## Glossary of STA 2023 (exam 2) CORRECT ONE

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- Using graph 1,

(1)what is the slope? (postive, negative, or undefined) - postive

- Using graph 2,

(1)what is the slope? (postive, negative, or undefined)

(2)explain the correlation btwn x and y (postive or negative correlated) - (1)postive (2)postively correlated

- Using graph 3,

(1)what is the slope? (postive, negative, or undefined) - negative

- Using graph 4,

(1)what is the slope? (postive, negative, or undefined)

(2)What is the correlation btwn x and y? (postive or negative - (1)negative (2)x and y are negatively associated

- Using graph 5,

(1)what is the slope? (postive, negative, or undefined)

(2)how are the x and y correlated to the line? - (1)0 (2)the correlation btwn the points is zero

- Using graph 6,

(1)what is the slope?

(2)how are x and y correlated to the line? - (1)undefined (2)undefined

- y is called the (1)
- dependent variable

- NAME

this is called the dependent variable - y

- x is called the (1)
- independent variable

- What is the point slope formula?
- y-y1=m(x-x1)

- NAME

this is called the independent variable - x

- What is regression?
- is a stastical tool that uses the relation btwn two or more quanitative variables so that one variable can be predicted from the other or find the assocation btwn the two varaibles

- NAME

is a stastical tool that uses the relation btwn two or more quanitative varaibles so that one variable can be predicted from the other or find the assocation btwn varaibles x and y - regression

- What is a response variable measure?
- measusres the outcome of a certain study

- NAME

this measures the outcome of a certain study - response variable

- What is an explantory variable?
- explains or may cause changes in the response variable

- NAME

this varaible explains or may cause changes in the response variable - explantory variable

- When are two variables assocaited?
- if some some values of one of the variable occur more often w some values of the other varaible

- Two variables are (1)if some values of one of the varaible occur more often w some values of the other variable
- associated

- y is the (1) or the (2)variable
- (1)dependent (2) reponse

- NAME

this is called the response variable - y

- Which varaible is the response varaible?
- y

- NAME

this is the independent variable - x

- NAME

this is the predictor variable - x

- Which variable is the predictor variable?
- x

- the x is the (1) or (2)variable
- (1)independent (2)predictor

- What equation is used to represent the simple linear regression model?
- y=a+bx+E

- What is the equation y=a+bx+E used for?
- simple linear regression model

- y=a+bx+E

(1)what does a represent?

(2)What does b represent?

(3)what does E represent? - (1)y intercept

(2)slope of the line

(3)the random error component

- y=a+bx+E

(1)what is the deterministic part of the equation?

(2)what is the E part of the equation? - (1)a+bx

(2)E

- What is the mean of E?
- 0

- What does E stand for?
- the random variable

- How is E distrubed?
- normally

- What are (2)assumptions you can make about the E?
- (1)the random varible E has a mean of zero and a constant varaince σ^2 and are distrubed normally (2)for possible pair of observations yi and yj, the associated random errors E1 and E2 are indepedent

- What does correlation?
- is a measure of the strength of a linear relationship btwn the response variable and the predictor variable

- NAME

is a measure of the strength of a linear relationship btwn the response varaible and the predictor variable - correlation

- r^2 is called the (1)
- cofficeient of determination

- NAME

this is called the cofficient of determination - r^2

- y is the weight of babies and x= is the age of the baby and

y=10x=8

(1)what is the predication equation? - y=10x+8

- the predication equation can also be called the (1)
- least squares of line regression

- the (1)can also be called the least sqaures of line regression
- the prediction equation

- Using graph 7,

(1)what is the aprox of r? - r=1

- Using graph 8,

(1)what is the aprox of r? - r=.8 or about 1

- How do you tell if r is 1 or -1?
- all points are on the line

- When r is -1 or 1?
- when all points on the line

- When is r negative?
- when the slope is negative

- When is r postive?
- when the slope is postive

- How do you find the prediction equation using your calculator?
- go to stat calc, select #8 or LinReg(ax+b)(x,y)

- Using data in L6,

predict the number of manatees that will be killed if x=682. - plug in x=682 to prediction equation (y=.125x+41.43)

y=126.68 manatees would be killed

- What does TSS refer to?
- refers to the total sum of the sqaures of the variation

- NAME

this refers to the total sum of the sqaures of the variation - TSS

- What does SSR refer to?
- the variation explained by the model

- NAME

this refers to the variation explained by the model - SSR

- What does SSE refer to?
- the varation due to error

- NAME

this refers to the variation due to error - SSE

- If (1)then this means that it is a good model and most of the points are on the line
- if SSR is larger compared to SSE

- If SSR is larger compared to SSE then this means that (1)
- it is a good model and most of the points are on the line

- if (1)then this means that it is abd model and that most of the points are not on the line
- SSE is larger than SSR

- If SSE is larger than SSR then this means that (1)
- it is a bad model and most of the points are not on the line

- What does r measure?
- the strength and direction of the line

- NAME

this measaures the strength and direction of the line - r

- What does r^2 measure?
- measures how much of the data can be explained by the line

- NAME

this measures how much of the data can be explained by the line - r^2

- How do you find the residuals?
- ^

y-y

- Using L6,

(1)find the residual for y=47 for manatees - (719, 47)for y=.1249x-41.4304

^

y-y = 47-(-41.4+1.25(719))

residual is -1.475

- The best fit of the line is has to be a (1)
- linear model

- Using graph 9,

(1)is the graph a good or bad model? - yes

- Using graph 10,

(1)is the graph a good or bad model? - no because it is not a linear model

- Using graph 11,

(1)is the graph a good or bad model? - no

- What is the lurking varaible?
- is a variable that affects the response varaible but it is not included in the model

- NAME

this is a variable that affects the response varaible but it is not included in the model - lurking variable

- What is the goal of regression? (2)
- (1)prediction of response variable using the predictor varaible (2)correlation of variables

- NAME

this has two goals: prediction of response variable using the predictor variable and correlation of variables - regression

- What is a multiple linear regression?
- has a 1 response variable and many prediction variables

- Using graph 12,

(1)what are A,B, and C? - influenical observations

- How do u tell what points are infleunical observations?
- are points on the x axis that are far away from the model and are outliners

- NAME

these are points on the x axis that are far away from the model and are outliners - infleunical observations

- Are all influenical observations outliners?
- yes

- Are all outliners infleunical observations?
- no

- T or F

all outliners are infleuntial observations - false

- T or F

all infleuntial observations are outliners - true

- What are influenical observations?
- are observations whose absence dramatically changes the model

- NAME

are observations whose absence dramatically changes the model - infleunical observations

- Using graph 13,

what is the approximate of r? - r=o

- Using graph 14,

(1)what is the aproximate of r? - r =1

- Using graph 15,

(1)what is the aproximate of r? - r=-1

- T or F

correlation means causation - false

- Does correlation mean causation?
- no

- If x or y are highly correlated or there is highy correlation, this means that (1)
- you cannot say that x cuased y unless u do experiements

- if x and y are (1), you cannot say that x caused y unless u do experiments
- highly correlated

- If x and y are (1)this means that x caused y
- are negativly correlated

- If x and y are negativly correlated this means that (1)
- x caused y

- What is multivariate multiple linear regression?
- has many response varaibles and many predictable variables

- NAME

has many response variables and many predictables variables - multivariate multiple linear regression

- What does SRS stand for?
- Simple Random Sampling

- What is SRS?
- refers to when each of the members of the pop has a equal change of being selected sample

- NAME

refers to when each of the members of the pop has a equal change of being selected sample - SRS

- When can be SRS be biased?
- if the pop you sampled from is not homogenous

- What is stratified Random sampling?
- refers to when we divide the pop into the strata and from each stratum we take SRS, this way each group is represented

- NAME

this refers to when we divide the pop into the strata and from each stratum we take SRS, this way each group is represented - stratifed random sampling

- If the pop is homogenous do u need stratifed random sampling?
- no

- What is systematic sampling?
- is when you create a system to select samples that represents the pop

- NAME

this refers to when you create a system to select samples that represents the pop - systematic sampling

- NAME

a ex of this type of sampling is when you select every 4th person in the row to sample - systematic sampling

- NAME

a ex of this type of sampling is when the port authority wants to check crates for drugs. they samples 1,000 crates out of 300,00. furthermore, each crate contains 200 dolls. they also inspected the dolls in 50 out of the 1,000 crates - multistage sampling

- What is cluster sampling?
- refers to when you sample a cluster or group of people

- NAME

this refers to when you sample a cluster or group - cluster sampling

- The population consists of 20 males and 80 females and the total is 100 people.

Draw a sampling frame - See graph 16

- The population consists of 20 males and 80 females and the total is 100 people.

(1)Draw a sampling frame

(2)How many females and males would needed to be sampled so that the sampling was proportional? - (1)see graph 16

(2)ratio of the sampling fram is 80:20 or 4:1

Therefore,

females =4/5*100=80

males=1/5*100=20

- What are the differ types of biased samples? (6)
- (1)convenience sampling (2)call in sampling (3)undercoverage sample (4)non-response (5)response bias (6)sampling varability

- Give a ex of convenience sampling?
- if you want to know how many people like shoping so you survey only people shopping at a mall

- NAME

a example of this is if you want to know how many people like shoping so you survey only people who are shoping at a mall - convenience sampling

- NAME

these include conveience sampling, call in sampling, undercoverage sample, non-response, response bias, and sampling varability - biased samples

- What is the undercoverage sampling?
- refers to when one pop is undercovered

- NAME

this refers to when one pop is undercovered - undercoverage sampling

- What is call in sampling?
- refers to sampling over the phone

- NAME

this refers to sampling data over the phone - sampling

- What is non-response bias?
- is when you have a lack of response from the people you are sampling

- NAME

this refers to when you have a lack of response from the people you are sampling - non-response bias

- What is sample variaiblity?
- refers to samples that are not homogenous but of differ groups

- NAME

this refers to samples that are not homoegenous but of different groups - sample variablity

- What are the (2) differ types of stastical study?
- (1)survey study (2)experimental study

- NAME

these include survey study and experimental study - stastical study

- Most medial studies are (1)
- survey studies

- What is a survey study?
- refers to when the researcher does not impose any conditions to affect the response or outcome

- NAME

this refers to when the researcher does not impose any conditions to affect the response or outcome - survey study

- What is a experiment?
- is a controled task that yeilds observations

- NAME

this is a controled task that yeilds observations - experiment

- T or F

regression is a experiment - fasle

- Can a regression be a experiment?
- no

- In order to do a experiment well, you must(1)
- eliminate all the outcomes that may affect what you are testing

- NAME

if you want to do this well you must eliminate all the outcomes that may affect what you are testing - experiment

- What is a experimental study?
- refers to when the reseracher imposes experimental conidtions to alter the response

- NAME

this refers to when the reseracher imposes experimental conditions to alter the response - experimental study

- NAME

this is used to study cause and effect - experimental study

- Experimental study can be used to study (1)
- cause and effect

- T or F

a survey can be used to study cause and effect - false

- Can a survey be used to stuyd a cause and effect?
- no

- What is the experimental treatment?
- is anything you do to alter the response or outcome

- NAME

this is the experiment conidtion that imposes the smallest experiment observation or experimental unit - experimental treatments

- NAME

this refers to anything you do to alter the response or outcome - experimental treatment

- Mr. Tek gives you a take home test to students to see how much they know about stats

(1)what is the treatment?

(2)what is the experimental unit?

(3)what is the response? - (1)the treatment is the pre-test

(2)Experimental unit is the students

(3)The response is the grades

- What are (3) properties of experimental design?
- (1)local control

(2)randomization

(3)replication

- NAME

this has three properties: local control, randomization, and replication - experimental design

- Give a example of local control?
- see the sampling frame on graph 17

- Using graph 17,

(1)it is a example of what? - local control

- What does randomization do?
- it reduces the passible systematic errors

therefore, making a more precise prediction

- NAME

this reduces the possible systematic errors,

Therefore, making a more prescise prediction - randomization

- Response bias can also be called the (1)
- sampling error

- (1)can be also called the sampling error
- response bias

- What is replication?
- is when you apply treatments to differ experiemntal units (replicate) and expect similar response

- NAME

this is when you apply treatments to differ experimental units (replicate) and expect similar response - replication

- What is psudo design?
- is a design that design that fails one of the following properties: local control, randomization, and replication

- NAME

this is a design that fails one of the following properties: local control, randomization, and replication - psudo design

- The y variable is the (1)or (2)variable
- depedent or response varaible

- NAME

this is the predicatable varaible - x

- NAME

this is the response varaible - x

- The x varaible is the (1) or (2)variable
- indepedent or predictor

- What is a convenicence sample?
- the sample consists of indivudals who are convenitently avaiable

- NAME

this sample consists of indivudals who are convenitently located - conveinvece sample

- What is a strata?
- refers to when groups are divided into several subgroups

- NAME

this refers to when groups are divided up into several subgroups - strata

- What are factors?
- are explantory variables w certain number of levels

- NAME

are explantory varaibles w a certain number of levels - factors

- What are treatment combinations?
- refers to a combinoation of 2 or more factors of different levels

- NAME

this refers to a combination of 2 or more factors of different levels - treatment combinations

- Using graph 19,

(1)Id the factors

(2)what are the levels?

(3)How many treatment combinations are there? - (1)customers and how to cook hamburgers

(2)customers have 3 levels

the cooking type has 3 levels

(3)3^2=9

- A=is the event that the plane 1hits a target

B=is the event that the plane 2 hits the same target

P(A)=.8 and P(B)=.7

What is the probalilty that plan 1 or plane 2 hits the target? - P(A or B)= P(A)+P(B)-P(AΩB)

therefore= .8+.7-(.8-.7)=.9

90%

- When find the probaility, how do u add?
- P(A or B)=P(A)+P(B)-P(AΩB)

- What does disjointed mean?
- that A and B are seperate

- If two things are disjointed what is P(AΩB)?
- 0

- If two things are disjointed, what is P(AΩB)?
- 0

- If two events are (1), then P(AΩB) equals zero
- disjointed

- Use graph 16,

the two objects A and B are (1) - disjointed

- Use graph 17,

NOTE: the jar contains seperate starbursts (r= red, y=yellow, and g=green)

(1)What is the probalilty that you would get a red or yellow? - P(R)+P(Y)=

20/60 + 10/60= .5

- What does a indepdent event mean?
- it means that the happening of one event does not effect another event

- NAME

this means that the happening of one event does not effect another event - indepdent event

- You toss a coin twice. are the 2 event indepedent?
- yes

- If A&B are indepdent events then P(A and B)= (1)
- P(a)*P(B)

- If A&B are (1)events then P(A and B)=P(a)*P(B)
- indepdent

- A=the event that Lind will get an A

B=the event that Joe will get an A

NOTE:A&B are independent

(1)If P(A)=.9 and P(B)=.8, what is the probality both Linda and Joe get an A? - P(A and B)=P(AΩB)=P(A)*P(B)=.72=

72%

- You toss a coin twice.

(1)what is the probaility you will get two heads? - P(H and H)=

1/4*1/4

- If A1, A2...An are indepdent events then P(A1ΩA2...ΩAn)equals (1)
- P(A1)*P(A2)...P(An)

- A jumbojet has 4 independently working engines(E1, E2, E3, and E4).

A= the event that the engine 1 will fail

B= the event that the E2 will fail

C= is the event that E3 will fail

D= is the event that E4 will fail

P(A)=.0008, - P(A,B,C,and D)=

.0008*.003*.01*.004= 9.6*10^-12

- Supose a shipment is coming in. The shipment consists of 9 items. 27% are defective.

(1)what is the probaility that at least one is not defective? - P(1 item ≤ x >9 items)

solution= 1-P^n

1-(27)^9= .99

- The classroom has .6 males and .4 females. You meet 3 people in the classroom.

(1)what is the probaility you meet all females?

(2)What is the probaility thaat at least one of the three people you meet is male? - (1)P(F and F and F)=.4^3=

.064%

- The classroom has .6 males and .4 females. You meet 3 people in the classroom.

(1)What is the probaility thaat at least one of the three people you meet is male? - 1-P(A)^n=

1-(.6)^3=78.4%

- What does CRD stand for?
- Completely randomized design

- What is CRD?
- is when you randomly asssign treatments to experimental units

- NAME

this is when you assign treatments to experimental units - CRD

- If experimental units are not (1)then they are bias
- homogenous

- If experimental units are not homgenous then they are (1)
- bias

- What does CRBD stand for?
- completely randomized block design

- What is CRBD?
- is when you block the experimental units based on similarities

- NAME

this is when you block the experimental units based on similarities - CRBD

- What is blocking?
- refers to seperating certain groups

- NAME

this refers to seperating certain groups - blocking

- WHen is a test statisctially significant?
- if the test is so affective that it is very unlikely that the affect is due to chance

- NAME

this means tha the test is so affective that it is very unlikely that the affect is due to chance - stastically significant

- What are subjects?
- refers to humans in a experiment

- NAME

this refers to humans in a experiment - subjects

- What is single blind experiment?
- refers to when the subjects do not know what they are getting. however, the researchers knows what he or she is administering to the subject

- NAME

this refers to when the subjects do not know what they are getting. however, the researchers knows what he or she is administering to the subject - single blind experiment

- What is a double blind experiment?
- refers to when niether the subjects nor the administer know what the treatments the subject is getting or what they are administering

- NAME

this refers to when neither the subjects nor the administer know what the treatments the subject is getting or what they are administering - double blind experiment

- What is the control?
- is a standard treatment w which others are compared

- NAME

this is the treatment w which others are compared - control

- What is the placebo?
- is a treatment with neutral or no effects

- NAME

this refers to a treatment w neutral or no effects - placebo

- What is the placebo effects?
- is the tendency of a subject to show a postive response or some response to a placebo treatment

- NAME

is the tendency of a subject to show a postive reponse or some response to a placebo treatment - placebo effect

- T or F

in stats we always have error bc samples are always part of the pop - true

- What do stats use probaility for?
- to find errors in the pop samples

- What is the probalilty?
- is the study of phenomena

- NAME

is the study of phenomena - probaility

- What does confounding mean?
- refers to when you can not tell waht response varaibles are

- NAME

this refers to when you cannot tell what the response varaibles - confounding

- What is the sample space?
- refers to all possible outcomes of an experiment

- NAME

this refers to all possible outcomes of an experiment - sample space

- You toss 2 coins,

(1)what is the P that you will get both heads? - P(H and H) bc are dependent

2^2=4

P(H and H)=1/4

- You toss 3 coins,

How many possible outcomes are there? - 2^3= 8

8 possible outcomes

- You toss 1 die and 3 coins

(1)how many possible outcomes are there?

(2)Find P for 6 on the die and three heads? - (1)6*2^3

(2)P(6,HHH)= 3/8

- A newly married couple wants to have 3 children, what is the P she will have all girls?

(1)Assume P(girls)=P(boys)

(2)she does not have triplets - outcomes= 2^3= 8 possible outcomes

P(G,G, and G)=1/8+1/8+1/8=3/8

- Supose there are 30 questions and a person did not study. Each questions has 2 answers. What is the P she or he will get all the questions right?
- Sample frame=2^30

1/2^30

- What an event?
- is a subset of a sample space

- NAME

this is subset of a sample space - event

- What are (2) types of events?
- (1)sure event (2)impossible event

- What is a sure event?
- is a event that must happen

- NAME

is a event that must happen - sure event

- What is a impossible event?
- is a event that cannot happen

- NAME

this is a event that cannot happen - impossible event

- What is P of a sure event?
- 100%

- What is the P of an impossible event?
- 0

- NAME

the probality of this event is 100% - sure event

- NAME

the P of this event is 0 - a impossible event

- The proability of any event is btwn (1) and (2)
- 0 and 1

- What is PE stand for?
- is the probability of any event

- What does S stand for?
- sample space

- What is the P(S)?
- 1

- What does emperical mean?
- refers to something pratical

- NAME

this refers to something pratical - emperical

- How do you find P(E)?
- the number of times the event occurs/ the number of times the experiment is done

- Toss a coin 1,000 times.

Heads=450

(1)What is the P(E)? - P(H)= 450/1000= 9/20

- n=30 students.

There are 18 females and 12 males

(1)what is the P of females?

(2)what is the P of males? - P(F)=18/30= 60%

(2)P(M)= 40%

- Using graph 22,

(1)what is the probaility that a person's religion is Catholic and Republican? - P(C and R)=12,000/75,000= 16%

- Use graph 22,

(1)what is the P that a person will vote democrat given that his or her religion is prostant? - total=24,000 +34,000= 58,000

11,0000/24,0000= 46%

- If you see given, what does indicate?
- means that the sample space changes and does not equal the grand total