Glossary of STEP 1: GI
Created by evrigsby
- 3 phases of digestion
- 1. Cephalic: triggred by sight, smell and thought of food. Stimulates vagal and cholinergic mechanisms
2. Gastric: triggered by chemical and volume presence of food in stomach. Stimulates gastrin
3. intestinal: triggered by protein products in intestines, downregulate gastrin secretion with peptide yy
- 3 chemicals that inhibit gastrin secretion
- 1. Peptide YY
- Can be absorbed independent of pancreatic enzymes
D-XYLOSE (used to test brush border enzymatic function vs. pancreatic issues)
- Part of small bowel that can be obstructed by SMA
- Transverse Duodenum
Think large weight loss - no more intestinal fat to cushion bowel --> clamped between SMA and aorta
- Dietary lipids are broken down in the ____ and ABSORBED in the ____.
- Duodenum, jejunum
- Colicky abd pain, Constipation + HA/Irritability = ______
- Lead poisoning
- IN CF the pancrease will have ____.
- Ducts filled w mucus plugs
- Common cause of hemmorrhagic diarrhea
Can only attack these types of cells
- Shigella sonnei
M cells - line the base of microvilli in a peyers patch
- "Reducing sugar"
Will be found in urine with _____ deficiency.
- Most common H Pylori associated ulcer location
also a rare site for cancer to develop, unlike H Pylori infxn in the ____.
- Stain that can detect the presence of fat in a stool sample
- Sudan III
- The incidence of _____ infection can greatly INCREASE in individuals taking a PPI
- Vibreo Cholera
- Lead poisoning should be associated with INCREASED serum levels of ________
- Pyridoxyl phosphate
- Bloody diarrhea with hepatosplenomegaly + TRAVEL
- Typhoid fever
(Also infects through M Cells)
- Can be transmitted between pets and human --> diarrhea and abd pain
- Gastrin has 2 functions:
- 1. increases secretion of HCl
2. Initiation of cellular proliferation and potentially hyperplasia
- A dangerous complication of Ulcerative Colitis: _______
Can be diagnosed with _____
- Toxic megacolon
Plain film X-Ray
- A common cause of SCID: _____
Pts are young and suffer from _______.
- Adenosine deaminase deficiency
Diarrhea and FTT
- Inadequately cooked hamburger
- Shiga/ Shiga-Like toxins kill cells by ____.
- Deactivating the 60S ribosomal subunit in cells
- Shiga-producing E Coli do NOT ferment _____ or produce ____
- sorbitol, glucoronidase
- Mastocytosis can lad to increased _____ which will lead to ______
- histamine release via mast cells
increased gastrin release, causing gastric symptoms
- Secretin stimulates _____ cells to release_____
- pancreatic, bicarb
- Pts deficient in IgA can have recurrant ____ infections
- ____ produces IgA protease, which ____
Cleaves IgA at the Jprotein that links the secretory dimers
- IgA dimers help battle bacteria in ___ tissue by ____
preventing attachment via pilli and other outer membrane proteins that may allow for penetration and subsequent infection
- Pancreatic division leads to _____.
The dorsal bud forms ____
The ventral forms ______
- 2 ducts that drain into the duodenum
Pancreatic tissue: body, head, tail
Uncinate process, main pancreatic duct
- The foregut includes ________.
These are supplied by branches off of the ______
- Esophagus through middle duodenum, liver, GB, pancreas
- Even though it was not formed from the foregut, the ____ still gets blood from a foregut source, _______ via the _____.
Splenic artery, Celiac trunk
- Chrone's can lead to Gallstones because ______ cannot be absorbed in the ______ due to ______.
- bile acids
mucosal wall inflammation
- Gall stones most often form because the _______ is off.
- cholesterol:Bile Acid
increased levels of cholesterol cause stone formation
- Villi blunting
Also = _____ (another name)
- Gluten intolerance
- The inability to digest lactose causes diarrhea because ______________.
- Lactose is an osmotic diuretic
increased lactose in the intestines leads to water being drawn INTO the lumen
- Osmotic laxatives:
- Magnesium ____'s
- opiate antidiarrheal: _____
works on ____ receptors
higher doses can cause ____, and toxic doses cause _____.
euphoria and dependence
Dry mouth, blurry vision, sedation, bloating
- Pernicious (megaloblastic) anemia is caused by ________.
- deterioration of parietal cells -->loss of IF--> low B12 and anemia
- Requires very few cells to cause disease when ingested
- Cells responsible in :
UC = ______
Chron's = _____
- UC = Th2
Chron's = Th1
- Pt with linear ulcerations in esophagus:
- Parasitic infection from foreign country that affects muscular mucosa --> dysphagia / megacolon: _______
Does so by destroying _____
- Trypanosoma Cruzi
myenteric plexus via neurotoxin
- (Picornoviruses) Enteroviruses that can colonize GI tract
- Picornoviruses: PERCH
Enteroviruses from this group: PECH
- Picornovirus that CANNOT cause GI disease b/c it is Acid LABILE
- A VIPoma will present as ______.
It resides in the ____.
It can be corrected with_____.
- Watery, dark diarrhea that does not improve with diet change (including fasting) and has no pus or blood.
It is a pancreatic islet cell tumor
- Walls of a pseudo cyst consist of ____.
- fibrous and granulation tissue
- A zenker's diverticulum in the esophagus is caused by ____.
- Cricopharyngeal muscle weakness
- Signet ring cancer
- gastric adenocarcinoma of the stomach wall that infiltrates the wall
- Whipelli will present as _________.
- Abdominal pain, arthritic pain,weight loss, and sometimes psychiatric issues.
Can be cured with ABx's
Will be a middle aged, white male
- One last clue that pancreatitis may be caused by alcoholism:
- Erythrocytic macrocytosis
- Older pt with abd pain 30 minutes after a meal + severe bad cardiac history
- atherosclerotic SMA
- CEA levels measure _____.
- colorectal cancer RECURRANCE
- Mallory weiss tears actually occur due to ______.
- Repeated increases in intra-abd pressure
(as with puking)
- Pancreatic enzymes first exist as ______.
they rely on trypsin to be cleaved
- C Diff produces 2 toxins.
Name and Describe
- Toxin A: Enterotoxin that causes neutrophil chemoattraction, pulls water into gut --> diarrhea
Toxin B: Cytotoxin that disrupts cellular cytoskeleton
- Black, breastfed baby needs ____.
- Vitamin D
All babies need Vit K - this is given as a shot at birth
- Colon cancer has been linked to this common enzyme ____.
____ can be used as they block the action of the enzyme
- PID is often caused by these 2 diseases: ________.
- Chlamydia, Ghonnorhea
3rd gen cephalosporin for Ghon
Azithromycin or Doxy for Chlamydia
- Esophageal cancer + alcohol and Tobacco abuse = ______
- Squamous cell carcinoma
50% of esophageal cancers
- Movement in neural crest cells occurs _____.
- Caudally down the vegas nerve.
- HNPCC = _________
- uncorrected mismatch repair
- most common cause for appendicitis:
- Anti-inflammatory cytokines: ______
- TGF-B, IL-10
- Trypsin is stored in ______ .
Destruction of these leads to ____.
- pancreatic acinar cells as trypsinogen
- Sythetic analogue of somatostatin:
Can solve symptoms of carcinoid syndrome
- This polio vaccine provides a greater IgA response on ______ mucosa.
Sabin live attenuated
(as opposed to the salk inactivated)
- treat arsenic poisoning with ______
- Crohn's causes the formation of _____ stones.
- oxalate kidney
- Three major risk factors for pancreatic cancer:
- 1. Age - 65-75
- Pancreatic cancer will present as:
- Abdominal pain, PALE STOOL, dark urine
- Opiods can cause ______.
- Biliary colic - even to the point of icturis
- These compounds can damage pancreatic cells directly.
They increase in the serum with increase in ______.
- Free Fatty Acids
- A gallstone can lodge at the ______ and cause intestinal obstruction.
- ileocecal junction
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