Glossary of Sociology 101 Midterm
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- Study of human society
- Functionalist Perspective
- Cultural values direct our lives. different parts of society work together to promote unity and stability
- Social Conflict
- Social change happens to due to conflict and inequality between classes, races and gender
- Symbolic Interaction
- Based on individual and everyday interactions between everyone is how social change occurs
- something that changes from case to case
- Group of people living in an area
- representational group
- Rules and expectations of society
- Observed norms that have severe consequences
- Routine interactions with no consequences
- judging someone else's culture by your own culture.(antonym of cultural relativism)
- Cultural relativism
- evaluating a culture by its own standards (antonym of ethnocentrism)
- this is created when a group of people have different practices than the majority of the population.
- cultural practices that oppose the majority culture
- social position
- behavior expected of a person of a certain status
- achieved status
- status acquired during someone's lifetime
- ascribed status
- status that is recieved at birth or involuntarily acquired later in life
- master status
- a status that has special importance for social identity and shapes someone's life
- primary group
- small social group where the pple involved share their personal lives and interact daily
- secondary group.
- a group where the members do not interact daily, and are only associates. it's large where the members pursue a specific goal
- organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently
- labeling theory
- deviance and conformity result not so much from what people do as from how others respond to those actions.
- violation of cultural norms
- Auguste Comte
- coined the word sociology in 1838 to describe the way of thinking where people look at how society could be improved but importantly how it works
- C. Wright Mills
- said that social crisis sparks social change.
analyzed the sociological perspective in a detailed essay "The Promise"
- Sociological Imagination
- helps us
analyze common sense,
see opportunities and constraints in our lives,
to be Active in society,
and to live in a diverse world
- Emile Durkheim
- Said that social forces are always at work.
Studied suicide patterns and said they were caused by social integration.
- Jane Addams
- spoke out on behalf of immigrants.
Founded Hull House which assisted immigrant families.
- W.E.B DuBois
- studied the black community and spoke out against racial inequality.
served as a founding member of the NAACP
- Harriet Martineau
- translated writings of Auguste Comte from french to english
documented evils of slavery and argued laws to protect factory workers
helped advance women`
- Herbert Spencer
- Structural Functional pioneer
compared society to the human body
Just like the body has organs and muscles and systems that work together so does society
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