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Glossary of SOC. 208 FINAL

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The study of social and cultural influences on the individual and the individual influence on social behavior and culture is referred to as
Sociology
Theory answers_________ while research answers_______
What…why
Author Kurt Vonnegut, Jr takes the position in the “afterword” of Free to BE…You and Me that first graders should learn about
Cultural relativity
In our discussion on cultural differences, Professor Keating told the class about reading an article with an interview with several young women in India. These women flet sorry for American women because
American parents do not care enough about their daughters to arrange good marriages from them.
“The process related to socialization by which the learned behaviors and attitudes seem to be innate or natural” is the definition given in class for
Internalization
If students remember only one thing from this class, Professor Keating wishes it would be which of the following?
The concept of the “looking-Glass Self” and that we all serve as mirrors for children who are learning who they are by how we interact with them.
Which of the following is NOT identified by sociologists as one of the societal functions fulfilled by the social institution of the family?
Regulation of sex, reproduction, care of children, serves as an economic unit.
All of the above have been identified as societal functions fulfilled by the social institution of the family.
The social institution of religion impacts the social institution of the family through the creation or support of norms, beliefs and values. Professor Keating has found one principle common in many religions that, if practiced, would solve many family p
Golden Rule
From a sociological perspective as discussed in class, the clashes between the social institution of religion and the social institutions of science results from the difference in their respective functions in society. One of the functions of religion is
Explain the unknown and unknowable…explain the known and knowable.
The techniques of Participant Observation or Field Research was primarily developed by
Anthropologists
When reviewing social science research which characteristic indicates that you should be skeptical about the accuracy of the information?
To make it easier to read, the author skipped the technical stuff like the population and sample sizes and exact percentages. Instead they reported the finding only as “a majority” or “a minority”
Which is best documented by credible research according to Professor Keating in Class?
Natural Family Planning has much higher failure rate than the Pill, estimated as high as 20 to 30% failure rate compared to 1% for the Pill.
The positive aspects of learning about research findings include all but which of the following?
Cognitive dissonance
Why do some cultures differentiate between parallel and cross cousins?
Because social obligations may differ between parallel and cross cousins.
Group marriage….
Is not predominant in any known society but is found among some groups in some societies
When a child is considered related to both the mother’s family and the father’s family that system is referred to as…
Bilateral
The practice of one husband having two or more wives at the same time is referred to as
Polygamy and polgyny
When a man and woman become engaged on the Aran Islands, Ireland what does the bride do traditionally?
She designs a new sweater combing the designs of her family and his family
The British pressured the Todas of India to give up polyandry. As a result the Todas evolved to
Group marriage
The hopi Bride's wedding clothes are
made by the groom and his male relatives
The indo-europeans migrated from Eastern Eurpoe after 5000 BCE and used which animal to eventually conquer most of Eurpoe
horses
Religious groups that are opposed to teh use of birth control sometimes justify their oppostion with the Bible sotry referred to as the
"sin of Onan"
Which of the following characteristic of ancient Sparta in Greece?
NOT peaceful adn intellectual without militaristic inclinations.
NOT husbands and wives were affectionate lovers, social companions and intellectual equals.
NOT children enjoyed happy childhoods with extended play and educations
NONE OF THE ABOVE
Which of the followign was NOT only the reesons ancient Roman husbands could use to divorce a wife?
barreness
As compared to the other cultures of that time, the CHritians ______ the importance of marriage and the family.
decreased
America was built by wave after wave of immigrants from many countries. The immigrant ancestors of some students (and Professor Keating) include those from Ireland. It is imporant, however, for all of us to remember that
the famine was a political famine as much as (if not more than) an agricultural famien. Only the potato crop failed. Other crops were fine. THe English landlords or occupiers exported more than enough food from Ireland to feed everyone all throught the "famine"
Marital satisfaction _________ the birth of each child
decreases with
C.Wright Mills, an important American socilogist, called individuals' lives_______, and used the term, ________- for the "lives" of societies.
biographies...history
The Second Wave Women's Movement focused on
bringing amily issue such as sexuality, battering, and housework to the forefront.
Sociologist take the postion that although it is true that individuals make choices, they make them
within the limits of the society in which they live.
In 1850 two percent of the population lived past their sixty-fifth birthday. What percentage does so today?
75%
Structural functionalists believe that a system works best when the elements are functionally serving the system. They think that a family works best when
a busband focuses on instrumental functions and wife focuses on expressive functions.
___________ prompted the need formore women workers in society and the idea that a real woman would work as a welder, electrician, or some other type of productive worker.
World War II
The Modern family can be divided into two types:
Democratic and Companionate
Families of the 1950's are sometime seens as a prototype of the American family for the past century. A review of the rates of marriage, divorce, and fertility shows...
this image is inaccurate because the fifties are out of sync with the general trends over the century
The family wage could improve the quality of life of working-class people and free them from some of the oppression of the factories. What problems with it was was discussed by Aulette?
It made working-class women mor etightly controlled by and dependent of their husbands. It legitimated the exclusion of married women from the workplace.
The governing body of the Seneca Iroquois was composed of _________ chosen by ______.
men...women
Two competing views of womanhood were promoted in the 19th century. The "Cult of True Womanhood" promoted piety, purity, submissiveness, and domesticity. The "Ideal of Real Womanhood" promoted
physical fitness, education, assertiveness and employability.
Structuration Theory includes the concept of agency which refers to
micro-level social activities that influence the macro-level society.
Historians have been debating whether President Thomas Jefferson had sexual relations with one of his slaves, sally Hemings, that produced slave children. Textbook author Judy Aulette and Barbaara Keating have both concluded that
the evidence supports the assertion that at least one of Sally Hemings children was fathered by Jefferson
During the historical period of slavery, approximately ___ percent of Southern whites owned one or more slaves
25%
Native Americans were moved to isolated reservations, but their children were sent to schools off the reservation because
the government wnated to eliminate the Native American culture and replace it with the values of the Anglo American society
Sharecropping families were likely to be
male-dominated nuclear families
The basic unit of labor under slavery was the ________. The basic unit of labolr under sharecropping was the __________.
individual... nuclear family
Economists recommend that the ideal maximum amount a family should pay for housing is _________ of their household income.
25%
In reserach cited by Aulette, nine months after a plant had closed, 51% of the workers reported that unemployment had __________ impact on their marriage, 33% reported ______ impact on their marriage and 16% reported________impact.
no...a negative... a positive.
Which two ethnic groups consitently experience higher unemployment rates than the other groups?
none
sociologists call the organization of the production and distribution of the necessities of life the _________ system
economic
A 1998 study cited by Aulette reproted that _____- percent of employees say that it is somewhat or very likely they will lose their jobs within a few years
30
Most Asian families have been traditionally patriachal. Which of the following is more egalitarian probably due to the equal treatment of men and women in the indigenous religion?
Filipino
Which social class includes the largest proportion of people in our society, about 60 to 65%?
working class
The most important single predictor of a man's occupational status is his
father's occupational status
Among Vietnamese and other Southeastern Asian immigrants, the concept of extended family obligations includes
a broad range of relatives who are alive, ancestors who have died, family members of the future.
ALL OF THE ABOVE
Pearce (cited by Aulette) asserted that the "feminization of poverty" can be attributed to
the reponsibility of women for children and discrimination in the labor market against women.
Research cited by Aulette indicated that hte group that is most ambivalent and sometimes negative about education for their children is the
white working class
In Hope's presentation on television families, Cooley's conception of the "looking glass elf" was used ot understand...
how we can understand our society and how others perceive our society by looking at television.
In the 1960s the death of President John F. Kennedy and the increase in divorce rates coincided with the rise of more single-parent households of televsion. Howvers, these depictions only included:
widowed single dads
If the 1950's could be considered the "perfect family ear," with the rise of such shows as LEave it to Beaver and Father Knowns Best, which era could be considered as dipecting American families in crisis, with the influx of such television sho
2000s
Under the owner-property marriage structure in the early 19th century, what happened if a husband was alcoholic, financially irresponsible, and/or abusive towards his wife?
in divorces, husbands automatically received custody of the children and all the property.
The instrumental duties and rights stayed similar in the evolution from Owner-Property to Head-Complement marital structures. Waht was the primary difference? Int he Head-Complement structures,
husbands are expected to consider his wife's wishes in decision making.
The lowest earning disparity between males and females occurred among those with which educational credentials?
less than an eighth-grade education
The _________ effect is sometimes used to describe the rapid promotion of men over women, especially into maanagement, in female-dominated fields.
glass elevator
On average, which demographic category earned 78 cents on average for ever $1.00 earned by white men in 2004
black men
The National Committe on Equal Pay asserts that which of the following reasons can best explain the disparity between men and women's earnings?
women take mroe time off for family needs than m.
In which spectrum are women paid more than men on average?
in neither male- nor female-dominated occupations
According to the article cited on the andout what should you do to gaurd yoruself against identity theft?
avoid carring your social security card or number with you, avoid giving out your social security number
How much intersest doew the average household withe credit-card debt pay in a year?
more than $1000
Which of the following is true regarding federal estate or death taxes in 2006 through 2008?
no federal estate taxes are paid on the first two million dollars of an estate.
Which has the highest probability of making a person a millionaire (having a net work of $1,000,000 or more) in our society?
saving 10% of everythign you ear and putting it in a good, long-term investment like a stock index fund.
Five types of inormation or stages of the communications process
senses, feelings, intentions, actions
The purpose of Style 2 communications
power and control
The "silent treatment" in which one partner refuses to talk to another belongs to which communicaiton style?
style 2- directive
When considering which of the four marital structures is appropriate, Professor Keating stressed taht students
should be honest with bot themselves and their partners about the assumptions implicit in any of the four structures
Which class is most likely to move in order to maintain their income?
the middle class
Gerson and Zavella were both cited by Aulette about their reserach on women and work. Gerson's work showed that women chose between two opposing roles, either employees or wives and mothers. Zavella's work shows that Chicanas
felt that he two roles were contiguous; they work because they wish to be better wives and mothers
Aulette cited the work Rosabeth Moss Kanter who identitied five major effects of work on family. Which of the following is the definition of "Worldview" she includes as one of these?
the values and ideas promoted at work that influence the employee in his or her behavior at home.
Reserach documents gendered diffrences in houswork. Finding indicate taht __ do most of the daily jobs, _ do most of the jobs that are time-bound, _ more often do two or three things at one time, and _____- serve as time and motion managers of the family
women, women, women, women
Which of the following is true regarding children's contributions to housework among two-parent families?
african-american children do signifciantly more houswork than whit echildren
Lim studied Korean immigrant couples and foudn that
husbands will do childcare but refuse to do cleaning, cooking and laundry
A researcher who is examining toys that can be used to learn about houswork, like toy stoves and dolls, is probably usign which of the following frameworks?
socialization
When men participate in housework they report feeling of
demoralization, sadness, helplessness, and hopelessness
In the anceient societies of Greece and Rome,
love existed but was kept separate from marriage
In the industrial 19th century U.S. , love was idealized as
the asexual love between mother and child
Michael and colleagues researched attitudes towards sex in the 1990s. They found that people could be grouped into three categories
traditonal, relational, recreational
Dorothy Stetson described three major periods of marriage in U.S> history. Which of the following is NOT one of these are described by Stetson?
Period of Civil Unions
When a woman marries someone in a higher social class than her own, sociologists refer to it as
hypergamy
When a marital contract is ended through a divorce in the United States,
the state make sthe final decision over nearly all arrangements
Research on Japanese Americans documented that they viewed Japanese marriages are based on duty and American marriages as based on romantic lvoe. Issi (first-generation Japanese Americans) sought to model their marriages on
the Japanese model
What is the relationship between involvement and power in a dateing relationship?
for both men and women, the less the involvement in a relationship, the greater the power in that relationship
Communication reserach on converaton between men and women indicates that __________ talke more; _____ interrupt more; _________- ask more questions; and _______ use more qualifiers
men, men, women, women
Which socio-economic group has the highest rate of divorce?
the lower class
The 1997 Louisiana was the first sates to institute________ which ware being considered in abotu 20 other sates.
covenant marriage
All of the following are true in the history of divorce except one.
the puritans thought divorce was too easy and frequent in England so they initially forbade it in the American colonies.
The Union of Concerned Scientists have expressed concern recently through a press release because
they have documented a number of cases in which the cureent federal government administration has suprressed or distorted research findings
In terms of cultural preference, although not acutal practice, the most popular form of marriage in the world is
polygny
Aulette says that we need to identify goals for reconstructing families and societies in ways that provide for loving and egalitarian communitites while being careful not to maintain or create relationships that place some people at a disadvantage. She c
It is not enough for owmen to be able to do men's work as well as women's; it is necessary to reconsider the value of mothering and reorder public priorites so that caring for children counts in and adds to the lives of women and men.
Research cited by Aulette indicates taht the group that is most conscious of cultivating community responsibility is the
black middle class
Which of the following is true regarding the possible correlations between the problems of violence, alcohol or chemical abuse, infidelity and jealousy?
they are significantly correlated and are often found together
The good predictor of futre infidelity is
past infidelity
To eliminate violence in intimate relationships, the
perpetrator must take full responsibility for the violent behavior
The Amish are
pacifists
In the Old Order Amish community
the entire courtship and engagemetn process is kept a secret untilt he marriage banns are announced a few weeks before the weddings
The Hutterites
are monogamous, communal, anabaptist, pacifist
The Amanas
have turned their colonies into a tourist attraction and use the former communal dining hall as public restaurants.
Which of the following family experimental groups practiced celibacy?
shakers
Hopedale was founded on the belief in
practical christinity
Which parently style puts the most emphasis on obedience and control?
authoritarian
A parent who promises a child $10 for every "A" and $5 for every "B" on a report card is trying to use
an external locus of control
The children of parents using which parently style generally have the lowest grades in school?
authoritarian
The Logical Consequences for coming in late in a family that the teenager will be grounded one day for every fiftenn minutes she is late. The teen comes home 35 minutes late but explains to her dad that she forgot her watch so should not grounded. Accord
He should enfore the 2 day grouding consequence because remembering her watch or keeping track of the time some other way was her responsibility tied to her freedom to go out.
Which of the following is/are the qualities characteristic of boundaries established in good discipline parenting strategies?
they are clear and consisten, they are reasonable and realistic and they grow with the child.
Predictor of marital success were compared in class to
factors determing preminums for life and/or car insurance.
Which of the following are considered Class B predictors of martial success?
Education, previous divorce, parents' approval
According to research presented in class on age at marriage and marital success...
age is positively related to marital success; the older the better.
Socio-economic Status (social class or SES) is __________ correlated with marital success
positively (as SES increases, so does marital success)
Which of the following is more accurately reflected int he research on the impact of jobs that require travel or separation on marital success?
"Out of sight; out of mind." Travel required by jobs puts stress on marriages with highter liklihood of divorce...
Which of the following is one of the typical mistakes made by family member when dealing with an alcoholic
ignoring it, seeking inappropriate or inadequate help, denying that it is alcoholism
Professor Keating cited Kay Redfield Jamison, author of The Unquiet Mind, about treatment for manic depression or bipolar disorder. She recommends
medication, psychothrapy
Professor Keating cited Ann Fletcher, author of Sober for Good, when discussing alcoholism. They take the position that
Alcoholics Anonymous is not for eveveryone. Other support or treatment programs work ebtter for some people.
IF people could choose the sex of their child, what would be the results?
there would be two boys for every girl
The average sperm count for American males has decreased. What is the most likely cuase?
environmental pollution
The Gaia hypothesis suggests that...
the planet earth is like one living organism witht he humans as one element, if humans continue to over-populate the pollute the earth, the earth will eventually become uninhabiable for humans who will go extinct.
Family-friendly policies in corporage seeings such as flex-time and on-site day-care cneters generally...
are cost effective
More ___________ are victims of all reported violenc ein our society. More __________ are victims of violenc by intimate perpetrators.
men tahn women...women than men.
Martial rape
is now considered a crime in all fifty sates although many states have exemptions.
Auleete devides theories explaning family violenc einto three major frameworks:
individualistic, family violence, feminist
In comparing responsese to being assaulted by a spouse, reserachers have found that _____ are more likely to call the police, ________ are more likely to press charges, and _____ are less likely to drop charages.
men...men...men
In comparing the 1970s and the 1990s on the amount of time parents spend with their childre, the amount of availiable time per family has _____ and the available amount of time per child has
decreased...increased
Infedtility is attributed to the man in ________ of the cases and attributed to the woman in ___- of the cases with the raming cases attributed to both partners or unknown.
one third and one third
Veevers interviewed married couples about decision not to have children. She found that two-thirds of the couples...
made the decision after marriage after a series of postponements.
Aulette cited Barrie Thorne who identified three contemporary images of children in society. These include all EXCEPT...
children as spiritual innocents.
Social learning theorist argue that children learn gender through
reward and punishment
Auleet cites Bem's recommendations for parents to counteract the dominant gender ideology of our society. She suggest that parents
emphasize the biological distincutions and istinguish themf rom socially determinded differences
Research has shown that children have ____ effect on parents' mental health
a negative
__________ leave their parents home earlier than _________ and are _____ likely to return.
women...men...less
A redistributive welfare state is one in whihc...
the primary aim is to restructure the economy by redistributing wealth and resources.
What is meant by a "means-tested" social service program?
Recipients must prove that they need the service and that they cannot provide it for themselves.
When comparing families on welfare with the general national population, wich of the following is most accurate?
families on welfare have fewer children on the average
Workfare
recipients become low-wage, nonunion competitors for jobs which eliminate jobs and union strength among regular workers
Aulette asserts that the lack of a formal family policy in the united states is a result of three factors. these include all of the following except
a democratic form of government
________ in every 1000 victims are men
51
"the use of physical force by a man against his intimate cohabiting partner.
defines woman battering or wife abuse
Economic abuse
taking her money or not allowing her to earn money; giving her an allowance; making her account for every penny she spends
emotional abuse
humiliating and verbally abusing her
threats and coercion
threatening suicide; making her engage in illegal activities; sexual coercion
social isolation
controlling whom she sees and talks to; wehre she goes
intimidation
destroying her property, hittign walls instead of her
using male privilege
defining roles; making major decisions; treating her like a servant
what ages are victims most victimizations
between the ages of twenty and twenty-four are most vulnerable that nearly all vitims of intimate violence are between the ages of sixteen and thirty-four
Three factors battered women leave their husbands
the violence approached the level of severity they associated with stranger raper, the violence became abnormal, the women received help from an outsider
a phenomenon rooted in the gentic makeup or learned characteristics of individuals who experience the problem
battering
exhibits of the battered women's syndrome
low self-esteem, depression, and the difficulty making decisions
Men who batter exhibit the following cluster of common characteristics
Excessive jealousy, victim-blaming and denial of their violence, a belief that sexual infidelity in men is acceptable, a belief that women, especially their wives are incompetent, a belief that they are entitled to respect as men, the belief that they are entitled to "discipline", a belief that they might have an anger problem
An approach that seeks policies that call for cahnges in the social-structural system
family violence
an approach that call for similar changes in the social structure but insists that each of these cahnges be made in light of the gendered character of violence
feminist approach
Women victims three most common reasons for not calling the police
women feared injury by the suspect as punishment for calling, believed tha thte police would make things worse, and had no access to a phone
The act that makes women battering a federal crime punishable by up to five years in prision to cross state line to do bodily harm to spouses or intimate partners. It also allows a state to prosecute stalkers and those subject to protective order as felo
Violence against Women Act
Alice Rossi four salient features of parenting
cultural pressure to assume the role, onset of the role, irrevocability of the role and preparation for parenthhod
Motherhood mystique tells us that
women achieve their ultimate fulfillment becoming mothers. The body of work assigned to mothers-caring for child, home and husband. In order to be a good mother, a women must like being a mother and all the work that goes with it. Mothers cannot be independent from men. Lesbians are not good mothers.
A woman's ardent, exclusive devotion to mothering is good for her children
Fassinger divided marriages into foure types:
segregated, modified segregated, integrated, and primarly wife-shaped
Segregated marriages
ones in which husbands and wives controlled different sets of tasks
modified segregated households
like segregated except the wife played the role of a juniro partner
integrated marriages
those in which husbands and wives shared relatively equally in taks and decision making
Wife shaped marriage
although husbands int hese marriages retained significant influence and veto pwoer, the wives were active decision makers and handled finances.
_______, not youth, should be blamed for most health problems of teen mothers and their babies.
poverty
NRTs
New reproductive technologies, include ultrasound, aminiocentesis (sampling fetal cellls by extracting some of the amniotic fluid), chrionic villi sampling (sampling fetal cells from the pregnant woman's cervix to determine abnormalities and sex of the fetus), fetal monitoring and fetal surgery.
The inhibition of new life includes
contraception, abortion, and sterilization
Ehrensaft specific results of having both women and men mother
liberates women from full time mothering.
Affords opportunities for mroe equal relationships.
Allows men more access to children
Allows children to be parented by two
provides new socialization experiences and possibly increased the likelihood of less gender-stereotyped behaviors
challenges the myth that women are better equipped biologically for parenting
puts pressure on political, economic and social structures for change
one in every how many households is headed by a father
6
Risman looked at parenting in three factors
time spent in housework, parent-child intimacy, and overt affection
Lempert three kinds of other fathers
one-step removed fathers, (grandfathers) stand up fathers (a man who stands) and stand in fathers ( uncles or cousins, Boys Club leaders)
People who remain childless are put into three groups
diagnostic model, the deprivation model and the labeling model
Barrie Thorne contemporary American images of the relationship between children and adults fall into three categories:
children as learners of adult culture, children as threats to adults society and children as victims of adults
Psychoanalytic theory, Sigmund Freud. Freudian theory aruges that
children learn to be gendered individuals by interacting with their mothers.
Social learnign theorists aruge that childre learn gender through
reward and punishment
In gender socialization, cognitive-developmental theory
improves on social learning theory by recognizing the child as an active participant in the process. It aruges that children move through stages of psychological maturity.
Social interaction theory
forces us to notice the reciprocal relationship between children and others and the active role that we all play in creating gender. West and Zimmerman call this doing gender
By the time the average American child reaches eithreen years of age he or she has watched hours of TV and has seen 350,000 commericals
22,000
Pogrebin has named pedophobia meaning
ped meanign child and phoibia meaning fear or dread.
In the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatmean Act of 1974 Congress defined child abuse as
overt acts of aggression such as excessive verbal derogation, beaitn gor inflicting physical injury and sexual abuse.
Patriarchy means
the dominance and control of women by men in nuclear families and extended households, as awells a in nonfamily social instituions such as government and work
Welfare states can be divided into two types
programmatic welfare states and redistributive welfare states
staes in which a "capitalist states devoes a portion of its gross nation product, through taxation, to the solution of certain social problems without changint he basic nature of the economy
Programmatic welfare
states that its primary aim is to resructure the ecnomy by redistributing wealth and resources
redistributive welfare
TANF
Temporary Assistance to NEed Families
Myths abotu Welfare Mothers
Welfare mothers form single-parent households in order to obtain welfare.
Welfare mothers purposely bear children in order to increase their grants
Welfare accounts for a huge proportion of the national budget
Most families on welfare stay on it for many years even for generations
Welfare recipients refure to work
This act, regarded as the cornerstone of the federal welfare states, was composed of two components,k social insurance and socail assistance, and was funded by taxes from individuals and employers
1935 Social Security Act
Family impact analysis is the term
used to describe assesssments of how a policy might affect families
Liberal domocrates see the United states as a
nation of many different people, classes and organizations
Marxists maintain that the state is
not a neutral arbiter but works to serve the interest of the rulign class, those who owne the wealth

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