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Glossary of Retrieval

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Created by gallup005

Tip of the Tongue and accessibility/avaliability
Accessiblity: can retrieve from memory and can get it whenever you want
Avaliability: it's there somewhere but cannot get it - TOP
What do we see on repeated testing effects and TOP:
usually recall same number of items, but exact items differ a little from test to test
How is TOP related to encoding specificity:
interpret cues slightly different after time/other experience
Cues can be a combo of what 3 things:
strength, recency, and fit between cue and target
What are generate recognize models?
mentally generate responses to cues and recognize the one that was on the list
What two things does encoding specificity depend on?
1. What is percieved
2. how it is attended to
When does generate-recognize models not work:
when related info is not attended to at encoding, this will not be a helpful cue at retrieval
How do relations help memory?
more possible cues to get to an item
How does distinctiveness help memory?
distinguishes correct item from competitiors

How did context effects work for scuba diving?
If learned words underwater remembered words better underwater than on land - same for land
Do state effects affect recall or recognition and why
Recall - state is a cue in recall, the item itself is strong enough cue in recognition
Mood dependent effects:
version of state/context effects.
match b/w mood at encoding and retrieval
Not a strong specific cue

Mood congruence effects:
easier to recall memories than match current emotional tone - biases search thru network
Ex: don't usually think of funerals at birthday parties
Describe Marian and Neisser's bilingual study:
Task: memory cues provided in either Russian or English
Results: memories generated tended to be from the same linguistic context (events that occurred where lang was spoken)
Conclusion: bilinguals have 2 lang modes, in which memories take place and are stored

Familiarity - quantitative:
strength of a memory, but lacks specific details
Recollection - qualitative:
specific details about the study episode
Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC)
Familiarity leads to curved, symmetrical lines
Recollection leads to "straight" less symmetrical line
What about confidence levels ands ROCs?
confidence level increases w/ number of hits for Familiarity ant intermediate confidence = less likely to make false alarm
Too much confidence = too much false alarm
In PDP what relies on recollection and familiarity?
inclusion
In PDP what puts recollection and familiarity in opposition?
exclusion
What brain region was activated during familiarity for judging if word was studied?
Rhinal Cortex near the hippocampus
What areas of the brain are associated with recollection?
hippocampus, posterior parahippocampal, and the fusiform gyrus
Why would recollection use the hippocampus?
recollection requires making associations - hippocampus involved in making associations

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