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Glossary of Soc 302

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Negative attitudes about and/or discrimination against people with disabilities
able-ism
Negative attitudes about and/or discrimination against the elderly
ageism
Groups or social contexts within which processes of socialization take place
agencies of socialization
The notion that anyone who works hard enough in the US can move “up” in society, to become economically comfortable or even rich and powerful. The reality is more complicated. Conflict theorists would describe The American Dream as an example of false
The American Dream
Gender neutral (neither male nor female, masculine nor feminine).
Androgynous
Negative attitudes about or discrimination against Jews
Anti-semitism
The process by which minority groups take on the characteristics (eg. language, religion, diet, and other values and behaviors) of the dominant group.
Assimiliation
A term used by Theodor Adorno to describe people who have stereotypical thinking, a combination of biases (including racism, homophobia, xenophobia, etc.), and who advocate the rigid enforcement of rules.
Authoritarian Personality
developed Authoritarian Personality theory
Theodor Adorno
Arguments that suggest that human behavior is largely determined by biology/genetics.
Biological Determinism
A rigidly defined, ranked social group, membership in which determined by birth and passed from one generation to the next.
caste
A group of people who share a common socioeconomic position, by virtue of their material and symbolic capital.
Class (Social Class)
Negative attitudes about and/or discrimination against people based on their social class
classism
Building on the work of Karl Marx, conflict theorists suggest that if we want to understand how society works, we need to understand the struggle over valued resources, we must always ask “Who does this benefit?”
Conflict Theory
The notion that we are not at all shaped by biology, but rather that our culture (our experiences, our upbringing) makes us who we are (the opposite of biological determinism).
cultural determinism
Representing humans in ways that strip them of their humanity (eg. portraying wartime enemies as monsters or animals).
dehumanization
“Unfair treatment of people based on some identifiable social characteristic such as race, ethnicity, gender, sexuality or class” (Newman 2207: 171).
discrimination
Discrimination that is built into the structure of social institutions.
discrimination, industrial
Unfair treatment of certain groups by an individual (eg. name-calling, threats, violence, avoidance, exclusion, etc.).
discrimination, personal/indvidual
Another term for “variety,” but usually used to refer to the many differences between populations
diversity
A group of people who share a common cultural identity and common cultural traits such as language, religion, customs and diet.
ethnic group
The tendency to view one’s own culture as normal and superior and other cultures as strange and inferior.
ethnocentricism
Negative attitudes about or discrimination against large-bodied people.
fat-ism
Building on the work of Emile Durkheim, _________s argue that social institutions and phenomena exist and persist because they serve a function in society.
functionalism
The socially defined division of the sexes and the set of behaviors defined as appropriate for each sex.
gender
The institutional practices that keep women and ethnic minorities from being promoted to managerial positions.
glass ceiling
The institutional processes which allow white men in female-dominated occupations to advance more rapidly than their female co-workers.
glass escalators
The institutional processes that make it difficult for women and ethnic minorities to move laterally within a workplace (which also makes upward mobility more difficult).
glass walls
Gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgendered/transsexual people, also collectively called sexual minorities.
GLBT
The increasing interconnectedness of individuals and social bodies worldwide in the areas of the economy, politics and culture.
Globalization
Crimes motivated primarily by bias based on race, ethnicity, national origin, sexuality or gender.
hate crimes
The belief that heterosexuality is the (only) natural, normal and acceptable sexual orientation (also called “compulsory heterosexuality”).
heteronormativity
The subtle messages that students are taught about such things as race, class, gender and sexuality.
hidden curriculum
Negative attitudes about and or discrimination against gays, lesbians, bisexuals and transgendered people (GLBTs). Also known as heterosexism or sexual prejudice.
homophobia
(1) A set of ideas about the way the world works; (2) a system of ideas that maintains social inequalities; (3) a distorted understanding of the world (false consciousness); (4) ideas that seem natural and commonsensical, but which were shaped by power re
ideology
In-born, biologically given, genetically determined traits.
innate traits
Individuals born with both male and female anatomical/biological characteristics (also hermaphrodites). About 2% of the population is intersexual.
intersexuals
the ability a state has to make people do certain things through repressive means (ie military or police force)
RSA (Repressive State Apparatus)
Negative attitudes about Islam and Muslims and or discrimination against Muslims
Islamaphobia
A group with more power in a given society.
a majority group
The process by which certain individuals and groups are prevented from gaining access to positions of power and influence in society.
marginalization
The process through which natural biological processes (such as menstruation or menopause) are defined as medical disorders requiring scientific monitoring and intervention.
medicalization
A group with less power in a given society. (In our society, Hispanic-Americans, women, and gays and lesbians are all _______ groups.)
minority groups
The hatred or extreme devaluation of women.
misogyny
The debate over how much our personalities and behaviors are shaped by nature (biology, genes) or how much they are shaped by nurture (environment, experiences).
nature-nurture debate
That which is considered normal (normative behavior is behavior that conforms to societal expectations, rules and norms).
normative
Representing living beings in ways that make them seem like objects
objectification
The representation of certain groups as inherently different than (and usually inferior to) one’s own group.
other-ing
A form of social, political and economic organization which privileges men over women.
patriarchy
Negative or unfavorable attitudes toward a group or its individual members, based on stereotypes or generalizations about that group.
prejudice
A group of people who are generally considered by themselves and/or by others to be a distinct group on the basis of shared physical characteristics.
race
Racial “slurs,” a denigrating label applied to an ethnoracial group.
racial epithets
The belief that certain groups are superior or inferior on the basis of selected physical characteristics, and the discriminatory behaviors based on these beliefs.
racism
Discrimination against dominant social groups.
reverse discrimination
The use of science to construct and maintain racial hierarchies.
scientific racism
The separation of select social groups
segregation
The biological (anatomical, genetic and hormonal) differences distinguishing females from males.
sex
Negative attitudes about or discrimination against people based on their sex.
sexism
The established bodies that organize and regulate social life (eg. the family, schools, the state, the mass media, etc.)
social institutions
The movement of individuals and groups between different class positions.
social mobility
The existence of structured inequalities between groups in society.
social stratification
All of a society’s social institutions and the interactions between them, that collectively shape human behaviors.
social structure
The social processes through which we develop an awareness of social norms and values and children achieve a distinct sense of self.
socialization
The process of learning gender roles.
gender, socialization
The classification of individuals based on criteria such as income and wealth (often used as a synonym for “class”), and the prestige, honor and respect associated with this classification.
socioeconomic status (SES)
(1) the social honor or prestige that a particular group is accorded by other members of a society; (2) the position one occupies in society.
status
An overly simplified image of a group of people. (Can be negative or positive.)
stereotype
The social positions to which a person is allocated either by biology or family background, and which cannot be changed by individual actions (eg. ‘white,’ ‘male,’ ‘teen’).
ascribed status
Any social position held by a person as a result of his or her own actions (eg. ‘boss,’ ‘graduate,’ ‘doctor’).
achieved status
The use of words and images in ways that denigrate certain groups of people (eg. negative stereotyping in the media).
symbolic violence
A group of social scientists(esp. Theodor Adorno & Max Horkheimer) who fled Nazi Germany and eventually came to America and studied the media. They saw the media as tools used by powerful groups to brainwash and control the people.
Frankfurt School
People who “cross” genders, usually by dressing and acting like people of a different gender.
transgender
Someone who has had gender reassignment surgery (a sex change).
transsexual
Women are paid only _____to every dollar a man is paid
72 cents
For women ages 15 to 44 year old, _______ is a leading cause of death and disability
violence
Because of their extraordinary rate of incarceration, one in every _____ black men over the age of 18 is in a state or federal prison, compared to one in every ________ whites.
twenty, 180
Among persons convicted of ___________ in state courts, whites were less likely than African-Americans to be sent to prison.
drug felonies
In 2004, 53.8% of hate crimes were because of _____.
race
61% of hate crimes because of sexual orientation were against _________________.
male homosexuals
Approximately 66.2% of racial bias was ________ and 21.3% were anti-white
anti-black
In a recent study of over 10,000 young men and women between the ages of 16 and 24, researchers found _________ earn $6,710 less in annual income than ____________
obese women, thinner women
Only one state, _________, has a Fair Employment law that specifically prohibits discrimination in employment based on weight
Michigan
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1991 does not identify ______ as a protected characteristic, and as a result, it does not provide obese individuals direct protection against employer discrimination based on their ______
weight,
_______________ aged 12 and up are the most victimized group in America. 41.7 over 1,000 of them are victims of violent crimes, compared with whites (36.3 over 1,000). This does not include murder
African-Americans
_________ have lower probabilities on obtaining financial loans than Whites.
Minorities
Blacks constitute ___ of all drug users, but ___ of those arrested for drug possession, 55% of persons convicted, and ___ of people sent to prison for drug charges
thirteen percent, thirty five percent, seventy four percent
It is illegal to discriminate a person with _________ when it comes to any aspect of employment.
disabilities
___ of American over 60 years old report one or more incidents of ageism.
84%
In 2000, women made up ___ of the US workforce, but only 11.7% held positions of board directors in Fortune 500 and only 12.5% of the corporate officers were female.
46.5%,
More than _________ Americans are affected by one or more mental disorders
54 million
The vast majority of people with mental illnesses )are/are not) violent
are NOT
(Mental illness/prejudice) is worse than the actual (mental illness/prejudice).
prejudice, mental illness
Women are tracked into _______ jobs such as teaching, child care, nursing, cleaning, which typically pay less than jobs in industries that are male-dominated.
"pink-collared"
Overweight job applicants are judged more harshly than applicants that are ______and those with a _______.
ex-felons, mental illness
The unemployment rate for people of _____ has grown much faster than the ______
color, whites
most people making decisions in the media are _____
white
One out of every ______ college aged women uses unhealthy methods of weight control
four
Female NCAA athletes receive only ____ of college athletic scholarship dollars, which is $166 million less in scholarships than male college athletes
45%
___ of the Saturday morning commercials aimed at girls spoke about physical attractiveness, while none of the commercials aimed at boys referenced appearance.
50&
Boys acted aggressively in ___ of Saturday morning commercials aimed at them, while none of the girls behaved aggressively.
50%
A common theme in film is the portrayal of gays and lesbians as _________, such as in The Silence of the Lambs, Basic Instinct, and Monster
psychopaths
_______________ stereotypes have not changed over a century in the film industry. Hollywood is still prejudiced against people with ___________, even as it becomes increasingly accurate in its depictions of racism or homosexuality.
Mental illness
A mug shot of a _____ _________is 4 times more likely to appear in a local television news report than of a white defendant
black defendant

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