## Glossary of SPSS Glossary

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- aggregate data
- data based on larger group from smaller

- alternative forms method
- measuring the same variable different ways with two equal forms

- analysis of variance
- comparing variance in the dependant variable in the three or more groups to the dependant variable

- antecedent variable
- independent variable that logically come before another independent variable

- association
- a change in one variable happens with the change in another variable

- authority
- accepted as fact based on the position of who tells you

- bar chart
- frequency distribution at the nominal and ordinal level

- benchmarks of acceptable risk
- accepted levels of risk for determining probability

- beta weight
- slope of a regression line after standardization

- bivariate analysis
- analysis of two variable simultaneously to determine if there is a relationship

- Boolean Connectors
- internet searches using and or not

- call numbers
- library numbers

- case study
- examining in detail on only one occasion

- causal chain
- variables linked together that explain a dependent variable

- causal hypothesis
- independent variable always changes another variable

- causation
- change in dependent variable caused by the independent variable.

- census
- gather data from every member of a population

- census data
- information collect by govt about entire population

- chi square
- cross tabulation data to determine significance

- classic experimental design
- random subjects with control group and experimental group

- cleaning data
- checking and correcting data

- closed ended question
- limited answers that they must choose from

- cluster sampling
- clumping population based on a criteria

- codebook
- equates answers to values for calculation

- coefficient of determination
- r2 variation of dependent variable explained by independent variable.

- coefficient of multiple determination
- r2 variation of dependent variable explained by all the independent variables in multivariate analysis.

- collapse a variable
- combine variables

- comparative value statement
- compare relative values of variables

- comparison group
- not randomly assigned control group

- compound hypothesis
- hypothesis with two or more variables

- concept
- organized characteristics of objects, phenomena and ideas

- conceptualization
- defining concepts so meaning are concise

- concurrent validity
- validity is demonstrated by measuring the predictor and criterion at the same time

- condensed table
- multivariate table with only one dependent variable being shown

- confidentiality
- information provided by subject will not be revealed

- confounding factors
- independent variables may affect dependent variables

- consistency bias
- people answering question answer questions in a way to sound logical and consistent

- construct validity
- extent in which a measure entirely covers a concept

- content analysis
- collect and analyze written and electronic media

- content validity
- measure covers the full meaning of a concept

- contingency questions
- filter question

- control group
- identical to experimental group but are not exposed to the experiment

- control variable
- constant variable used to determine relationship between two other variables

- convenience sampling
- haphazard samples

- criterion-related validity
- extent a measure is related to something it should be related to

- cross tabulation
- one variable is classified in terms of another

- cumulative percentage
- additive percentage of cases

- data archives
- collected data from previous research

- data file
- computer file that stores data

- data matrix
- template used to organized data

- debriefing
- explaining experiment to subjects after the experiment

- deductive reasoning
- generalizations are used to make specific statements

- dependent variable
- changes in a variable is effected by an independent variable.

- description
- information about a single variable or a single case

- descriptive question
- a question asking about reality rather than seeking an answer.

- descriptive statistics
- summary of values of a single variable measuring central tendency.

- deviation score
- difference between the value of a variable and the mean of the distribution, added together always equals zero.

- dichotomous variable
- variable with only two values.

- direction of a relationship
- how two variables are associated (positive or negative)

- directional hypothesis
- hypothesis that states how two variables are related.

- disproportionate stratified sample
- sample elements are disproportionately represent when compared to the population.

- ecological fallacy
- stereotypes used to make decision about individuals

- elaboration
- examining effects of control variables on the relationship of two variables.

- element
- something that a researcher collects information on.

- empirical political analysis
- a method of testing one ideas about politics by collecting/analyzing data.

- empirical question
- a question that can be answered by gathering information and analyzing that data.

- error component
- Unexplained variation of the dependent variable in a regression equation

- evaluative statement
- statement made based on personal experiences.

- event statistic
- data used to collectivities such as countries or cities.

- expected frequency
- expected frequency if variables are unrelated.

- experimental group
- group in an experiment exposed to the experiment

- experimental mortality
- loss of members for control and experiment groups over the length of the study.

- explanation

- explanatory question
- A question about why something exists or the cause of some behavior

- extensive approach
- getting a small amount of information from a large sample

- external validity
- results of an experiment can be generalized to other groups of situations

- F-Test
- statistical significance among the means from three or more analysis groups.

- face validity
- makes sense based on common definition

- factorial design
- design in which more than one independant variable is employed

- faith
- knowledge not based on proof

- field experiment
- real world setting

- filter question
- screening question

- frequency distribution
- value present in numbers and percentages

- frequency polygon
- line graph with interval/ratio on X axis and frequency/proportion on Y axis

- gamma
- a statistic that indicates the strength and relationship of two variables

- histogram
- bar chart where width measures interval and all bars touch which measures duration.

- history
- life events that effect the way people may answer a question.

- hypothesis
- statement of relationship that can be tested

- hypothetical-deductive system
- observation results in generalizations about the world

- independent variable
- the variable that is not effected by the dependent variable.

- index
- how you measure indicators to determine a concept

- indicator
- observable evidence

- inductive reasoning
- specific observation used to make a generalization

- informed consent
- telling the subject what you are going to do an them agreeing freely

- institutional review board
- reviews research to protect humans

- instrumentation
- developing measurement devices

- intensive approach
- lots of quests to a small group

- interactive effect
- effect of two or more variables on one dependent variable

- intercoder reliability
- reliability between codebooks

- internal validity
- how much changes in the indep variable changes the dependent variable.

- interquartile range
- range of value represented by middle 50%

- intersubjective agreement
- level of agreement between two people on how and event should be described

- interval level of measurement
- scale of measurement that not only rank orders but also shows equal interval between values

- intervening variable
- control variable placed between the independent and dependent variable.

- investment
- believing something because of personal stake in it being true.

- judgmental data
- measures that are based on the opinions of experts in categorizing units of analysis

- judgmental sample
- selected sample units believed to be representative of a population

- keywords and phrases

- lambda
- Stat that measures strength of association at the nominal level

- latent content
- deeper meaning of media messages grouped by content analysis

- levels of measurement
- amount of information and levels of precision

- liner regression analysis
- best fit line between multiple variables

- logic
- knowledge through mental thought

- macro level of analysis
- analysis of units for things that can be described geographically

- main effect
- direct effect of independent variable on dependent variables

- manifest content
- easily understood content of media messages

- marginals
- totals of columns and rows

- maturation
- change in subject to time

- mean
- a measure of the central tendency for variables

- measurement
- numbers are assigned units of analysis to determine worth

- measurement error
- difference be a concept and its operational definition

- measure of association
- strength and relationship between a variable

- measures of central tendency
- the most frequent value

- measure of dispersion
- distance from the central tendency

- median
- middle point of a distribution

- median group
- group that contains the median

- micro level of analysis
- focus on people vs countries

- modal category
- variable that contains the greatest number of cases

- mode
- the most frequently occurring variable

- multigroup design
- an experimental group is added for each independent variable above two.

- multigroup time series design
- design with multiple pre and post tests

- multiple correlation coefficient
- a measure of association between a dependent variable and tow or more independent variables

- multiple linear regression
- measuring the relationship between a dependent variable and two independent variables while holding one independent variable constant

- multistage cluster sampling
- groups are sampled in the early stages and individuals in the late stages.

- multivariate analysis
- looking at the relationships of two or more variables

- multivariate percentage table
- percentage table showing relationship between three of more variables

- natural experiment
- experiment where experiment and control group occur naturally in nature and are not chosen by the researcher.

- necessity
- changes in an independent variable are necessary to change the dependent variable

- negative relationship
- relationship is opposite

- nesting
- grouping multivariate analysis

- nominal definition
- definition using words assigned by the researcher

- nominal level of measurement
- analysis without ranking

- nonprobability sample

- nonrandom measurement error

- normal curve
- frequency curve with a bell shape

- normative question
- value laden question for evaluation

- null hypothesis
- no relationship between variables

- observed frequencies
- number of cases found in each cell of cross tabulation

- one-tailed test
- testing the directional hypothesis by comparing two means

- open ended question
- questions that allow people to write their own answers.

- operationalization
- defining concepts that allow them to be measured

- ordinal level of measurement
- classifies units of analysis into categories that have hierarchal order difference between the categories is unknown

- outlier
- plotted value outside the trend

- P-Sample
- the sample of persons analyzed in a study using the Q-technique

- parameter
- the boundaries of an analysis

- partial regression coefficient
- how much change in the dependent variable if you only change one independent variable and all the other independent variables remain constant

- percentage table
- display proportion as opposed to raw numbers

- percentile

- plagiarism

- population
- total set of units for analysis

- population element
- single member of a population

- positive relationship
- relationship between variable moving in the same direction

- posttest
- measurement of the dependent variable after being exposed to the independent variable

- prediction

- predictive validity

- prescriptive value statement
- a value statement characterized by words like should and ought

- pretest

- pretesting

- probability sample

- program evaluation

- proportionate reduction of error
- predicts relationship strength between two variables

- proportionate stratified sampling
- sample populations are selected based on known population elements

- Q-sample
- deliberate sample of statements taken from a group of communications

- Q-sort
- viewpoints selected from strong agreement to strong disagreement

- Q-technique
- data collection of human subjectivity

- qualitative research methods
- used to describe a situation in a natural surrounding

- quasi-experiment
- a sort experiment

- quota sampling
- sampling based on percentage appearing in nature

- random assignment

- random digit dialing

- random measurement error
- random error that can be expected in an experiment

- range
- difference between high and low variable

- ratio level of measurement
- has true zero point as well as all the lower levels of measurement

- recode a variable
- combining variables to simplify

- recording units

- reducing effect
- reducing the strength of the first two variables when a third one is added.

- refining effect
- the original relationship survives only when the third variable is controlled

- regression coefficient
- the slope of a regression line represented as b.

- regression line
- line that best fits a scatter plot

- reliability
- consistency of measurement

- replication
- third variable added does not change the first two.

- research design
- plan to show how hypothesis will be answered

- residual

- response set bias

- revealing effect

- reversal effect
- third variable changes the first two to opposites

- saliency bias
- early question shapes future response

- sample

- sample element

- sampling error

- sampling frame

- sampling interval

- sampling ratio

- scale

- scatter plot
- used to graphically show the relationship between dependent (Y axis) and independent X-axis) variables

- science

- secondary analysis

- self-administered questionnaires

- simple post design

- simple random sample

- slope
- shows change in indep and dependant variables

- snowball sampling
- small group recommends people with similar interests for sampling

- Solomon four group design
- adds two groups the classic experiment to limit bias from the pretest

- split-halves method
- splitting a group giving them the same test an comparing the results

- SPSS
- Statistical Package for the Social Sciences

- spurious relationship
- a relationship that appears casual but is the result of a third variable

- standard deviation
- measure distance from the mean

- standard error
- show sampling error

- standard error estimate
- square root of the average squared error

- standard score
- scores converted to standard deviation units

- statistic
- estimate of population parameter

- statistical significance
- likelihood that a relationship found exists in the general population

- stratified sampling

- strength of relationship
- how much constantly variables move together

- syntality variables
- Variables that describe the qualities of a region or group as a whole, such as American Cities that have city manager forms of government

- systematic sampling
- Sampling by selecting for inclusion every nth element on a list

- t-test
- A statistical procedure to determine the level of statistical significance between means from two analysis groups

- tautology
- a statement that is true by definition and cannot be confirmed or falsified

- temporal order
- Used to infer causality

- test-retest method
- double test at two different points in time to measure validity

- theoretical population
- the population about which the researcher want to develop generalizations

- theories of the middle range
- theories offering reasonable accurate explanations of a limited number of social behaviors

- theory
- something used to explain an occurrence

- time series graph

- two-tailed tests
- testing the null hypothesis by comparing the two means

- Type I error
- False positive

- unit of analysis
- false negative

- univariate statistics
- stats that describe a single variable for the purpose of description

- unobtrusive measures
- Measurement that does not involve direct interaction

- validity
- measure reflect concept to be measured

- variable
- unit of analysis that takes on more than one variable

- variable name

- variance
- measure of dispersion

- writing handbook

- Y-intercept
- where line crosses y axis

- z-score
- A standard score that indicates the number of standard deviation units that a score differs from the mean.