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Glossary of STA 2023 (exam 2) CORRECT ONE

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Using graph 1,

(1)what is the slope? (postive, negative, or undefined)
postive
Using graph 2,
(1)what is the slope? (postive, negative, or undefined)
(2)explain the correlation btwn x and y (postive or negative correlated)
(1)postive (2)postively correlated
Using graph 3,
(1)what is the slope? (postive, negative, or undefined)
negative
Using graph 4,
(1)what is the slope? (postive, negative, or undefined)
(2)What is the correlation btwn x and y? (postive or negative
(1)negative (2)x and y are negatively associated
Using graph 5,

(1)what is the slope? (postive, negative, or undefined)
(2)how are the x and y correlated to the line?
(1)0 (2)the correlation btwn the points is zero
Using graph 6,
(1)what is the slope?
(2)how are x and y correlated to the line?
(1)undefined (2)undefined
y is called the (1)
dependent variable
NAME
this is called the dependent variable
y
x is called the (1)
independent variable
What is the point slope formula?
y-y1=m(x-x1)
NAME
this is called the independent variable
x
What is regression?
is a stastical tool that uses the relation btwn two or more quanitative variables so that one variable can be predicted from the other or find the assocation btwn the two varaibles
NAME
is a stastical tool that uses the relation btwn two or more quanitative varaibles so that one variable can be predicted from the other or find the assocation btwn varaibles x and y
regression
What is a response variable measure?
measusres the outcome of a certain study
NAME
this measures the outcome of a certain study
response variable
What is an explantory variable?
explains or may cause changes in the response variable
NAME
this varaible explains or may cause changes in the response variable
explantory variable
When are two variables assocaited?
if some some values of one of the variable occur more often w some values of the other varaible
Two variables are (1)if some values of one of the varaible occur more often w some values of the other variable
associated
y is the (1) or the (2)variable
(1)dependent (2) reponse
NAME
this is called the response variable
y
Which varaible is the response varaible?
y
NAME
this is the independent variable
x
NAME
this is the predictor variable
x
Which variable is the predictor variable?
x
the x is the (1) or (2)variable
(1)independent (2)predictor
What equation is used to represent the simple linear regression model?
y=a+bx+E
What is the equation y=a+bx+E used for?
simple linear regression model
y=a+bx+E

(1)what does a represent?
(2)What does b represent?
(3)what does E represent?
(1)y intercept
(2)slope of the line
(3)the random error component
y=a+bx+E

(1)what is the deterministic part of the equation?
(2)what is the E part of the equation?
(1)a+bx
(2)E
What is the mean of E?
0
What does E stand for?
the random variable
How is E distrubed?
normally
What are (2)assumptions you can make about the E?
(1)the random varible E has a mean of zero and a constant varaince σ^2 and are distrubed normally (2)for possible pair of observations yi and yj, the associated random errors E1 and E2 are indepedent
What does correlation?
is a measure of the strength of a linear relationship btwn the response variable and the predictor variable
NAME
is a measure of the strength of a linear relationship btwn the response varaible and the predictor variable
correlation
r^2 is called the (1)
cofficeient of determination
NAME
this is called the cofficient of determination
r^2
y is the weight of babies and x= is the age of the baby and

y=10x=8

(1)what is the predication equation?
y=10x+8
the predication equation can also be called the (1)
least squares of line regression
the (1)can also be called the least sqaures of line regression
the prediction equation
Using graph 7,
(1)what is the aprox of r?
r=1
Using graph 8,
(1)what is the aprox of r?
r=.8 or about 1
How do you tell if r is 1 or -1?
all points are on the line
When r is -1 or 1?
when all points on the line
When is r negative?
when the slope is negative
When is r postive?
when the slope is postive
How do you find the prediction equation using your calculator?
go to stat calc, select #8 or LinReg(ax+b)(x,y)
Using data in L6,

predict the number of manatees that will be killed if x=682.
plug in x=682 to prediction equation (y=.125x+41.43)

y=126.68 manatees would be killed
What does TSS refer to?
refers to the total sum of the sqaures of the variation
NAME
this refers to the total sum of the sqaures of the variation
TSS
What does SSR refer to?
the variation explained by the model
NAME
this refers to the variation explained by the model
SSR
What does SSE refer to?
the varation due to error
NAME
this refers to the variation due to error
SSE
If (1)then this means that it is a good model and most of the points are on the line
if SSR is larger compared to SSE
If SSR is larger compared to SSE then this means that (1)
it is a good model and most of the points are on the line
if (1)then this means that it is abd model and that most of the points are not on the line
SSE is larger than SSR
If SSE is larger than SSR then this means that (1)
it is a bad model and most of the points are not on the line
What does r measure?
the strength and direction of the line
NAME
this measaures the strength and direction of the line
r
What does r^2 measure?
measures how much of the data can be explained by the line
NAME
this measures how much of the data can be explained by the line
r^2
How do you find the residuals?
^
y-y
Using L6,
(1)find the residual for y=47 for manatees
(719, 47)for y=.1249x-41.4304
^
y-y = 47-(-41.4+1.25(719))

residual is -1.475
The best fit of the line is has to be a (1)
linear model
Using graph 9,

(1)is the graph a good or bad model?
yes
Using graph 10,
(1)is the graph a good or bad model?
no because it is not a linear model
Using graph 11,
(1)is the graph a good or bad model?
no
What is the lurking varaible?
is a variable that affects the response varaible but it is not included in the model
NAME
this is a variable that affects the response varaible but it is not included in the model
lurking variable
What is the goal of regression? (2)
(1)prediction of response variable using the predictor varaible (2)correlation of variables
NAME
this has two goals: prediction of response variable using the predictor variable and correlation of variables
regression
What is a multiple linear regression?
has a 1 response variable and many prediction variables
Using graph 12,
(1)what are A,B, and C?
influenical observations
How do u tell what points are infleunical observations?
are points on the x axis that are far away from the model and are outliners
NAME
these are points on the x axis that are far away from the model and are outliners
infleunical observations
Are all influenical observations outliners?
yes
Are all outliners infleunical observations?
no
T or F
all outliners are infleuntial observations
false
T or F
all infleuntial observations are outliners
true
What are influenical observations?
are observations whose absence dramatically changes the model
NAME
are observations whose absence dramatically changes the model
infleunical observations
Using graph 13,
what is the approximate of r?
r=o
Using graph 14,
(1)what is the aproximate of r?
r =1
Using graph 15,
(1)what is the aproximate of r?
r=-1
T or F
correlation means causation
false
Does correlation mean causation?
no
If x or y are highly correlated or there is highy correlation, this means that (1)
you cannot say that x cuased y unless u do experiements
if x and y are (1), you cannot say that x caused y unless u do experiments
highly correlated
If x and y are (1)this means that x caused y
are negativly correlated
If x and y are negativly correlated this means that (1)
x caused y
What is multivariate multiple linear regression?
has many response varaibles and many predictable variables
NAME
has many response variables and many predictables variables
multivariate multiple linear regression
What does SRS stand for?
Simple Random Sampling
What is SRS?
refers to when each of the members of the pop has a equal change of being selected sample
NAME
refers to when each of the members of the pop has a equal change of being selected sample
SRS
When can be SRS be biased?
if the pop you sampled from is not homogenous
What is stratified Random sampling?
refers to when we divide the pop into the strata and from each stratum we take SRS, this way each group is represented
NAME
this refers to when we divide the pop into the strata and from each stratum we take SRS, this way each group is represented
stratifed random sampling
If the pop is homogenous do u need stratifed random sampling?
no
What is systematic sampling?
is when you create a system to select samples that represents the pop
NAME
this refers to when you create a system to select samples that represents the pop
systematic sampling
NAME
a ex of this type of sampling is when you select every 4th person in the row to sample
systematic sampling
NAME
a ex of this type of sampling is when the port authority wants to check crates for drugs. they samples 1,000 crates out of 300,00. furthermore, each crate contains 200 dolls. they also inspected the dolls in 50 out of the 1,000 crates
multistage sampling
What is cluster sampling?
refers to when you sample a cluster or group of people
NAME
this refers to when you sample a cluster or group
cluster sampling
The population consists of 20 males and 80 females and the total is 100 people.

Draw a sampling frame
See graph 16
The population consists of 20 males and 80 females and the total is 100 people.
(1)Draw a sampling frame
(2)How many females and males would needed to be sampled so that the sampling was proportional?
(1)see graph 16
(2)ratio of the sampling fram is 80:20 or 4:1

Therefore,
females =4/5*100=80
males=1/5*100=20
What are the differ types of biased samples? (6)
(1)convenience sampling (2)call in sampling (3)undercoverage sample (4)non-response (5)response bias (6)sampling varability
Give a ex of convenience sampling?
if you want to know how many people like shoping so you survey only people shopping at a mall
NAME
a example of this is if you want to know how many people like shoping so you survey only people who are shoping at a mall
convenience sampling
NAME
these include conveience sampling, call in sampling, undercoverage sample, non-response, response bias, and sampling varability
biased samples
What is the undercoverage sampling?
refers to when one pop is undercovered
NAME
this refers to when one pop is undercovered
undercoverage sampling
What is call in sampling?
refers to sampling over the phone
NAME
this refers to sampling data over the phone
sampling
What is non-response bias?
is when you have a lack of response from the people you are sampling
NAME
this refers to when you have a lack of response from the people you are sampling
non-response bias
What is sample variaiblity?
refers to samples that are not homogenous but of differ groups
NAME
this refers to samples that are not homoegenous but of different groups
sample variablity
What are the (2) differ types of stastical study?
(1)survey study (2)experimental study
NAME
these include survey study and experimental study
stastical study
Most medial studies are (1)
survey studies
What is a survey study?
refers to when the researcher does not impose any conditions to affect the response or outcome
NAME
this refers to when the researcher does not impose any conditions to affect the response or outcome
survey study
What is a experiment?
is a controled task that yeilds observations
NAME
this is a controled task that yeilds observations
experiment
T or F
regression is a experiment
fasle
Can a regression be a experiment?
no
In order to do a experiment well, you must(1)
eliminate all the outcomes that may affect what you are testing
NAME
if you want to do this well you must eliminate all the outcomes that may affect what you are testing
experiment
What is a experimental study?
refers to when the reseracher imposes experimental conidtions to alter the response
NAME
this refers to when the reseracher imposes experimental conditions to alter the response
experimental study
NAME
this is used to study cause and effect
experimental study
Experimental study can be used to study (1)
cause and effect
T or F
a survey can be used to study cause and effect
false
Can a survey be used to stuyd a cause and effect?
no
What is the experimental treatment?
is anything you do to alter the response or outcome
NAME
this is the experiment conidtion that imposes the smallest experiment observation or experimental unit
experimental treatments
NAME
this refers to anything you do to alter the response or outcome
experimental treatment
Mr. Tek gives you a take home test to students to see how much they know about stats

(1)what is the treatment?
(2)what is the experimental unit?
(3)what is the response?
(1)the treatment is the pre-test
(2)Experimental unit is the students
(3)The response is the grades
What are (3) properties of experimental design?
(1)local control
(2)randomization
(3)replication
NAME
this has three properties: local control, randomization, and replication
experimental design
Give a example of local control?
see the sampling frame on graph 17
Using graph 17,
(1)it is a example of what?
local control
What does randomization do?
it reduces the passible systematic errors

therefore, making a more precise prediction
NAME
this reduces the possible systematic errors,
Therefore, making a more prescise prediction
randomization
Response bias can also be called the (1)
sampling error
(1)can be also called the sampling error
response bias
What is replication?
is when you apply treatments to differ experiemntal units (replicate) and expect similar response
NAME
this is when you apply treatments to differ experimental units (replicate) and expect similar response
replication
What is psudo design?
is a design that design that fails one of the following properties: local control, randomization, and replication
NAME
this is a design that fails one of the following properties: local control, randomization, and replication
psudo design
The y variable is the (1)or (2)variable
depedent or response varaible
NAME
this is the predicatable varaible
x
NAME
this is the response varaible
x
The x varaible is the (1) or (2)variable
indepedent or predictor
What is a convenicence sample?
the sample consists of indivudals who are convenitently avaiable
NAME
this sample consists of indivudals who are convenitently located
conveinvece sample
What is a strata?
refers to when groups are divided into several subgroups
NAME
this refers to when groups are divided up into several subgroups
strata
What are factors?
are explantory variables w certain number of levels
NAME
are explantory varaibles w a certain number of levels
factors
What are treatment combinations?
refers to a combinoation of 2 or more factors of different levels
NAME
this refers to a combination of 2 or more factors of different levels
treatment combinations
Using graph 19,
(1)Id the factors
(2)what are the levels?
(3)How many treatment combinations are there?
(1)customers and how to cook hamburgers
(2)customers have 3 levels
the cooking type has 3 levels
(3)3^2=9
A=is the event that the plane 1hits a target
B=is the event that the plane 2 hits the same target

P(A)=.8 and P(B)=.7
What is the probalilty that plan 1 or plane 2 hits the target?
P(A or B)= P(A)+P(B)-P(AΩB)
therefore= .8+.7-(.8-.7)=.9

90%
When find the probaility, how do u add?
P(A or B)=P(A)+P(B)-P(AΩB)
What does disjointed mean?
that A and B are seperate
If two things are disjointed what is P(AΩB)?
0
If two things are disjointed, what is P(AΩB)?
0
If two events are (1), then P(AΩB) equals zero
disjointed
Use graph 16,
the two objects A and B are (1)
disjointed
Use graph 17,

NOTE: the jar contains seperate starbursts (r= red, y=yellow, and g=green)
(1)What is the probalilty that you would get a red or yellow?
P(R)+P(Y)=

20/60 + 10/60= .5
What does a indepdent event mean?
it means that the happening of one event does not effect another event
NAME
this means that the happening of one event does not effect another event
indepdent event
You toss a coin twice. are the 2 event indepedent?
yes
If A&B are indepdent events then P(A and B)= (1)
P(a)*P(B)
If A&B are (1)events then P(A and B)=P(a)*P(B)
indepdent
A=the event that Lind will get an A
B=the event that Joe will get an A
NOTE:A&B are independent
(1)If P(A)=.9 and P(B)=.8, what is the probality both Linda and Joe get an A?
P(A and B)=P(AΩB)=P(A)*P(B)=.72=
72%
You toss a coin twice.
(1)what is the probaility you will get two heads?
P(H and H)=
1/4*1/4
If A1, A2...An are indepdent events then P(A1ΩA2...ΩAn)equals (1)
P(A1)*P(A2)...P(An)
A jumbojet has 4 independently working engines(E1, E2, E3, and E4).
A= the event that the engine 1 will fail
B= the event that the E2 will fail
C= is the event that E3 will fail
D= is the event that E4 will fail

P(A)=.0008,
P(A,B,C,and D)=

.0008*.003*.01*.004= 9.6*10^-12
Supose a shipment is coming in. The shipment consists of 9 items. 27% are defective.

(1)what is the probaility that at least one is not defective?
P(1 item ≤ x >9 items)

solution= 1-P^n

1-(27)^9= .99
The classroom has .6 males and .4 females. You meet 3 people in the classroom.
(1)what is the probaility you meet all females?
(2)What is the probaility thaat at least one of the three people you meet is male?
(1)P(F and F and F)=.4^3=

.064%
The classroom has .6 males and .4 females. You meet 3 people in the classroom.
(1)What is the probaility thaat at least one of the three people you meet is male?
1-P(A)^n=
1-(.6)^3=78.4%
What does CRD stand for?
Completely randomized design
What is CRD?
is when you randomly asssign treatments to experimental units
NAME
this is when you assign treatments to experimental units
CRD
If experimental units are not (1)then they are bias
homogenous
If experimental units are not homgenous then they are (1)
bias
What does CRBD stand for?
completely randomized block design
What is CRBD?
is when you block the experimental units based on similarities
NAME
this is when you block the experimental units based on similarities
CRBD
What is blocking?
refers to seperating certain groups
NAME
this refers to seperating certain groups
blocking
WHen is a test statisctially significant?
if the test is so affective that it is very unlikely that the affect is due to chance
NAME
this means tha the test is so affective that it is very unlikely that the affect is due to chance
stastically significant
What are subjects?
refers to humans in a experiment
NAME
this refers to humans in a experiment
subjects
What is single blind experiment?
refers to when the subjects do not know what they are getting. however, the researchers knows what he or she is administering to the subject
NAME
this refers to when the subjects do not know what they are getting. however, the researchers knows what he or she is administering to the subject
single blind experiment
What is a double blind experiment?
refers to when niether the subjects nor the administer know what the treatments the subject is getting or what they are administering
NAME
this refers to when neither the subjects nor the administer know what the treatments the subject is getting or what they are administering
double blind experiment
What is the control?
is a standard treatment w which others are compared
NAME
this is the treatment w which others are compared
control
What is the placebo?
is a treatment with neutral or no effects
NAME
this refers to a treatment w neutral or no effects
placebo
What is the placebo effects?
is the tendency of a subject to show a postive response or some response to a placebo treatment
NAME
is the tendency of a subject to show a postive reponse or some response to a placebo treatment
placebo effect
T or F
in stats we always have error bc samples are always part of the pop
true
What do stats use probaility for?
to find errors in the pop samples
What is the probalilty?
is the study of phenomena
NAME
is the study of phenomena
probaility
What does confounding mean?
refers to when you can not tell waht response varaibles are
NAME
this refers to when you cannot tell what the response varaibles
confounding
What is the sample space?
refers to all possible outcomes of an experiment
NAME
this refers to all possible outcomes of an experiment
sample space
You toss 2 coins,
(1)what is the P that you will get both heads?
P(H and H) bc are dependent

2^2=4

P(H and H)=1/4
You toss 3 coins,

How many possible outcomes are there?
2^3= 8

8 possible outcomes
You toss 1 die and 3 coins

(1)how many possible outcomes are there?
(2)Find P for 6 on the die and three heads?
(1)6*2^3
(2)P(6,HHH)= 3/8
A newly married couple wants to have 3 children, what is the P she will have all girls?
(1)Assume P(girls)=P(boys)
(2)she does not have triplets
outcomes= 2^3= 8 possible outcomes

P(G,G, and G)=1/8+1/8+1/8=3/8
Supose there are 30 questions and a person did not study. Each questions has 2 answers. What is the P she or he will get all the questions right?
Sample frame=2^30

1/2^30
What an event?
is a subset of a sample space
NAME
this is subset of a sample space
event
What are (2) types of events?
(1)sure event (2)impossible event
What is a sure event?
is a event that must happen
NAME
is a event that must happen
sure event
What is a impossible event?
is a event that cannot happen
NAME
this is a event that cannot happen
impossible event
What is P of a sure event?
100%
What is the P of an impossible event?
0
NAME
the probality of this event is 100%
sure event
NAME
the P of this event is 0
a impossible event
The proability of any event is btwn (1) and (2)
0 and 1
What is PE stand for?
is the probability of any event
What does S stand for?
sample space
What is the P(S)?
1
What does emperical mean?
refers to something pratical
NAME
this refers to something pratical
emperical
How do you find P(E)?
the number of times the event occurs/ the number of times the experiment is done
Toss a coin 1,000 times.
Heads=450
(1)What is the P(E)?
P(H)= 450/1000= 9/20
n=30 students.
There are 18 females and 12 males
(1)what is the P of females?
(2)what is the P of males?
P(F)=18/30= 60%
(2)P(M)= 40%
Using graph 22,
(1)what is the probaility that a person's religion is Catholic and Republican?
P(C and R)=12,000/75,000= 16%
Use graph 22,
(1)what is the P that a person will vote democrat given that his or her religion is prostant?
total=24,000 +34,000= 58,000

11,0000/24,0000= 46%
If you see given, what does indicate?
means that the sample space changes and does not equal the grand total

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