Glossary of Retrieval
Created by gallup005
- Tip of the Tongue and accessibility/avaliability
- Accessiblity: can retrieve from memory and can get it whenever you want
Avaliability: it's there somewhere but cannot get it - TOP
- What do we see on repeated testing effects and TOP:
- usually recall same number of items, but exact items differ a little from test to test
- How is TOP related to encoding specificity:
- interpret cues slightly different after time/other experience
- Cues can be a combo of what 3 things:
- strength, recency, and fit between cue and target
- What are generate recognize models?
- mentally generate responses to cues and recognize the one that was on the list
- What two things does encoding specificity depend on?
- 1. What is percieved
2. how it is attended to
- When does generate-recognize models not work:
- when related info is not attended to at encoding, this will not be a helpful cue at retrieval
- How do relations help memory?
- more possible cues to get to an item
- How does distinctiveness help memory?
- distinguishes correct item from competitiors
- How did context effects work for scuba diving?
- If learned words underwater remembered words better underwater than on land - same for land
- Do state effects affect recall or recognition and why
- Recall - state is a cue in recall, the item itself is strong enough cue in recognition
- Mood dependent effects:
- version of state/context effects.
match b/w mood at encoding and retrieval
Not a strong specific cue
- Mood congruence effects:
- easier to recall memories than match current emotional tone - biases search thru network
Ex: don't usually think of funerals at birthday parties
- Describe Marian and Neisser's bilingual study:
- Task: memory cues provided in either Russian or English
Results: memories generated tended to be from the same linguistic context (events that occurred where lang was spoken)
Conclusion: bilinguals have 2 lang modes, in which memories take place and are stored
- Familiarity - quantitative:
- strength of a memory, but lacks specific details
- Recollection - qualitative:
- specific details about the study episode
- Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC)
- Familiarity leads to curved, symmetrical lines
Recollection leads to "straight" less symmetrical line
- What about confidence levels ands ROCs?
- confidence level increases w/ number of hits for Familiarity ant intermediate confidence = less likely to make false alarm
Too much confidence = too much false alarm
- In PDP what relies on recollection and familiarity?
- In PDP what puts recollection and familiarity in opposition?
- What brain region was activated during familiarity for judging if word was studied?
- Rhinal Cortex near the hippocampus
- What areas of the brain are associated with recollection?
- hippocampus, posterior parahippocampal, and the fusiform gyrus
- Why would recollection use the hippocampus?
- recollection requires making associations - hippocampus involved in making associations
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