Glossary of School Counseling Theories

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Created by erikasalls

Solution Focused Therapy
- Insoo Kim Berg and Steve
- Dont talk about problems, talk about solutions
- present...moving forward
- scaling
-miracle questions
-look at what IS working and what is not

Feminist Therapy
-Gender is central focus of the approach
- Goals:
- equality
- balance independence and interdependence
- self nurturance
- valuing diversity
- empowerment and egalitarism

Reality Therapy
- Choice Theory
- Focus on the present
- Satisfy 5 basic needs
1. survival
2. love
3. belongingness
4. power
5. freedom
6. fun
- If not satisfying one of those needs, we act out


Behavior Therapy
Pavlov: classical conditioning
Skinner: Operant conditioning
Lazarus: Multimodal
Bandura: Social Learning Theory

Goal: Help client gain control and increase range of choice/freedom

- Behavior.. self directed, self modified
-learn new behaviors
-client decides treatment goal


1. bahaviors
2. affective responses
3. sensory reactions
4. images
5. cognitions
6. interpersonal relationships
7. drugs and other biological interventions

Gestalt Therapy
Created by Fritz Perls
-here and now
-\"unfinished business\"
-experiential(thinking,feeling, doing)
-field theory
-figure formation
-awareness of self and present
-I, Though therapeutic relationship

Person Centered Theory
Created by Carl Rogers
-humanistic therapy
-unconditional positive regard, empathy, genuineness
-therapist is facilitator
-little technique
-look at clients subjective inner self
-phenomological approach

Existential Therapy
Frankl, May, Yalom
-emphasize choice, freedom, responsibility, and self determination
-\"meaning of life\"
-philosophical way of thinking
-an approach to understand humans
-experiential approach

Freud\'s psychosexual stages
oral: mouth-pleasure
anal:anus as pleasure

phallic:genitals and sexual identification as pleasure

latency:little sexual interest- peers, academic, social learning

genital:onset of puberty, if other stages successful, will be interested in sexual relationships

Psychoanalytic Theory

- Help client bring in to the concious the unconcious

- help adjust to the demands of work, intimacy and society

Techniques: Free associaiton, dream analysis, transference, interpretation

Pyschosocial Approach
Erikson: 8 stages
Trust vs. mistrust (Birth)

autonomy vs. shame/doubt (early childhood)

iniative vs. guilt (preschool)

industry vs inferiority (school age)

identity vs role confusion (adolscence)

intimacy vs. isolation (young adult)

generativity vs. stagnation (middle adult)

ego integrity vs. despair
(maturity to death)

Adlerian Theory
-conscious center of personality
-birth order
-faulty beliefs
-social forces
-own \"frame of reference\"
-holistic approach
-individual therapy

Goals: help clients identify and change their mistaken beliefs about self, others and life
- help clients overcome feelings of discouragement, faulty motivation, and mistaken assumptions

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