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Glossary of Research Exam 1

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What is research?
systematic inquiry
NAME
this is systematic inquiry
reserach
professionals routinly have (1)about their daily practices and which are answered best through research
questions
NAME
this cna very challenging, exhilarting, stimulating, and even frustrating
research
T or F
research is a simple activity
false
Implementing a research study in the (1)is more challenging than research conducted in the (2)
(1)home, community, outpatient clinic, or medical center (2)lba or setting controled by the investigator
What are (6)reasons to learn about the research process?
(1)systematically build knowledge and test treatment activity (2)impact health policy and service delivery (3)particpate in research activities (4)enhance understanding of the daily practice (5)become a critical consumer of research literature (6)has the potential to improve your practice and thus improving the quality of life the people you serve and the health of your community
Research yields a body of (1)
knowledge
What are (3)components that need to be included when defining research?
(1)research is more than one type of investigate strategy (2)research is composed of thinking processes and specfic actions that must be clearly delineated and articulated (3)it must be logical, understandable, confirmable, and useful to meet the criteria of research
Research is composed of (1)and (2)
thinking and action processes
NAME
this is more has more than one type of investigative strategy
research
NAME
this is composed of thinking and action processes that must be clearly delinated and articulated
reserach
NAME
this must be logical, understandble, confirmable, and useful to meet the criteria of this
research
What are some methods for research?(4)
(1)multiple strategies (2)experimental (3)prediction and hypothesis testing (4)nomothetic (5)naturalistic
Experimental is also called (1)
quantitative
(1)is also called the quantitative
experimental
naturalistic is also called (1)
qualitative
(1)is also called qualitative
naturalistic
What are (2)types of multiple systematic strategies used in research?
(1)experimental type design (2)naturalistic inquiry
What are (3)types of thought and action processes used in reserach?
(1)inductive (2)abductive (3)deductive
What are (4)criteria needed for research?
(1)logical (2)understandable (3)confirmable (4)useful
action processes refers to (1)
assumptions
(1)refers to assumptions
action processes
Describe the experimental type (6)
(1)reality is single (2)tends to be nomoethic (3)is deductive (4)a priori acceptance of truth exists (5)cause and effect (6)values and biases are held in check
Make a chart comparing and contrasting experimental and naturalistic
see powerpoint
Make a chart comparing and contrasting experimental (7) and naturalistic (8)
see powerpoint
Describe naturalistic thinking(5)
(1)multiple realities exist (2)can inductive or abductive (3)specfic to general (4)there is no prior acceptance of truth (5)values are inevitable and desirable
Describe naturalistic appraoch(6)
(1)multiple realities exist (2)can inductive or abductive (3)specfic to general (4)there is no prior acceptance of truth (5)values are inevitable and desirable (6)tends to be idographic
What is deductive reasoning?
this involves moving from a specific case to a broader generalization about the phenomenon under study
NAME
this refers to moving from a general principle to understanding a specific case
Inductive reasoning
NAME
this involves moving from a specfic case to a broader generalization about the phenomenon under study
deductive reasoning
What is abductive reasoning?
involves the development of new theoretical propositions that account for a set of observations which cannot be accounted for or explained by a previsou proposition or theoretical framework
NAME
this reasoning involves involves the development of new theoretical propositions that account for a set of observations which cannot be accounted for or explained by a previsou proposition or theoretical framework
abductive reasoning
How are the experimental and naturalistic thinking similar?
they both describe, predict and explain phenomena
What are some sources of knowledge? (8)
(1)authority (2)hearsay (4)trial and error (5)history (5)belief (6)spiritual understanding (7)intuition (8)logical reasoning
What are (4)characteristics of reserach?
(1)logical (2)understandable (3)confirmable (4)useful
WHat are some other ways of knowing?(8)
(1)authority (2)hearsay (4)trial and error (5)history (5)belief (6)spiritual understanding (7)intuition (8)logical reasoning
What is authority?
is being told by a respected or trusted source
NAME
this is being told by a respected or trusted source
authority
What is hearsay?
is 2nd hand info that is not verified
NAME
this is 2nd hand info thati s not verified
hearsay
What is belief?
knowing w/out verification
NAME
this is knowing w/out vertification
belief
What is intuition?
explanations of human experience based on previous unique and personal organization of one's own experience
NAME
these are explanations of human experience based on previous unique and personal oganization of one's own experience
intuition
What is spiritual understanding?
knowing through diviine belief
NAME
this is knowing through divine belief
spiritual understanding
What do we mean by confirmable?
it means the reserach can clearly understand the strategies used and arrive at similar outcomes if it is repeated
What are the (10)essentials of research?
(1)id the philopsophical foundation (2)frame a research probem (3)determine the suporting knowledge (4)id theory base (5)develop a specfic question or query (6)select a design strategy (7)set study boundaries (8)obtain info (9)analyze info and draw conclusions (10)share and use research knowledge
Experimental type has (1)approach
linear
(1)has a linear approach
experimental type
NAME
this type of research is diverse and complex
naturalistic
the naturalistic is (1)and (2)
diverse and complex
What is a philosophical foundation?
is how a person, learns about an indivudal behevaior, health or other phenomena
NAME
this is how a person learn about an indivudal behavior, health or other phenomena
philosophical foundation
What is reserach problem?
is an experssion of the dilemma that needs investigation
NAME
this is an expression of the dilemma that needs investigation
research problem
What is supporting knowledge?
is a critcal review of the existing scientific literature
NAME
this is a critical review of the existing scientific literature
supporting knowledge
What is a theory?
is an abstract generalization that presents a systematic explanation about how phenomnea are inter-related
NAME
this is an abstract generalization that presents a systematic explanation about phenomena are inter-related
theory
What is research question? (3)
(1)specfic setof questions (2)broad direction of the reserach inquiry (3)specfic questions transpire during the process of learning about a phenomenon
NAME
this is a specfic set of questions, broad direction of the reserach inquiry, and specific questions transpire during the process of learning about a phenomenon
research question
What kind of research questions are there? (5)
(1)identification (2)descriptive (3)explorative (4)explanatory (5)predication and control
NAME
some types of these are identification, descriptive, explorative, explanatory, and predication and control
research questions
What is a descriptive question?
observes, counts, describes, and classifies
NAME
this type of question observes, counts, describes, and classifies
descriptive question
What is a explorative question?
investigates the full nature of the phenomenon
NAME
this is type of question investigates the full nature of the phenomeon
explorative question
What is a explanatory question?
often linked to theory and understanding the cuases of phenomenon
NAME
this type of question often linked to theory and understanding of the cuases of phenomenon
explanatory question
What is research desgin?
is the overall plan for answering the reserach question
NAME
this is the overall plan for answering the reserach question
research design
What is the experimental type research design?
strategies are clearly id prior to the data collection
NAME
this strategies are clearly id prior to the data collection
the experimental type research design
What is the naturalisic tpye research design?
are elements of the design envolve over the course of the study
NAME
these are the elements of the design envolve over the course of the study
naturalistic desing
NAME TYPE OF RESEARCH
What is the decision making process of AIDS patients seeking treatmetn
naturalistic
NAME TYPE OF RESEARCH
what effect does room temperature have on colonization rate of bacteria in urinary catheters?
experimental
NAME TYPE OF RESEARCH
what are the sources of stress amoung nursing home residents?
naturalistic
NAME TYPE OF RESEARCH
does therapeutic touch affect the vital signs of hospitlized patients?
experimental
NAME TYPE OF RESEARCH
what are the effects of prenatal instrucation on the labor and delivery outcomes of pregant women?
experimetnal
NAME TYPE OF RESEARCH
what are the health care needs of the homeless, and what are the barriers they face in having those needs met?
naturalistic
Describe what makes up study boundaries? (6)
(1)the limit the scope of the study (2)makes the study feasible (3)number of participants (4)length of the study (5)conceptual dimensions (6)type and number of questions
NAME
this limits the scope of the study, makes the study feasible, number of participants, length of the study, conceptual dimensions,and type and number of questions
study boundaries
How do you obtain info? (3)
(1)questionnaires (2)observations (3)interviews
How do you analysis the data for a experimental type reserach?
the data is classifed according to the level of reserach
How do you anaylsis the data for a naturalistic inquiry?
as ongoing process that informs data collection and to interpret the info acquired
What are some ethical considerations that need to be made? (3)
(1)human subjects (2)investigator conduct (3)ethics of the question and design procedures
What are (2)things that are part of philosophical foundation?
(1)ontology (2)epistemology
What is ontology?
is view or definition of reality
NAME
this is a view or definiation of reality
ontology
What is the epistemology?
is the nature of knowledge and how we come to know it
NAME
this is the nature of knowledge and how we come to know it
epistemology
What is the philosphical foundation of experimental reserach?
(1)epistemology of logical positivism (2)deductive process (3)hypothesis testing (4)bias eliminated through objective inquiry and analysis
NAME
this is epistemology of logical postivism, deductive process, hypothesis testing, bias eliminated through objective inquiry and anaylsis
experiemtnal reserach
What are the philosophical foundation of naturalistic inquiry?(6)
(1)holstic (2)the outside world and an individuals ideas are interrelated (3)knowledge based on perception (4)based on reductionism (5)reality is determined by an individuals lenses or baises (6)those who have the experience are most knolwdewable
NAME
this philosophical foundation is based :(1)holstic (2)the outside world and an indivudals ideas are interrelated (3)knowledge based on preception (4)based on reductionism (5)reality is determined by an individuals lenses or baises (6)those who
naturalistic reserach
What is the holistic approach?
means that there are multiple philosophical traditions
NAME
this means that there are multiple philosophical traditions
holistic approach
What is reductionism?
is that the human experience cannot be understood by separating the parts
NAME
this is the idea that human expereince cannot be understood by separating the parts
reductionism
What is integrated research?(4)
(1)multimethod reserach (2)philosophical paradigm of pregmatism (3)generates more in depth knowledge (4)puropseful and logical development combines elements of the thinking action process from both tradiations
NAME
this involves these things:
(1)multimethod reserach (2)philosophical paradigm of pregmatism (3)generates more in depth knowledge (4)puropseful and logical development combines elements of the thinking action process from both tradiations
integrated reserach
How do you select a research tradition and design strategy?(3)
think about (1)what you want to accomplish or reserach purpose (2)preferred way of knowing (3)exisiting knowledge in area of interest
T or F
Positivist assumes that reality exists and that it can be objectively studied and known
F
T or F
Positivist assumes subjectivity is considered inevitable and desirable in inquiry
T
T or F
Naturalist relies primarily on the collection and analysis of quantitative information F
F
T or F
Positivist inquires focus on discrete, specific concepts while attempting to control other aspects of a phenomenon
T
What paradigm is sometimes referred to as phenomenologic?
Logical positivism
Because scientific method is not concerned with isolated phenomena. What is a key characteristic of the scientific method?
Generalization
What is the setting of naturalistic inquiry?
the field
The process of developing generalizations from specific observations is referred to as (1)
inductive reasoning
What is the type of research that involves the systematic collection and analysis of controlled, numerical information
Experimental research
What type of research involves the systematic collection and analysis of subjective, narrative materials
Naturalistic type research
What is the most ingrained source of knowledge and difficult to challenge
tradition
What is the purpose of the design of an experimental type research?(2)
(1)restrict or control extraneous infleunces (2)provides a degree of certainty that observations are objective
NAME TYPE OF RESEARCH
the purpose of design of this research is to restrict or control extraneous infleunces and provides a degree of certainty that observations are objective
experimental type
How do you chose the design in experimental type reserach?(3)
based on the (1)literature review (2)level of theory development (3)research question
Describe the sequence of experimental research?
(1)problem statement (2)theory (3)research question (4)DESIGN (5)data collection (6)data analysis (7)reporting
What is the indepedent variable?
is the intervention or treatment
NAME
this is the intervention or treatment
independent variable
What is the dependent variable?
is the response or outcome
NAME
this is the response or outcome
dependent variable
What is the differ btwn the independent and dependent variable? (2)
(1)independent variable= is the intervention or treatment (2)dependent variable= response or outcome
What is the intervening variable?
is the phenomenon that has an effect on the study of the variable?
NAME
these include either confounding or extraneous variables
intervening variable
What is a concept?
symbollicaly represents observation and experience
NAME
this symbolically represents observation and expereince
concept
What is the construct?
represetns a model of relationships among two or more concepts
NAME
represents a model of relationships among two or more concepts
construct
What is the differ btwn the concept and construct? (2)
(1)concept=symbolically represents observation and experience (2)construct= represents a model of relationships among two or more concepts
What is a conceptual definition?
concept expressed in words
NAME
this is a concept expressed in words
conceptual definition
What is a operational definition?
how the concept will be measured
What is the differ btwn conceptual and operational def?
(1)conceptual def=concept expressed in words (2)operational def=is how the concept is measured
NAME
this is how the concept is measured
opertaional def
What is the variable?
operational def of a concept assigned numerical variable
NAME
this is an operational def of a concept assigned numerical variable
variable
NAME
this is the presumed cause of the dependent variable
independent variable
NAME
this is the phenomenon that has an effect on the study of the variable
intervening variable
NAME
this is the phenomenon that is affected by the indepedent variable or is the presumed effect or outcome
dependent variable
the dependent variable is the phenomenon that is affected by the (1)or is the presumed (2)or (3)
(1)independent variable (2)effect (3)outcome
What is a hypothesis?
an educated guess
NAME
this is a testable statment taht indicates what the reseracher expects to find
hypothesis
hypothesis is a testable statement that indicates what the (1)
researcher expects to find
What are the bias in the plan design? (3)
(1)intervening variable (2)instrumentation (3)sampling
NAME
some of these in the plan design include intervening variable, instrumentation, and sampling
bias
What are the plan of the design?(3)
(1)bias (2)manipulation (3)control=random group assignment and control group
What are some types of validity? (3)
(1)internal validity (2)external validity (3)reliability
NAME
some types of this include=intenral validity, external vaility, and reliability
validity
What is internal validity?
are threats to internal validity
NAME
these are threats to intenral validity
internal validity
What is external validity?
are threats to external vailidty
NAME
these are threats to external validity
external validity
What are (7)threats to internal validity? (7)
(1)history (2)testing (3)instrumentation (4)maturation (4)regression (5)mortality (7)interactive effects
NAME
some of these include history, testing, instrumentation, maturation, regression, mortality, and interactive effects
threats to internal validity
What are some threats to external validity? (2)
reactivity and realism
NAME
some of these include reactivity and realism
external validity
What is how is reactivity a threat?
is the extent to which the subjects are responding to the condition of being part of the study
How is realism a threat to external validity?
the extent to which the experimental conditions stimulate the actual life situations to which the population is exposed
What is the purpose of a naturalistic design's reserach?
to describe, understand, or interpret daily life experiences
NAME
the purpose of this reserach is to describe, understand or interpret daily life experiences
naturalistic design
What is the context of naturalistic design?
the invesitagtor travels to the setting where the human phenomena occurs
NAME
the contex of this reserach is the invesitagotor travels to the setting where the human phenomena occurs
naturalistic design
What is the pluralistic perspective of reality in a naturalistic design?
means the same info may have different meaning or pluratisc interpretations by different indivudals
NAME TYPE OF RESEARCH
the pluralistic perspective of realitiy for this reserach is that the same info may have different meaning or plurastic interpretations by different indivudals
naturalistic design
What is transferability?
is not generalizable but to generate explanations, theories, and principles
NAME
this is not generalizable but to generate explanations, theories and principles
transferability
Describe naturalistic design
(1)is a pluralistic perspective of reality (2)transferability (3)flexibility (4)concern w lanaguage (5)emic/etic perspective (6)is an interactive and analytical process
NAME
this has the following:(1)is a pluralistic perspective of reality (2)transferability (3)flexibility (4)concern w lanaguage (5)emic/etic perspective (6)is an interactive and analytical process
naturalisic design
How is the naturalistic reserach flexible?
by their is no blueprint
What is the emic perspective?
is the inforamants way of interpreting an experience
NAME
this is the inforaments way of interpreting an experience
emic perspective
What is the eitic perspective?
is the perspective of those that are external to a group
NAME
this is the perspective of those that are external to a group
eitic perspective
What is the differ tbwnt eitic and emic perspective?
(1)emic=is the informants way of interpreting an experience (2)etitic=perspective of those that are external to a group
What are some true experimental designs?(3)
(1)random selection (2)control group (3)intervention (4)randomization (5)manipulation
NAME
these include random selection, control group, intervention, and manipulation
true experimental designs
What is the control group?
is the group that has no exposure to the experiment
NAME
this is the group that has no exposure to the experiment
control group
What is an intervention?
is the manipulation of the indepdent variable
NAME
this is the manipulation of the independent variable
intervention
What are some types true experimental design? (4)
(1)posttest only designs (2)solomon four group designs (3)factorial designs (4)counterbalance designs
NAME
these include posttest only designs, solomon four group designs, factorial designs, and counterbalance designs
true experimental designs
What is solomon 4 group designs?
combines the pretest-postest w postest only design
NAME
this combines the pretest-postest w postest only design
solomon 4 group design
What are some benefits of the solomon 4 group designs?
ability to detect interaction
NAME
some benefits of this is its ability to detect interaction
solomon 4 group designs
What is a factorial design?
simultaneous manipulation of 2 or more variables
NAME
this is the stimultaneous manipulation of 2 or more variables
factoral design
What is the counter balance design?
is more than 1 intervention in which the intervention is manipulated
NAME
this is more than 1 intervention in which the intervention is manipulated
counter balance design
Describe a quasi-experimental type research
random assignment is absent and has control group and manipulation
NAME
this type of design does not have a random assignment and has control group and manipulation
quasi-experimental type reserach
What are post-test only designs?
are random assignment of individuals to two groups w Collection of data after the intervention.
NAME
these are random assignments of individuals to two groups w collection of data after the intervention
post-test only designs
What is non-equivalant control group?
is the pretest and postest comparision group w.out randominzation
NAME
this is the pretest and postest comparision group w out randomization
non-equivalant control
What are interrupted time series?
is a repeated measurement of the dependent variable before the intro of the independent variable w no control or comparison group,
NAME
this is a repeated measurement of the dependent variable before the intro of the independent variable w no control group or comparison group
interrupted time series
What is an advantage if the nonequivalent control group?
control for threat of maturation and time related changes
NAME
an advantage of this is that the control for threat of maturation and time related changes
nonequivalent control group
What are some things that the researcher should think of in a Quasi-experimental design?
the researcher should be cautious about infering causal relationships in light of limitations
NAME
for this type of design, the reseracher should be cautious about infering causal relationships in light of limitations
Quasi-experimental design
What are some types of quasi-experimental design? (2)
(1)nonequivalent control group (2)interrupted time series
NAME
there are two types of these: nonequivalent control group and interrupted time series
quasi=experimental design
What is pre-experimental ?
i two of 3 criteria for the experimental are absent and outcomes does not support causal relationships
NAME
this is two or three critera for the experimental are absent and outcomes does not support causal relationships
pre-experimental
What are some types of pre-experimental? (3)
(1)one-shot case study (2)pretest postest design (3)static group
NAME
some of these include one-shot case study, pretest design, and static groupo
pre-experimental
What is advanatage of pre-experimental?
easier than quasi experimental
NAME
one advantages of this is that it is easier than quasi experimental
pre-experimental
What is a one shot case study?
is when a independent variable is introduced than the dependent variable is measured
NAME
this is when a independent variable is introduced than the dependent variable is measured
one shot case
What is pretest=postest design?
has several threats to internal validity
NAME
this has several threats to internal validity
pretest=postest design
What is a static group comparison?
is a comparison group added to the one shot case study
NAME
this is a comparison group added to the one shot case study
static group comparison
What is nonexperimental?
is the stastical manipulation of data and post-hoc manipulation through anaylsis
NAME
this is the stastical manipulation of data and post-hoc manipulation through anaylsis
non-experimental
What is non-experimental useful for?
testing a concept that naturally occurs
NAME
this useful for testing a concept that naturally occurs
non-experimental
What are some types of non-experimental? (3)
(1)surveys (2)passive observations (3)ex post facto designs
NAME
some types of these include surveys, passive observations, and ex post facto designs
non-experimental
What are surveys?
Are used to measure the prevalence of variables w in a population
What is ex post facto design?
The purpose is to study relationships among variables
NAME
The purpose is to study relationships among variables
Ex post facto
NAME
These can be used to this: sources of research problems, clinical experience, literature in the discipline, social issues, theories, and ideas from external sources
id topic
T or F
Correlation = causation
false
What is an advantage of ex post facto design?
It examines and quantifies naturally occurring phenomena
Who said
“Well began is half done”
Id a topic
Aristotle
Aristotle said (1)
‘well began is half done
What is the research problem?
Is the prexiling or troubling condition
NAME
This is the perplexing or troubling question
research problem
What is the research question?
Is the statement of a specific question or query the researcher wants to answer
NAME
This is the statement of a specific question or query the researcher wants to answer
reserach question
NAME
This is a prediction of the answers to the research questions
hypothesis
What is the statement of purpose?
Is a summary of the overall study goal in which key concepts and variables are id
NAME
This is a summary of the overall study goal in which key concepts and variables are id
Statement of purpose
What are (2)types of research problems?
(1)experimental (2)naturalistic
NAME
This has two types: experimental an naturalistic
research problems

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