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Glossary of Sociology CGS

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What is Social Science?
-The study of human society and of individual relationships in society
-study of social behavior
Traditional Ways of Knowing
1-Revelation
2-Tradition
3-Authority
4-Logic
5-Common Sense
Sociological Imagination
C. Wright Mills coined the term, Abiltiy to understand the relationship between peoples personal life (micro perspective) & the social forces that surround them (macro perspective)
-connecting the two perspectives, and ability to place their life into world/history/society --> Having S.I. leads to a better control of life.
Role Theory
George Herbert Mead
-the individual learns about society, he or she learns what sorts of behaviors are expected by people in different situations, or role in that society
Social Perspectives
awareness towards the world, enables people to understand their life better
Social Map
Peter Berger coined the phrase
"If we are aware of social forces we will understand our own actions and behaviors better"
Determinants: gender, age, ethnicity, religion, culture, nationality, race, social class, historical background
-We are born into our place on the social map
Modern Science: A means of explanation...
-nature is patterned
-nature can be exposed through empirical evidence
-phenomena in nature have a cause & effect relationships
-nature can be understood by reason...so that science can lead to progress & positive changes in our lives
-science is open, objective and changeable.
Looking Glass Theory
Charles Horton Cooley
Peoples self identities are largely formed by the way other people react to them, through a process of "social feedback"
Epistemology
Study of knowledge & how it is validated...
Scientific method; there is order in nature
Durkheim
-Argues that society can drive someone to suicide, not always the individual...
-If one can not place themselves on the social map, this is a socialogical flaw and he believed led to suicide.
Micro perspective
A more individual perspective, subjective deals w/ the immediate conflict rather than the big patterns
Deals w/ individual perspectives of reality
Macro Perspective
looking at the big picture; at a large cultural/social level
assumes that in any society you can find larger influential forces
Projective Technique
any personality test designed to yield information about ones personality on the basis of their unrestricted response to ambigous objects or situations, to expose the subjective
Egoistic Suicide
Durkheim:
-individual shuts themselves off from other human beings
-tends to happen in more modern societies
Anomic Suicide
Durkheim:
-when the person believes that the world has fallen apart around them
-tends to happen in more modern societies
Altruistic Suicide
Durkheim:
-springs from a great loyalty to a cause
-tends to happen more w/ traditional societies
-stems from honor and prestige
Interactionalism
Mead
Individuals in face-to-face interaction create social consensus
-focus on "symbols"...not physical actions
-believe our personality is shaped by our social interactions
-key concepts: interpretation, consensus, symbols, shared expectations, socially created reality
Functionalism
a system of interelated parts
- people are shaped by society to perform important functions for society
-key concepts: integrity, interdependence and stability

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