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Glossary of SOCIL 101

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Created by jessica.e.decker@gmail.com

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Affirmative Action
program designed to seek out members of minority groups for positions from which they had previously been excluded, thereby seeking to overcome institutional racism
Colorism
Skin color prejudice within an ethno-racial group, most notably between light and dark skinned blacks
discrimination
unfair treatment of people based on some social characteristic, such as race, ethnicity, or sex
ethnicity
sense of community that derives from the cultural heritage shared by a category of people with common ancestry
panethnic labels
general terms applied to diverse subgroups that are assumed to have something in common
personal racism
individual expression of racist attitudes or behaviors
quiet racism
form of racism expressed subtly and indirectly through feelings of discomfort, uneasiness, and fear, which motivate avoidance rather than blatant discrimination
matriarchy
female-dominated society, which gives higher prestige and value to women than men
pay equity
principle that women and men who perform jobs that are of equal value to society and that require equal training out to be paid equally
sexism
the system of beliefs that assert the inferiority of one sex and justifies gender-based inequality
age structure
population's balance of old and young people
birth cohort
set of people who were born during the same era and who face similar societal circumstances brought about by their shared position in the overall age structure of the population
cohort effect
Phenomenon in which members of a birth cohort tend to experience a particular life course event or rite of passage-pubert, marriage, childbearing, graduation, entry into the workforce, death-at roughly the same time
demographer
sociologist who studies trends in pop characteristics
migration
movement of a population from one geographic area to another
period effect
phenomenon in which a historical event or major social trend contributes to the unique shape and outlook of a birth cohort
urbanization
process by which people leave rural areas and begin to concentrate in large cities
countermovement
collective action designed to prevent or reverse changes sought or accomplished by an earlier social movement
cultural diffusion
process by which beliefs, technology, customs, and other elements of culture spread from one group or society to another
global warming
steady rise in the Earth's average temperature as a result of increasing amount of CO2 in the atmosphere
ideology
coherent system of beliefs, values, and ideas
postindustrial society
society in which knowledge, the control of information, and service industries are more important elements of the economy than agriculture or manufacturing and production

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