris
- Define Müller-Thurgau
- A Riesling X Chasselas Cross
- Define Liebfraumilch and state where it is commonly found.
- (Means Milk of our Lady) Cheap fruity blended wines from Rheinhessen and Pfalz
- Define Bocksbeutel and state where it is commonly found.
- A Pear/Flask shaped bottel used in the Franken region of Germany.
- Define edelfaule.
- Noble Rot or Botrytis
- Name any 1 anbaugebiete that is important for red wines.
- Name 3 important grapes in Port.
- Red Port:
Tinta Roriz (Tempranillo)
- Name the cities where port has historically been aged.
- Oporto or Villa Nova de Gaia
- Describe the difference between Vintage and Tawny Port.
- Vintage port is aged for 2 years exactly in oak where as Tawny port must be aged a minimum of 7 years in oak, also Tawny is generally a blend of multiple years where as vintage is from only one.
- Define Lagar.
- A rectangular trough used to stomp the grapes by foot in the Port making process.
- Name the 4 most important grapes of Madeira.
Other less important grapes Terrantez
Tinta Negra Mole
- Describe the Estufagem process.
- Process of heating the wine in large vessels at 120degrees for approx 6-12 months.
- Define Rainwater Madeira.
- A soft Verdelho-style created in the 18th century.
- What is a Pipe?
- A traditional Port cask holding 550 Liters.
- What is aguardente?
- A neutral grape brandy at 77% alcohol.
- Name the 6 quality levels of Spanish wine.
- Vino de Mesa (VdM)
Vino de la Tierra (VdlT)
Vino de Calidad con Indicacion Geographica (VCIG)
Denominacion de Origen (DO)
Denominacion de Origen Calificada (DOCa)
Denominacion de Pagos (DOP)
- Name 2 DOCa Regions.
- Rioja and Priorat.
- Define Grandes Pagos.
- A single estate wine.
- Name 2 red grapes and 2 white grapes of Rioja and Navarra.
Graciano Mazuelo (Carinena - Carignane)
- Name the 3 sub-zones of Rioja.
- Rioja Alta
- State the aging requirements for Rioja Joven, Crianza, Reserva, and Gran Reserva.
- Joven - Max 2 years
Crianza - Min 2 years (1 in barrel)
Reserva - Min 3 years (1 in barrel)
Gran Reserva - Min 5 years (2 in barrel)
- Name the principal town of Sherry.
- Name the grapes of Sherry.
Pedro Ximenez (PX)
- State what is character of Albariza soil.
- One of 3 soils used to produce Sherry grapes. A soil that retains water, but dries out on top and makes the roots dig down while protecting the water beneath from the heat keeping it from evaporating.
- Describe the Solera system.
- A fractional blending method to introduce older wine to younger wine year to year never exceeding 1/3 of a barrel.
- Name the main styles of Sherry.
- Fino, Manzanilla, Amantillado, Palo Cortado, Oloroso, Almancenistas, Cream Sherry.
- Define Flor.
- A yeast film that forms on the surface of the wine in the barrel.
- Name the most important grape(s) of Vinho Verde.
- Alvarinho and Loureiro
- Name the most important grape of Douro.
- Touriga Nacional
Tinta Roriz (Tempranillo)
- Name the most important grape(s) of Priorat.
- Describe the Gratalops Project.
- Alvaro Palacio and other young winemakers planted on higher elevations and slopes and modernized winemaking.
- Name Spain’s sparkling wine DO and the grapes.
- Cava Grapes:
- Name the most important grape(s) of Ribera del Duero.
Also some bordeaux varieties
- Name the grape that Tinto de Toro is a synonym of
- State the DO of Vega Sicilia.
- Ribera del Duero
- State the most important grape(s) of Rias Baixas.
- State the region and style of Txakoli DO.
- Colabria Light and Acidic Reds and Whites.
- Name the sparkling wine of Piedmont and its grape.
- Asti which is made from Moscato(Muscat) Bonus Info: The muscat grapes vary in color from white to orange to black and shades in between. Here in Asti they are white. Which is why locally it is known as Moscato Bianco or White Muscat.
- State the requirements of Barolo and Barolo Riserva.
- Barolo - 3 years in Barrel/Bottle Barolo Riserva - 5 years in Barrel/Bottle
- Describe Barolo Chinato.
- Barolo wine that has been aromatized with quinine. Also regared by many as the biggest joke of the DOCG system.
- Name two DOCG zones within Chianti.
Chianti Colli Fiorentini
Chianti Colli Senesi
Chianti Colline Pisane
Chianti Colli Aretini
- Name 1 of the DOCs created to include the Super Tuscans.
- Name Tuscany's only white DOCG.
- Vernaccia di San Gimignano
- State the production and style of Vin Santo.
- Vin Santo is made using Passito grapes which are grapes dried on straw mates and then must be aged a minimum of 3 years and up to 6 years in small wooden barrels.
- State the non-traditional grape of the 1st Super Tuscans.
- Cabernet Sauvignon
- State a red DOCG of Tuscany other than Chianti and name the grape.
- Brunello di Montalcino DOCG Grape: Brunello
Carmignano DOCG Grape:Sangiovese with up to 10% Cabernet Sauvignon
Vino Nobile di Montepulciano DOCG
Grape:Same as Chianti(Sangiovese, Merlot, and Syrah) Cabernet Sauvignon is NOT ALLOWED and can be 100% Sangiovese
- Name Italy’s only metodo tradizionale sparkling wine DOCG.
- Franciacorta DOCG
- Name Italy's 1st white DOCG.
- Albagna di Romagna DOCG
- Name the grapes of Valpolicella.
- Name the main grape of Soave.
- State the 4 quality levels of Italian Wine.
- Vino da Tavola (VT)
- Describe the goria laws.
- Created in 1992 it is responsible for the IGT level which is used as a spring-board to DOC. Also, they tightened riserva rules as well as modifying some of the vineyard zones.
- Name the main grape of Valtellina.
- Name 1 region of Italy where German grapes are common.
- Alto Adige
- State the grape of Gavi.
- Name the most widely planted grape in Piedmont.
- State the meaning of secco.
- State the meaning of amabile.
- Semi-Sweet or Slightly sweet
- State the meaning of frizzante.
- State the meaning of spumante.
- State the meaning of passito.
- Grapes that are dried on straw mats to concentrate the flavors.
- State the meaning of dolce.
- How many wine regions are there in Italy and what are the 3 most famous.
- 20. Most famous are Piedmont, Tuscany, and Veneto.
- Name the most important grape of Tuscany.
- State the meaning of Classico.
- The best area of a given region.
- State the type of wine typically made from Prosecco grape.
- Dry to slightly sweet Frizante.
- Name the grape(s) and style of Frascati DOC.
- Dry White made from Trebbiano and Malvasia.
- Name the grape(s) and style of Montepulciano d’Abbruzzo DOC.
- Dry Red made from Montepulciano grapes.
- Name the grape(s) and style of Fiano d’Avellino DOCG.
- Dry White made from the Fiano grape.
- Name the grape(s) and style of Taurasi DOCG.
- Dry Red made from the Aglianico grape.
- Name the grape of Apulia that has a USA connection.
- Primitivo (Zinfandel)
- Name the grape grown on Mt. Vulture in Basilicata
- State the type of wine from Marsala DOC and where it is made.
- Fortified wine made in Sicily.
- Name the grape(s) and style of Vermentino di Gallura.
- Dry White from the Vermentino grape.
- State the difference between Amarone and Recioto.
- Both are made from passito grapes, but Amarone is dry while Recioto is Sweet.
- State the meaning of Ripasso.
- re-passed – the traditional winemaking technique in Veneto Young Valpolicella is put into tanks or barrels containing lees from the previous Amarone fermentation which Causes secondary fermentation and increases Alc% giving it a recioto feel.
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