Glossary of Reproduction - Medsci
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- Molecules that are released on one part of the body but regulate the activity of cells in other parts of the body.
- Exocrine Glands
- Secrete products into ducts that carry them into body cavities, lumens of organs and outer body surface.
Eg. Sudoriferous (sweat)
Mucous & digestive
- Endocrine Glands
- Secrete products into interstitial fluid, not ducts. These products then diffuse from the interstitial fluid into the blood capillaries for transport around the body
- Paracrine Hormones
- Local hormones that act on neighboring cells
- Autocrine Hormones
- Local hormones that on on the same cell
- Lipid Soluble hormones such as Testosterone, estrogen, T3, T4 and NO can/cannot enter a cell directly
- CAN as they are Lipid soluble
- Three types of water soluble proteins are
Eg. Catecholamines (Norepinephrine & Epinephrine)
2)Peptides and Proteins
Eg. Oxytocin, ADH, FSH, TSH, GnRH & LH
Eg. Prostaglandins & Leukotrienes
- What are the 3 Lipid Soluble Steroid Hormones?
- Androgens, Oestrogens and Progestagens
- 2 Main Androgen hormones
- Testosterone & 5alpha Dihydrotestosterone (stronger)
- 3 Main Oestrogen hormones
- Oestradiol, Oestrone & Oestriol
- 1 Main Progestagen hormones
- What does the Pituitary gland use to attach to the hypothalamus?
- Infundibulum (Posterior Pituitary)
- The anterior pituitary is also called the ________?
- The Adenohypophysis counts for about ____% of the weight of the gland.
- The Anterior Pituitary (Adenohypophysis)has 2 parts in the adult. What are they?
- Pars Distalis
Pars Tuberalis (forms a sheath around Infundibulum)
- The posterior pituitary is also called the ______?
- The Posterior Pituitary (Neurohypophysis) also has 2 parts in the adult. What are they?
- Pars Nervosa
- What is the name of the third region of the pituitary gland and why is it not present in the adult?
- Pars Intermedia ATROPHIES during human fetal development and ceases to exist in adults
- Portal system
- Blood flows from one capillary network into a PORTAL VEIN and then into a second capillary network without passing through the heart
- Superior hypophyseal arteries
- Branches of the internal carotid arteries that bring blood into the hypothalamus
- What is the pathway of the Hypophyseal Portal System?
- Superior Hypophyseal Arteries -> Primary Plexus of the Hypophyseal Portal System -> Hypophyseal Portal Veins -> Secondary Plexus of the Hypophyseal Portal System -> Anterior Hypophyseal Veins
- What part of the hypothalamus releases hormones which will eventually diffuse into the Primary plexus of the hypophyseal system?
- Hypothalamic Neurosecretory cells produce these hormone which travel down axons and released at axon terminals
- Tropic Hormones
- Anterior pituitary hormones that act on other endocrine glands
- Homeostatic Regulator for reproduction, stress, temperature, hunger and sleep.
- Which part of the pituitary gland has a portal system? Anterior or Posterior
- Anterior Pituitary
- Which part of the pituitary gland has the longer neurosecretory cell axons? Anterior or Posterior
- Where are the neurosecretory peptide hormones stored and released in regards with the Posterior Pituitary?
- Travel down to axon terminals and stored as secretory vesicles.
Nerve impulses down the axon causes exocytosis to release the peptide hormones
- Oxytocin has 3 effects
- 1)Affects Smooth Muscle Contraction
2)Stimulates Milk Ejection
3)Induces uterine contractions for child birth
- What is the pathway of hormone release in the Anterior pituitary?
- Neurosecretory neurons (parvicellular) secrete hormones(GnRH) -> Stored at axon terminals -> nerve impulses release them into primary plexus of the portal system -> act on secretory cells in the pars distalis -> produces gonadotrophins FSH and LH
- What is the pathway of hormone release in the Posterior pituitary?
- Neurosecretory neurons (Magnocellular)secrete ADH and Oxytocin -> Stored at axon terminals in Posterior pituitary -> Nerve impulses release them
- Pulsatile release
- Hypothalamic secretions that are released in discrete bursts, separated by periods of little or no secretion.
- What does pulsatile release prevent?
- 1) Receptor desensitisation - After repeated exposure, the hormone does not bind to the receptor
2)Down regulation - Overstimulation causes receptor to INTERNALISE itself (go in inside cell) so hormones cannot bind to receptor anymore
- Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH or Vasopressin)
- Stimulates kidney to regulate and maintain water to maintain blood volume
- Follicle-Stimulating Hormone
- Helps the growth of Sperm and Ovarian Follicles.
- Average Number of oocytes released
- ~ 400
- Mature oocyte released every ___?
- 28 days
- The NZ fertility rate is ___?
- On average, how long is the elastic muscular tube, the vagina?
- 7.5-9.0 cm
- What is the function of the ampulla of the uterine tube?
- A marker for the area where fertilisation occurs
- What is the function of the isthmus of the uterine tube?
- A marker for the area where sperm is stored
- What are the functions of the uterus for the developing embryo & fetus?
- - Mechanical Protection
- Nutritional support
- Waste Removal
- Which level of the uterus wall is important for ejection the fetus at birth?
- Contractions in the myometrium
- Which level of the uterus wall is the source of menstrual flow?
- Endometrium Lining
- Which zone of the endometrium ( Stratum Functionalis or Stratum Basalis) attaches the endometrium to the myometrium?
- Stratum Basalis
- What is the average weight of the uterus?
- The uterine tube provides a rich, nutritive environment containing ___ and ___ for spermatoza, oocyte and developing embryo.
- Lipids and Glycogen
- The epithelium lining of the uterine tube is made up of which type of cells?
- BOTH cilliated and noncilliated secretory cuboidal cells
- Transport along the uterine tube is due to ___ and ___?
- Ciliary movement and Peristaltic contractions.
- Adult human ovaries weigh around...?
- Which region of the ovary contains the ovarian follicles?
- Outer ovarian cortex
- What is contained in the central ovarian medulla?
- Ovarian Stroma and Steroid Producing cells
- Which part of the ovary acts as the point of entry for NERVES and BLOOD VESSELS?
- The Inner Hilum
- Formation of gametes in the ovaries
- The process germ cells degenerate
- What promotes the development of Primordial follicles into Primary Follicles?
- Release of FSH & LH by the Anterior Pitutary
- As the ovarian follicle enlarges, follicular fluid accumulates in a cavity called?
- The Antrum
- Theca Folluculi
- Organised layer of stromal cells
- What is the clear, glycoprotein layer between the primary oocyte and the granulosa cells?
- Zona Pellucida
- Out of the Theca Interna and Theca Externa, which becomes a highly vascularized layer of cuboidal secretory cells that secrete estrogen?
- Theca Interna
- What secretes the follicular fluid that fills the Antrum in a secondary follicle?
- The granulosa cells
- Corona Radiata
- Innermost layer of granulosa cells surrounding the Zona Pellucida
- Cumulus Oophorous
- Mass of loosely attached granulosa cells from the oocyte to the granulosa cells
- Which stage of follicle development does the primary oocyte complete meiosis I?
- Mature (Graafian) Follicle
- Corpus Luteum
- Yellow body containing the remnants of a mature follicle after ovulation.
- Corpus Albicans
- Fibrous Scar Tissue
- What does the Corpus Luteum produce after ovulation?
- When does LUTENISATION occur?
- After Ovulation, due to an increasing secretion of Progestagens as the granulosa cells form large Lutein cells forming the Corpus Luteum
- What are the 2 phases in the ovarian cycle?
- Follicular Phase (Day 1-Ovulation)
Luteal Phase (Ovulation - Menstration)
- Increase in FSH means
- Stratum Functionalis is at its Lowest
Follicle Growth is occuring
- Increase in Estrogen means
- Dominant Follicle is Selected
- Increase in LH means
- Increase in Progesterone means
- Stratum Functionalis is at its Thickest
Preparation of the Uterus for the foetus
- SRY gene
- Sex-Determining Region on the Y-chromosome
- Mesonephric (Wolffian) Duct
- Develops into structures of the Male reproductive system
- Paramesonephric (mullerian) Duct
- Develops into structures of the Female reproductive system
- What week of development do the gonads develop?
- fifth-sixth week
- The protein product from the SRY gene causes which cells to differentiate?
- Sertoli cells
- Human chorionic gonadotropic (hCG) stimulates which cells?
- Leydig cells
- Leydig cells secrete which hormone?
- The androgen Testosterone which stiumlates the development of the Mesonephric (Wolffian) ducts
- If Testosterone stimulates development of internal male genitals, which androgen develops external male genitals?
- Dihydrotestosterone (DHT)
- In females, how many weeks does it take for Wolffian ducts to regress?
- 10 weeks
- In males what happens to the urethal folds?
- They fuse, forms the shaft of the penis
- In Males, what forms the scrotum?
- Labioscrotal swellings
- At what mass does menarche occur?
- What is the sequence of events in puberty for girls?
- Breast increase -> Pubic Hair -> Height spurt -> Merache
- What is the sequence of events in puberty for boys?
- Testis -> Pubic Hair -> Penis -> Height spurt
- PERMANENT cessation of menstruation
- Why does menopause occur?
- The consequence of the ovaries running out of follicles
- Ovarian Senescence
- One year after menopause, the ovary had stopped producing hormones
- From age ~40-46, the end of REGULAR cycles
- Menopausal transition
- From end of regular cycles (~45 years) to the last menstruation (~50-52 years)
- From the last Menstruation
- Menopause transition (counts till hormones begins to cease)
- Testes do not move from the scrotum to the pelvis = infertile
- Spermatogenisis takes how many days?
- 65-75 days
- Where does spermatogenisis occur?
- In the Seminiferous tubules
- What unique process occurs in spermatogenesis?
- They constantly fail to complete cytoplasmic seperation (cytokinesis) so they remain in cytoplasmic contact throughout entire development
- How many sperm complete spermatogenesis per day?
- 300 million
- Which section of the sperm tail contains the centrioles?
- Which section of the sperm tail contains mitochondria?
- Middle piece
- After ejaculation, how many hours can sperm survive?
- 48 hours (within the female reproductive tract)
- How much sperm is produced in males per second?
- 20,000 sperm per sec
- What is the function of the Androgen-Binding protein (ABP)?
- Binds to testosterone to keep its concentration high.
- What are the 3 effects resulting from Testosterone and DHT binding to androgen receptors?
- - Prenatal Development
- Development of sexual characteristics
- Anabolism (protein synthesis)
- What does Sertoli cells produce to inhibit FSH?
- What does Leydig cells produce to inhibit GnRH and LH?
- No sperm
- Describe the pathway of the sperm in the testis
- Seminiferous tubules -> Rete testis -> Epididymus -> Vas Deferens
- How long does it take for sperm to become motile?
- 10-14 days
- Where do sperm acquire the ability to be motile?
- Where does the urethra join the ejaculatory duct?
- At the prostate
- Seminal Vesicles
- Secretory glands that secrete a mucoid sticky substance into the ejaculatory duct to wash down sperm.
- Does the prostate secrete anything?
- Yes, the prostate secretes Prostatic Fluid into the Prostate urethra ahead of sperm
- Fluid from the seminal vesicles constitutes to about __% of semen.
- Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)
- Helps to break down coagulum
- Fluid from the Prostate constitutes to about __% of semen and contribute to sperm motility and viability.
- Cowpers glands produce an alkaline fluid into the urethra to do what?
- Protect the sperm by neutralizing acids from urethra
- Bulbourethral Glands also secretes mucus for what purpose?
- Lubricating the end of the penis and the lining of the urethra to decrease the number of sperm damaged during ejaculation.
- What is the ph of semen?
- Release of which hormones causes the Corpora cavernosa to relax?
- NO and Prostaglandin E1
- How does Viagra (sildenafil) work?
- Inhibits Phosphodiesterase, Increases GMP, Relaxes arteries of corpora cavernosa resulting in an erection
- Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)
- Enlargement of the prostate (2-4 times its normal size) decreasing size of the prostatic urethra causing many urinary problems
- Two ways to treat BPH are:
- Selective 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors (Finasteride and Duasteride)
- What does corpus luteum mean?
- Yellow body
- What does corpus albicans mean?
- White body - fibrous scar tissue
- What does the broad ligament suspend?
- part of the uterus and the parietal peritoneum
- What does the mesovarium do?
- Connect the ovaries to the uterus (double layered fold of peritoneum)
- What does the ovarian ligament do?
- Anchors the ovaries to the uterus
- What does the suspensory ligament do?
- Attaches the fallopian tubes to the uterine wall
- What secretes progesterone in the female ovary?
- Corpus luteum
- What part of the female ovary produces Relaxin and what is its purpose?
- Corpus luteum secretes relaxin.
This is done to inhibit contractions of the myometrium as well as increasing the flexibility of the pubic symphysis to help delivery
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