Glossary of Social Problems Exam Review

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True or False?
We argue that the change in punishment is a product of the invention of the idea of social problems.
The very idea of a social problem implies the notion of three things...

Labeling a phenomenon a social problem implies what?
That those who label intend to do 'something' about this phenomenon.
True or False?
After the transition, social phenomenon were thought not to be amenable to solution.
BEFORE the transition, social phenomenon were thought not to be amenable to solution.
After the transition, social phenomenon were thought to be ________.
Amenable to Solution.
Before or After The Transition?
Social phenomenon like poverty, drug abuse, mental illness, crime, etc. were understood as social afflictions that were simply part of the human condition.
If a phenomenon was 'part of the human condition' it fit into one of three categories.

1. basic human nature
2. the will of God
3. the malevolence of Satan

True or False?
Before the transition, societies did not accept the presence of social phenomenons and found solutions for their problems.
Societies accepted the presence of these afflictions and coped with them the best they could.
Before or After the Transition?
Social afflictions came to be understood as social problems.
True or False.
We would not try to solve a social affliction unless we saw it as a problem.
Before or After the Transition?
Societies came to view social phenomenons as amenable to solution, or some kind of treatment, to lessen the harshness of their effects.
What was "THE QUESTION" after the transition?
What was the appropriate treatment for social problems?
What was "THE ANSWER" to "THE QUESTION" after the transition?
The historical period known as the "great incarcerations".
Before or After the Transition?
People were not incarcerated.
Who were the three groups of incarcerated people?

1. Criminals
2. the Poor
3. the Mentally Ill

What normal part of life became like incarceration?
Public School.
In what era did it never occur to people that crime could be solved, they just dealt with it?
The Era of Social Fatalism.
What invention followed the Era of Social Fatalism?
The Invention of the Idea of Social Problems.
Which era followed the Invention of the Idea of Social Problems?
The Era of Social Amelioration.
True or False?
Amelioration is another word for solution.
Amelioration implies the lessening of the magnitude, or the improvement of the problem.
True or False?
Prisons did exist in the Era of Social Fatalism, but jails did not.
Prisons did not exist, but jails did.
During the Era of Social Fatalism, people were sometimes incarcerated, but why?
To ensure their presence at the trial.
During the Era of Social Fatalism, institutions of incarceration were called _______.
Goals. (Jails)
True or False.
During the Era of Social Fatalism, incarceration was not used as a form of punishment.
What is a Pillory?
A form of punishment where your hands and arms are trapped and hanging from a piece of wood.
Which form of punishment is similar to a pillory, but your ankles and hands are trapped instead?
The Stocks.
What is a Gibbet?
A metal cage that a person is put into and locked.
Which appendages did criminals most likely get removed as a form of punishment? (2)
Hand or Ear.
True or False.
Banishment was a popular form of punishment.
What was the most popular British form of Capital Punishment?
Which form of punishment from the Era of Social Fatalism has not disappeared?
Captial Punishment.
True or False?
When it comes to the pillory, stocks and gibbet, criminals are trapped for months,even years.
Criminals are only trapped for a brief period of time.
During the Era of Social Fatalism, punishment was most often performed where? And why?
In the market square of the community. This ensured that the most people would see it and participate.
How did the public participate in punishment during the Era of SF? (2)
Taunted them.
Threw Garbage at them.
During the Era of SF, what was the focal point of punishment?
The body.
What did people say about criminals in the Era of SF?
Once a criminal, always a criminal.
True or False.
During the Era of Amelioration, people's criminal nature could not be changed, hence crime could not be solved.
During the Era of SOCIAL FATALISM this occured.
During the Era of SF, the purpose of punishment was to _____ _______, both physically and socially.
Mark people.
Name the five types of social institutions during the Era of Amelioration.
1. Penitentiaries (prisons)
2. Reform Schools
3. Lunatic Asylums
4. Alms Houses (for the poor)
5. Common (public) Schools

The fudamental function of institutions of incarceration was _________.
True or False?
Penitentiaries' role was to incarcerate people for long periods of time.
True or False.
Incarceration was not the primary form of punishment in the Era of Amelioration.
Incarceration WAS the primary form of punishment.
True or False.
Incarceration had strict external regulation of all aspects of daily life.
Institutions of incarceration developed specialized programs intended to _____ __ ______ of the inmate.
Name Three.
Change the Character.
1. Skills Training
2. Education
3. Psychological Programs

Where was punishment carried out if a person was incarcerated.
Behind the prison walls.
Name 3 Ways Punishment in the Era of Amelioration differed from punishment in the Era of SF.
1. The mind was the focal point, not the body.

2. Location of the punishment garunteed minimal public visibility instead of maximum.

3. Was highly private instead of highly public.

True or False.
The Era of Social Fatalism and the Era of Social Amelioration are opposites.
True or False.
The Era of Amelioration is not a social problem, but the Era of Social Fatalism is.
The Era of Amelioration IS a social problem, while the Era of Social Fatalism IS NOT.
The Era of Amelioration believed "once a criminal, now...
Could people change?
a rehabilitated member of society.

People could change.

In the Era of Amelioration, could crime be solved?
Crime could be solved, or at least greatly reduced.
True or False.
The explanation of the transition from Social Fatalism to Social Amelioration will also be an explanation of the origins of the idea of social problems.
True or False?
The Industrial Revolution was the end of the factory system.
The Industrial Revolution was the BEGINNING of the factory system.
The introduction of technology and production is called...?
The Industrial Revolution.
The Industrial Revolution forced a change in two parts of society.
Social Order and Class.
Define Urbanization.
The beginnings of industrial cities.
What was one of the first industrial cities?
Manchester, England.
During the Industrial Revolution, _____ amounts of people were living in ______ areas.
True or False.
During the IR, pay was high and living conditions were poor.
Pay was LOW and living conditions were poor.
True or False?
During the IR, businesses went from factories to family owned.
Businesses went from FAMILY OWNED TO FACTORY.
True or False?
Families used to provide for themselves and were independant. The Revolution helped this.
The Revolution DESTROYED this.
True or False?
The Revolution caused changes in the role of women and children.
True or False?
The Revolution increased poverty, crime, alcoholism, etc.

Social Disorders are also known as...?
Social Junk
Political Disorders are also known as...?
Social Dynamite.
True or False.
The Revolution led to a few changes in the organization of work.
The Revolution led to RADICAL changes in the organization of work.
During the Revolution, the industrial class quickly ________ in size.
A new ______ class emerged out of the Revolution.
The new industrial order of the Revolution placed the classes in ______.
Which three things threatened the survival of the new industrial order and the new middle class?
1. Social Disorders
2. Political Disorders
3. Class Conflict

True or False?
Members of the Upper Class converted the threats of survival to social problems, about which something could be done.
Members of the NEW MIDDLE CLASS converted these threats to social problems.
Managing, if not solving these social problems would _______ the new industrial order.
Stabalizing the industrial society would stabalize their priviledged _____ _______.
Class Position.
Social problems bear the imprint of ______ and ______.
Class Interest and Power.
Converting social disorders into social problems was the task of the ______ class.
The ideology of the new middle class was the ________ of social disorders to ensure a _______ society.
Define Analogy.
A systematic comparison between two unlike objects.
When an analogy is organic, the first object is the ________ and the second object is ______.
Human Organism.
True or False?
Just as the human body is comprised of a series of interdependant elements all working together for the common good, so too is society.
True or False?
The human body has evolved into a highly complex and efficient state, but society has not.
Society HAS TOO.
Just as the species has evolved through adaption, so too has ________.
According to ________ _______, the most useful and adaptive institutions and values have survived. The most useless have disappeared.
Social Darwinism.
According to Social Darwinism, social change is ___________, gradual and progressive.
True or False?
Just as a healthy organism can be afflicted by disease in one of its parts, so too can society become 'sick' due to the malfunctioning of one of its parts.
Just as a disease is a deviation from the state of health, __________ is a deviation from the normal, healthy state of society.
Social Pathology.
A Social Pathology is a __________.
Social Problem.
A ________ is a condition that deviates from normalcy.
Social pathology.
_______ are caused by the failure of individuals to adjust to healthy social conditions.
Social problems.
_______ arise from individual inadequacies.
Social problems.
A solution to individual lack of ability could only be trying to prevent the _________ of ________ by parents who lack _________.

A solution for inadequate socialization within the family is _________. Also, the more recent appearance of _______.
Public Schooling.
Guidance Counselling.
True or False?
During the 20th century, the US was growing rapidly and becoming a dominant industrial power. They had no problems.
They had MANY problems. Pauperism

The many problems that the US had were considered __________. They had to be dealt with to turn society to a state of _______.
Social Pathologies.
The American social pathologists understood the root of the US's problem to be ________: the lack of intelligence.
Feeble Mindedness.
________ is seen as a function of intelligence.
A moral individual was thought to have _________ intelligence.
A feeble minded person had ________ morality.
The solution to feeble mindedness was....
To increase the level of intelligence in the population.
What were the 3 solutions to feeble mindedness?

1. IQ test
2. eugenic programs
3. strict immigration policies

A policy of the eugenic movement was ________ laws.
The use of sterilization reached the point where they applied it to _______ and ______ __________.
Car and Chicken Thieves.
Critique of Social Pathology:
It is impossible to define a ______ _______, hence impossible to define a ______ ________.
Healthy Society.
Social Pathology.
Conflict is seen as _________.
Critique of Social Pathology:
Attempting to sustain a _____ ______ is to maintain the ______ ___.
Healthy Society.
Status Quo.
Just as social pathologists were responding to what they percieved as a multitude of social problems _________ theorists responded to what they perceived as problems within the discipline of society.
Social Disorganization.
_____ theorists set out to develop their own theory and ______ sociology in America.
Social Disorganization.
_______ is the most basic concept.
Social Disorganization.
A patterned, routine and predictable set of social activities. An ordered relationship among a set of social patterns or roles.
Social Organization.
Social Organization:
The foundation for ______ is the rules or norms that govern social activities.
What are the two preconditions necessary for the existence of a state of social organization?
1. Social activities must be patterned or defined by rules/norms

2. Individuals must adhere to these norms

_______ is the opposite of _______.
Social Disorganization.
Social Organization.
______ is defined as a breakdown in either the normative structure or social control.
Social Disorganization.
Social Disorganization:
________ prevent an organized social group or institution.
True or False?
Rates of juvenile delinquency were, but are not now, much higher in inner city areas than other metropolitan areas.
They were AND ARE higher.
Social Disorganization:
What types of people were included in the Primary Group?(3)
What is an example.

People who regularly meet face-to-face.
Who have close emotional ties.
Who meet each other's emotional needs.

An example is the family.

Social Disorganization:
What types of people are included in the secondary group?
Social Disorganization:
What types of people are included in the secondary group? (2)
People who interact to accomplish some task.
Primary task is to accomplish goals.
True or False.
The foundation of a primary group is intimate social ties developed around meeting emotional needs.
Define Anomie.
A breakdown in the primary group structure.
If anomie happens, _____ are not properly aquired.
The result of ______ is inadequate socialization and difficulties in invdividual motivation and social control.
The result of Anomie's results is _________.
Social Disorganization.
The two most important groups within which children are socialized are...
Neigbourhood and Family.
What two aspects of the neighbourhood help to socialize children?
1. It functions as a community: all adults take an interest in all children

2. Includes disciplining children's rule-breaking

What primary group is most crucial to the socialization of children?
Why do neighbourhoods like inner city slums not socialize children correctly?
They do not know and sometimes even dislike each other so the adults do not enforce rules for the behavior of children.
Why do immigrated families not always socialize children properly? (2)
Generation gap prevents family from functioning as a group.

Parents attempt to create innapropriate rules for their children. (conflict of norms)

A breakdown in the functioning of the neighbourhood and family results in _______.
True or False?
Neighbourhoods and families are responsible for the deliquency of children.
_________ believes that deliquency is learned in the primary groups. That social behaviours are structured so that people associate more with some kinds rather than others.
Differential Association Theory.
________ states that if inner city youth are associated with delinquent behaviours, they will be more likely to learn this behaviors.
Differential Association Theory.
What is the most sophisticated version of social disorganization theory?
Social Structure and Anomie.
Define Cultural Structure.
An organized set of values governing the behaviour of members of the social order shared in common by all members of the social order.
___________ is defined as an organized set of institutional norms that define and regulate the acceptable patterns of achieving or realizing the cultural structure.
Social Structure.
_________ is comprised of an organized set of values to which members of the social order are committed who attempt to realize these values by means of the utilization of the normative structure.
Social Order.
What are the two types of Social Order?
Organized Social Order.

Utilization of the social structure by members of the social order results in the realization of the cultural structure. This describes what?
Organized Social Order.
What is defined as characterized by a disjunction, disequilibrium, disarticulation between social and cultural structures.
Disorganized (anomic) Social Order.
An organized social order produces ________
An anomic social order produces ________.



______ is understood to be a response to or a means of coping with or adapting to an anomie.
Deviance is understood to be a product of ________ instead of _________ factors.
Name the 6 types of deviance created by ______.
1. Conformity
2. Innovation
3. Ritualism I
4. Ritualism II
5. Retreatism
6. Rebellion


What types of deviance belong in the category of Innovation? (2)
Cheating and Stealing.
What is the difference between Ritualism I and Ritualism II?
I: continued participation without the likelihood of success

II: bureaucratic 'red tape'

What is retreatism? Give two examples.
Withdrawing from participation.

Mental Illness

Cultural Structure of the American Dream measured the achievement by ....
high grades.
The "cause" of grades is the ________. (social structure)
System of Evaluation.
It is expected that _______ people will recieve average grades.
People who reieve failing grades will be placed in a situation of _______.
There are likely to be higher rates of _____ among the group of people who failed.
The _______the grade the _______ the rate of deviance
Working class is _______ to their fate.

Upper class ________ with their fate.

_______ class most concerned with upward mobility.

______Class most subject to anomie.



Lower Middle.

Lower Middle.

Does ___________ really exist? Or are there different varities of _________ within the larger organization.
Social Disorganization.

Social Organization.

In schools, deviants often form their own subcultures in _______ with the official culture of the school. Instead of __________ there's _________.



In a given social order, how likely is it that all members share in its _______ and ______.
Values and Norms.
______ is a more sophisticated version of labelling theory.
Social Constructionism.
________ was developed to account for the making of deviance.
Labelling Theory.
________ was made to account for social problems.
Social Constructionism.
_______ and ______ are not the same.
Deviance and Social Problems.
_______theory and __________ are not the same.
Labelling and Social Constructionism.
True or False?
All social phenomenons are social problems.
A social phenomenon can OR CAN NOT be a social problem.
Social problems can only come into existence if they are _____, _______ or _______.
Made, produced or manufactured.
A social phenomenon becomes a social problem only when some social group successfully ________ other to accept the _____ they are advancing.
The study of social problems is the study of their _____.
The study of social problems involves 2 things....
The process of making.

The social groups involved in the production process and their interests.

What are the three types of persuasion used in Social Constructionism.
Moral Entrepreneurs.

Folk Devils and Moral Panics.

Mass Media.

Just as business groups are entrepreneurs of captital, _____ _____ can be entrepreneurs of _____.
Social Groups.


Just as business groups maximize their capital, ______ _______ maximize their _______.
Social Groups.


Social groups maximize their morality by creating ______ ____.
Social Problems.
Social Constructionism:
The groups who are percieved as ______ to their morality are defined as social problems.
Social Constructionism:
______ _____ are the means by which moral entrepreneurs impose their ______ on society.
Social Problems.


Social Constructionism:
__________ to social problems take the form of new _____ intended to govern morality of the threatening groups.


Social Constructionism:
What are the 2 types of moral entrepreneurs?
1. Rule Creators or Moral Crusaders

2. Rule Enforcers

Social Constructionism:
Moral Entrepreneurs normally come from the ________ class. Their task is __________.

Moral Uplift.

Social Constructionism:
Rule enforcers______ the rules created by __________.

Moral Crusaders.

What are the 2 critical components of social persuasion?
1. Creating a strong sense of worry or anxiety

2. Creating a sense of fear or hysteria

If someone can create both anxiety and fear than the more likely it is that a _______ will be formed.
Social Problems.
Creating anxiety and hysteria creates a ________ and __________.
Social Problem.

Moral Panic.

Moral Panics are generally induced by telling "generic horror stories", these are called _______.
Folk Devils.
True or False?
The mass media are in the business of producing news.
The mass media are NOT in the business of producing news.
Social Constructionism:
What is the goal of the media?
To produce an audience to sell to advertisers.
Social Constructionism:
TV and Newspapers have become ideal vehicles to produce _______ by sensationalizing ______ in the creation of ______.

Folk Devils.

Moral Panics.

______ are the assertions made that some social phenomenon is a social problem.
What are the three components of a Claim
1. Grounds
2. Warrants
3. Conclusions

Social Constructionism:
______ are the basis of or the reasons given for the assertion of the claim.
Social Constructionism:
_______ are the statements that justify the drawing of the conclusions from the grounds.
Warrants take the general form of....
`because the social problem is so evil, we must do whatever has to be done`
_____ are the actions proposed by the moral entrepreneurs intended to deal with and to solve the social problem.
_____arise from the _____asserted and the ____drawn.



The substance of the _____ and ____ shape the nature of the _______.
Grounds and Warrants.


Constructionists focus their analysis of _________ on the ______ asserted by ________.
Social problems.


Moral Entrepreneurs.

Social Constructionism:
Pay little attention to the __________ and even less to _____ social problems.
Social Conditions.


________ believes that society is comprised of a shifting network of classes, groups and organizations.
Conflict Theory.
Conflict Theory:
The basic unit of analysis is the ______ of the class, group or organization in this network.
Conflict Theory:
Classes, groups or organizations are bound together in networks by one of two principles...
1. A coalition based on similar interests

Conflict Theory:
When does social stability occur (2)
1. When these constellations of interest hold

2. When relations of domination - submission remain unquestioned

Conflict Theory:
Social change results from ______ amongst some of the units comprising the network when they attempt to further their interests.
Struggle or Conflict.
Conflict Theory:
Conflict happens when... (2)
1. Coalitions break down when interests diverge

2. Exercise of domination by some units becomes problematic when other units do not submit as before.

Social problems arise from ______ among some of the groups comprising the network... (2)

1. Caused by a disintegrating coalition

2. Caused by difficulties in the exercise of domination.

Conflict Theory:
Groups portray those with whom they are in ________ as the source of _______.

Social Problem.

Conflict Theory:
The Out-Groups become defined as ___________.
Social Problems.
The creation of social problems by the in groups is one way that they advance their _______ and further their _________.


_______ is what dominant groups do to subordinate groups.
Social problems.
Conflict Theory:
Social Problems are founded on ________.
Group conflict.
Conflict Theory:
The social problem of marijuana was caused by a conflict between __________ and _______.
Mainstream Society

Flower Children or the Hippies.

Solutions to social problems happen when... (3)
1. Groups resolve their problems

2. Groups come to a compromise

3. One of the groups aquires control.

Conflict Theory:
_________ were the first to define wife battering as a social problem. They saw it as a patriarchy where males used violence to sustain their ________.


Conflict Theory:
Professionals renamed wife beating ________.
Domestic Abuse.
Conflict Theory:
The social problem of wife battery was transformed into a problem of _______ and _______ control. It was solved by ______.


Anger Management.

Conflict Theory:
The state and its professionals, while assuming ownership of the problem appeared to be acting in the _______.
Interests of Women.

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