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Leon Panetta
-served House of Reps for 16 years before Clinton appointed him director of the Ofice of Management and Budget in 1993.
-July 1994 moved into the WH as Cheif of Staff to the Pres.
-Helped draft the housing bill in 1968.
-Democrat
-Joined Nixons team on matters of Health, Education, and Welfare. (HEW)
-After Several months of that he was promoted to the Director of Office of Civil Rights.




Leon Panetta.
-served House of Reps for 16 years before Clinton appointed him director of the Ofice of Management and Budget in 1993.
-July 1994 moved into the WH as Cheif of Staff to the Pres.
-Helped draft the housing bill in 1968.
-Democrat
-Joined Nixons team on matters of Health, Education, and Welfare. (HEW)
-After Several months of that he was promoted to the Director of Office of Civil Rights.
-Is now the leader of the CIA for Obama.





Harry Reid
- Politicion + Author
- born December 1939 in Searchlight, Nevada.
- Grew up in great poverty (in a house made of railroad ties)
- Graduated from George Washingnton University with his J.D. in 1964
- In the House of Representatives fron 1983-1987
- US Senator 1987- Now
- Minority Whip 1999-2001, 2005-2007
- Majority Whip 2001-2003, 2007-Now
- Known as a practicioner of candid politics
- Worked with immigration reform, senate ethics, abortion restrictions, and gaming regulations.








Rahm Emanuel
Born:1959 Chicago Illinois
White House Chief of Staff
Past:
-1st job worked on congressional campaign for David Robinson
-set up a political consulting firm
-national finance for Clinton then moved to director of special projects
-he helped with free trade Agreement; welfare and immigration reform
-2006 midterm served as chair of Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee and resigned to current position






Eric Holder
Born: Jan. 21, 1951, in Queens NY
-Parents emigrated from Barbados, part of the working class family.
-Went to Columbia University, majored in American Histtory, then went on to Columbia Law School
-Democratic Party
-1988-appointed as Supreme Court of the District of Columbia
-1993-Clintion appointed him as the first black U.S attorney General
-As the attorney general, he faces great challenges such as the closing of the Guant´namo Bay detention facility in Cuba, the interrogation of potential terrorists, and the controversies surrounding the U.S. Department of Justice itself.
-1997-nominated as the U.S deputy attorney general, and developed the Holder Memorandum.Which established guidlines of how to criminally prosecute corporations
-Nominated by Barak Obama to be the cochairman of his campaign
-Feb. 3, 2009- First African American U.S attorney General








Hillary Rodham Clinton
Born: October 26th, 1947. In Chicago, Illinois.

She was a first lady to Bill Clinton, she became a New York Senator.

When Clinton became first lady she continued to pursue activities aimed at public services and policy reforms in the state.

She ran for a democratic nomination for the presidency in 2009.

When she gave up her democratic nomination spot to Barak Obama. After he won the election, Obama offered her a spot for Secretary of State. She accepted and was confirmed by the Senate.







Antonin Scalia
-American Supreme Court Justice appointed by Reagan in 1986
-outspoken conservative who holds the meaning of the Constitution to its literal roots
-opposed abortion rights, afffrimative action, gay rights, and church-state seperation
IMPORTANT COURT CASES
Employment v. Smith
-Native Americans in Oregon were fired from their jobs for using peyote(a drug). Scalia agreed with the decision of the state denying unemployment benefits for the two fired employees.
R.A.V v. City of St. Paul
-Scalia voted to strike down a St. Paul, Minnesota hate speech law as a violation of freedom of speech.
Romer v. Evans
-The court ruled that "a state constitutional amendment denying legal redress for discrimination based on homosexuality violated the equal-protection clause." Scalia was againist this opinion.
Lee v. Weisman
-A 5-4 majority held that it was unconstitutional to recite a non-denominational prayer at a public high school graduation. Scalia attacked the majority.










John McCain
-Became a prisoner of war for five and a half years in Vietnam
-He was in the navy for 22 years before getting involved in politics
-Republican
-Re-elected to his 4th term in office as an Arizona Senator in 2004
-Ran against George W. Bush for the Repulican canidate position but lost in the primary
-Ran against Obama as the Republican canidate for the presidency but lost again
-Recently as a Senator: re-introduced a global warming act, has an important role in the war on terrorism, and has a strong opinion against gay marriage





Sonia Sotomayor
*Born June 25, 1954 in Bronx NY
*Parents Juan and Celina emigrated over from Puerto Rico
*Graduated Valedictorian of Catholic Cardinal Spellman High School in 1972
*Graduated Princeton University in 1976 and won the Pyne Prize
*Graduated Yale Law School in 1979
*Served as NY district attorney in Manhatten until 1984
*Went into private practice at Pavia & Harcourt 1984-1992
*Nominated for the position of U.S. district court judge of Southern District of NYC by then president- George H. W. Bush- Aug 1992
*Youngest on court and the 1st hispanic
*6 years later she joined second circut court of appeals by president Bill Clinton
*Nominated as Supreme Court Justice by Barak Obama confirmed in August of 2009 with a vote of 68 to 31. 1st hispanic justice
*Swon in August 6, 2009 as the 111th judge by John G. Roberts Jr.
*













Robert Gibbs
-American Press Secretary
-Named to position in 2008
-Become part of Obamas inner circle
-Known for ready wit and sharp tounge
-Attended NC State
-Majored in Political Science
-Postitons held: Intern for representative Glen Bowder, communications director for Senator Fritz Hollings, Spokesperson for John Kerry at the beginning of his race for president.
-Left Kerry to help out a little known person at the time Barrack Obama.
-Verbally went head-to-head with talk show host Sean Hannity during the campaign.







Joe Biden
Born November 20th, 1942 in Pennsylvania

Legislator, U.S. senator for Delware

One of the youngest senators in history

Vice president of U.S.

implementing the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act











Mitch McConnell
:Senate Minority leader (republican)
:Born February 20, 1942 in Colbert County, Alabama, United States.
:Graduated from Manual High School in 1960. McConnell entered the University of Louisville.
:Elected to the United States Senate in 1984, representing Kentucky.
:As a senator, McConnell sometimes changed his mind on issues, but also strongly held certain beliefs.
:On November 5, he won a fourth term with 65 percent of the vote, the largest margin of victory for a Republican in Kentucky history.
:McConnell currently serves as a senior member of the Appropriations, Agriculture and Rules Committees





ROBERT
GATES
Birth: September 25, 1943

Occupation: Government Official, Cia director(91-93)

-Joined the central Intelligence Agency(CIA) in 1966.

-First nominated to be director in 1987, but the iran-contra affair was raging, and Gates had involvment in the scandal and withdrew his nomination. (Iran-Contra Affair- Scandal in which senior U.S. figures agreed to facilitate the sale of arms to iran, the profits then diverted to contra rebels in Nicaragua.)

-Nominated, and approved four years later.

-Appointed secretary of defense in 2006.









John G. Roberts
His friends know him as: John Glover Roberts, Jr. / Jack Roe. /
:BIOGRAPHICAL ESSAY
:Male
:White
:Nationality- American
:Born in Buffalo, New York, in 1955
:Attended Catholic Boarding School
:Occupation-Lawyer ,Supreme court Chief justice
:He attended Harvard Law School and received his law degree in 1979.
:The 50-year-old Roberts was also the youngest in the role since John Marshall
:Lent Support to Gay-Rights Group
P.S.
AWARDS
Edmund J. Randolph Award, U.S. Department of Justice.
:Roberts Nickname Contest Results! Winner uncer Bush












Charles Ellis Schumer
Aka Chuckie.


-Born on November 23, 1950, in Brooklyn, New York.
-Occupation: politician, New York Senator
-He won election into the House of Representatives in 1992 for New York.
- 1999 won election into the Senate for New York
-become the only man to vote three times on the Clinton impeachment question.
-Sought to compel Saudi Arabia to intensify its anti-terrorism efforts
-federal ban on assault weapons; the Violence Against Women Act; federal Victims Compensation Act





Kirsten Gillibrand
-New York Democrat
-took NY Senator position after Hilary Rodham Clinton left to be Obama’s Sec. Of State
-Born and raised in Upstate New York, now lives on banks of Hudson River, family of 4
-Serves on Foreign Relations and Agriculture Committee’s (where she is the first NY Senator in nearly 40 yrs to serve on). In the Agricultural, she is leading to improve child nutrition and erase bad-eating habits.
-Ran in ’06 for her first campaign, knocking off an “entrenched” Republican unexpectedly
-Sworn in as NY Senator in Jan.’09
-Graduated from Emma Willard High School in Troy, New York, the first all women’s high school in U.S.
-Went on to UCLA School of Law on 1991 to receive her degree after Dartmouth College in 1988. Then served as a law clerk on the Second Circuit Ct. of Appeals
-Worked as a NY attorney before becoming part of Congress in the House of Representatives, representing the 20th Congressional District, which spans across 8 counties of Upstate NY.









Clarence Thomas
Sworn into the Supreme Court since 1991. Bush nominated Thomas to fill a seat on the UNited States Supreme Court. But all of the attention was focused on Thomas being accused of sexually harassing a co-worker. Thomas was elected by a vote of 52-48, narrowest Supreme Court vote of the 20th century. He is trying to expand State and Local government. He wants to limit federal government.

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