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Glossary of Sandy Vocabulary Words

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abashed
humiliated; lowered in rank, presige, or esteem
abate
lessen in degree, reduce
abhorrence
looked at or felt with disgust, horror; shunned or rejected with scorn or fear
abide
put up with, tolerate
abode
home place where a person lives or stays
abomination
disgusting thing; something to be looked at with great dislike, disgust or horror
abstruse
hard to get the sense of, difficult to understand or comprehent; hidden away, recondite
abyss
deep hole; bottomless pit of hell
accord
be in harmony or agreement with
accost
go up and say something to a strange person
accountable
responsible, answerable, capable of being explained
accrued
increased, become a permanent addition
accumulate
get greater by addition; pile up
acquiescing
giving agreement, making no protest against; consenting quietly or passively
acquisition
prize, gift, something gained
acrid
biting, sharp, bitter taste or smell
acuteness
sharpness of mind, clear-minded
adduced
put forward as an example or authority, for proof or for consideration
admonished
warned, told by someone about one's wrongdoing, mildly or kindly but seriously
adultery
consenting sexual intercourse between a married person and another person to whom the first person is not married; usually against religious law if not political or social statute. Note: this word never appears in the text of The Scarlet Letter.
advance
to go before, ahead of
advent
coming, arrival, esp. one of importance
adverse
going against one's interests; going in an opposite direction
afflicted
in pain with or because of; physical suffering or in distress because of
agency
action, being an instrument of, operating through
agitate
shake up, disturb, cause to move violently and irregularly
ails
wrong with, diseased
airily
high in the air, not seriously--there is some implication also of supernatural power (in the air)
airy
like or in the air, as light as air, immaterial or without substance or weight
alacrity
speed, quickness; eagerness, cheerful willingness
alchemy, alchemist
magical power, chemical philosophy of transmutation or changing metals into gold; (alchemist); Parcelsus was the most famous medieval alchemist
allot
to parcel out; assign a portion
alloy
to mix (a metal) with another one of less value
alms-house
poor-house; place where people who cannot support themselves are housed and fed by public charity
amenable
controlled by, responsible to authority
amiss
improper, wrong, whatever offends
amplest
most sufficient or adequate
analogy
parallel to, reasoning by like, corresponding qualities
anathemas
curses, strong denunciations
anatto
variant of annatto, yellow-red dye from a tropical seed
animadversion
pointing out bad qualities, hostile criticism
annihilated
completely destroyed, put out of existence
anon
again; archaic: in a short time, quickly
anthracite
hard coal used for stove fuel
antics
foolish acts, jumps
Antinomian
Religious liberal who believes in individual grace through self-knowledge, not church law or teaching, and thus persecuted by Puritans
antipathy
a dislike or aversion; animosity, enmity; (synonym: repugnance)
antiquarian
one who studies very old, historic things
antiquated
old, having gone out of use
antique
very old, of old times
antiquity
early times in history
apartment
set of rooms; British: flat
apostle
religious missionary, ardent supporter
apothecary
keeper of medical store, one who supplies medical drugs
apotheosized
glorified, exhalted
appalled
shocked, dismayed, made pale
apparition
strange-looking thing
appellation
name or title
apple-peru
a weed, originally from tropical America, with white or blue flowers
appliances
instruments, things, esp. of household use
apprehension, apprehensive
fear; or, understanding or perception in general
aqua-vitae
strong liquor such as brandy or whisky
archaic
old, ancient, old-fashioned
arch-fiend
the devil, Satan
archive
library, storehouse of books
aright
correctly
armorial
having to do with coats of arms
array
clothing or armor
arraying
dressing, composing
art
second person familiar 'are'; also, black art: sorcery, evil, black magic
ascended
went up
ascending
going up
ascertain
get knowledge of, make sure of
ascetic
(adj.) self-denying, austere, severe; (noun) one who renounces comforts of life
askew
at an angle
asks permission
behest
aspect
facial expression; appearance to the eye
asperity
sharpness, roughness
attainments
accomplishments
attire
clothing
audacity
boldness, bravery, unrestrained impudence
auditor
one who hears; a listener
aught
archaic: the least bit, anything at all
augur
to predict, forecast the future
auspicious
favorable; (see inauspicious)
austerity
simple, unadorned, with no ornaments
autumnal
fall-like in age, old, elderly
avail
help, make use of, to be of advantage
averred
said that thing is so, affirm
avowed
acknowledged openly, said to be the case
behalf, benefit (not archaic, but more common, behooved)
beneficence
between
bid
blows, throws
beadle, town-beadle
book in Gothic type, with heavy dark strokes, like Olde English
blasoned
broom made of a bundle of twigs
besought
C
cadence
rhythm in sound, going up and down
calamity
serious trouble, shocking events
calculable
come to decision as to probable events, readily relied on
cankered
diseased or corrupted, or spreading it
capering
playful leaping like a young goat
caprice
impulse, whim, an impulsive change of mind; capricious: fickle, impulsive and unpredictable; wanton, wilful behavior, without rational motivation
capriole
playful, goatlike leap in air
careering
going quickly or violently, running or moving at full speed, in a rush
catarrh
inflammation of the lining of the nose and mouth
catechism
book of questions and answers used by the Church to teach a system of Christian belief
cause of death, ruin, destruction
bark
celestial
pertaining to the sky, heavenly, divine
centrifugal
having a tendency away from the center
chamber
room, esp. bedroom
chamber-window
(upstairs) bedroom window
chaos
without any order or form
charger
archaic: a platter, a large shallow dish
chased
decorated with engraving or embossing
cheery
in good spirits, happy
chest; breasts of female or mother; body near heart, center of emotion
brat
chink
crack, narrow opening
chirography
writing with a pen
chirurgical
surgical
choleric
easily angered
church usher, official whose duty it was to keep order
beckoning
cicerone
a tourist guide
circuit
circle
circumference
outline of circle, distance around
clamor
big noise, protest
clangor
loud, metallic sounds
clarion
trumpet
clench
tightly shut
clew
clue, something that guides to the solution of a problem or mystery
cloister
monastery, place of secluded study
close
ending; but also, narrow passageway or alley (now chiefly British); neighborhood of a church or other building
coadjutors
workers along with a person; assistants
cogitating
thinking, pondering
colloquy
a talk between persons
commodiousness
comfort in spaciousness
commodity
anything that can be traded
communed
communicated quietly
communion
union, shared feeling or place
compass
range, distance around
compeers
equals (persons)
compliance
as ordered or requested
comports
behaves
comprehension, comprehended
understanding; comprehend: see clearly in a wide range
conceits
strange comparisons or ideas
concoct
make, mix
concord
harmony, agreement between two aspects
condescension
recognition
confer
give, consult, make conference with
confidant
one to whom secrets or private matters are told or confided; (female, confidante)
confinement
imprisonment; also, lying-in, period of time around childbirth when mother lies in bed separate from other people (according to the OED, that euphemism was not yet in common use in 1600s-- term was "bands", or "Our Lady's bands", while "confinement" is a euphemism cited from 1774 and was popular in Hawthorne's Victorian times)
confusing, perplexing, uncertain
baggage
congregated
grouped together
conjectural
conclusion inferred from incomplete evidence
conjoined
joined, joined together, united
conjunction
state of being joined; simultaneous occurrence in time or space
conjuration
magic spell; also, solemn invocation or appeal
conscious
aware of
consciousness
awareness, understanding
consecrated, consecration
given up to God, declared or set apart as sacred
considerable
big, a lot of, large in amount
consigned
given over to
consolation, consolations
comforting, solace
consternation
great surprise and fear; sudden confusion or amazement
constitution
makeup, how put together of parts
constraining, constrained
limited, restricted; forced, not natural
consummation
fulfillment, ultimate end or goal, made complete
contadina
Italian peasant girl; masculine = contadino; plural = contadini
contagion
poision, bad influence that spreads rapidly
contiguity, contiguous
joining, touching
contingency
happening, occurence, esp. by chance
contortions
twisted out of normal form
contrive
devise with cleverness, fabricate
contumely
rough, rude, haughtily contempuous language or treatment
conversant (with)
having knowledge of or about
convulsed, convulsive
violent, uncontrolled movement of muscles
cope
coping, top part of a wall
cordial
liqueur
countenance, countenanced
(noun) face, facial expression, aspect; (verb) to condone, to approve (cliche: out of countenance = visibly upset or embarrassed)
countenanced
supported or encouraged in belief
covering made of cloth made stiff with paste
burdock
craftily
falsely, not straightforwardly
crave
beg, want greatly, desire
credibility
possibility of being believed in
creed
short statement of belief in Christian church
culprit
person caught violating the law
cumbrous
bulky, hard to handle
cut
clothing design
dame
married woman
dank
wet, unhealthy
darksome
dark, somber
dauntless
bold, not capable of being discouraged, fearless
deacon
man who helps minister in church functions
dearth
scarcity, lack, shortage
decapitated
head cut off; fired from job; [note: fake decapitation tricks were common in traveling magic shows in Hawthorne's time]
decease
death
decorous
proper, appropriate, polite
decorum
appropriate, polite behavior
decrepit
broken down, old and weak
decried
condemned, disapproved of
deem
consider, believe
defrauding
taking away from, especially by cheating
defunct
dead
degenerate
lost quality, gone down hill
deleterious
having a harmful effect
dell
small hollow with trees, usually secluded
delusive
having the nature of a delusion or false belief
delved
archaic word for dug
demeanour
behavior, way he handles himself, conduct
demerits
faults, offenses, defects
demonstration
public display
denizens
animals living in that place
denoted
indicated, served as a direct sign of
deportment
conduct, demeanor, bearing, behavior
depravity
moral corruption
depredations
plunder, preying on
deserts
deserved result, reward or punishment
design
form a plan for
desperadoes
pirates, dangerous criminals
despondency
feeling without hope, depression from lack of courage
despots, despotic
ruler with absolute power
detriment
harm, damage
device
in heraldry, a graphic motto or symbol
devoid
without, empty, lacking
devout
deeply religious
diabolical
devilish
diffused
spread out
dilapidated
ruined, decayed, fallen down
disapprobation
disapproval
disastrous
causing disaster, evil influence, esp. supernatural (from the Greek word for 'star')
discern
to perceive differences; to make distinctions
disclaim
deny (responsibility for)
disclosure
revealing, revelation, opening up to public view
discourse
formal, long, discussion of a subject
disdainful
scorning, looking down on, with contempt
disporting
playing
disposition
mood, (likely) pattern of behavior, attitude
disquietude
state of worry, uneasiness
dissolute
lacking in moral restraint
distracted
unsettled, pulled in opposite emotional directions
diversify
vary, mix in
divine
minister, clergyman, theologian; (maybe there is a hint of sarcasm sometimes, of the man who pretends to compare to God)
doing good, acting kindly, charity
benevolence, benevolent
domain
owned area, place, home
domestic
private, home, family
dost
do (second person singular present tense)
dotage
senile, state of feeble-minded old person
draught
draft, a drink
drearier
dismal, boring, bleaker
dress or ornament in a loud or bad way
begs leave
dryad
wood nymph, a nature divinity in Greek mythology

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