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Glossary of Radiolobiology test 3

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the response of various systems and the total body to radiation
systemic radiation response
low doses are defined as ___RADS
0-100
Moderate doses are defined as
100-1000 RADS
High doses are defined as
greater than 1000 RADS
Systemic radiation response is both ____and ____
time and dose post radiaiton dependant
Early changes occur within ____post radiation
6 months
Early changes or effects could include ____, _____, or ____
division delay, reproductive failure or interphase death in stroma and/or parenchyma
late changes occur?
beyond 6 months post radiation
late changes or effects will result from ___ and ___damage
irreversible and progressive
Are late changes permanent and progressive?
yes
Cells can undergo 2 methods of healing following irradiation:
Regeneration or repair
the replacement of damaged cells by the same type of cell which results in total or partial reversal of any early changes with few if any late changes
regeneration
the replacement of damaged cells by a different type of cell forming scar tissue and fibrosis
repair
irreversible early changes result in _____
repair
Somatic effects from irradiation include ____, ____, ___and _____
carcinogenesis, non specific lifespan shortening (radiation induced aging), cataractogenesis, adn embryological effects
___is a carcinogenic or cancer causing agen and theis was known within 15 years of the the discovery
radiation
Malignancies possibly caused by radiation include ___, ____, ____, ____, and ____
leukemia, skin cancer, osteosarcoma, lung cancer, and thyroid cancer

The latent period for leukemia is app ___to ___years. Males are at a higher risk than females. _____RADS in adults greatly increased the frequency.
1 to 15 years. 750 RADs
The manifestation of a specific radiation induced cancer is ______.
dose dependant
Latent period deceases with ____dose and disease disappears sooner
increasing
Studies indicate that the response is _____with dose and that there is no associated ____to produce a response. THis is with radiation induced cancer.
linear; threshold

linear non threshold dose response

Ay dose no matter the size can produce a ____, and which produces more mutations? High or Low LET radiations?
mutation; High LET
Genetic effects occur either _____ mutations or as a ____ ____
spontaneous or as mutation frequency
____ are naturally occuring changes either in the sturcture or the amount of DNA in the cell, and they can be permanent and inheritable
spontaneous mutations
______is a certain number of mutations that will occur in each generation
mutation frequency
Mutation frequency can be altered by what mutagens/
viruses chemicals and radiation
mutations can occur as _____ or _____
dominant or recessive
_____occur in the first generation post exposure wheter by a virus, chemical or radiation
dominant mutation
____occur in teh second and beyond generation
recessive
The study of radiation genetics in animals was done by
Herman J Muller on fruit flies
What did Herman J Muller prove?
that radiation produces no new or unique mutations and it simply increases the occurrence per generation
Herman J Muller also proved that If between the doses of 25 and 400 RAD, the frequency of the dose was _____ with dose. and radiation induced mutations are recessive
linear
the unit of measure to determine radiation effects on mutation freqency is ____
doubling dose
what is doubling dose?
the dose of radiation which ultimately doubles the number of spontaneous mutations
doubling dose is estimated to be ______RADs acute and ____RADs chronically, and generally given as ____RADs to the gonads
30; 80; 50
areas of hemopoietic system that can be affected by irradiation are _____and the _____
bone marrow and circulating blood
Bone marrow can be affected with doses between ___and _____RADs
10 to 1000
The most ot least sensitive areas are _____, ___, and ___
erythroblasts, myelocytes,and megakaryocytes
A whole body dose of ____RADs will produce a measurable hematologic depression
25
Circulating blood can be affected with doses between __ __RADs and up
10-50
Blood is radioresistant except for ____ which have a 24 hour lifespan and RBCS which have a ____day LS
lymphocytes and 120
Decreased blood cells will result in ____, _____, _____,____
fighting infection, problems with blood clotting, anemia, and hemorrhaging
Skin or epithelial cells are constantly regenerating, so these are very ____-
radiosensitive
Early changes due to moderate doses include _____, _____, ____, and ______.
inflammation, erythema, dry, or moist desquamation, and temporary epilation or alopecia
____occurs with high doses and is permanent
alopecia
The lenses of the eye contain _______ cells that can be damaged or destroyed by radiation.
actively dividing
These lenses cannot rid themselves of damaged or dead cells which will result in "clouding of the lenses" called _____
cataracts
____RADs will cause cataracts in 100% of the exposed populatoin
700
THe areas of the digestive system that are affected by irradiation include the ____, ____, ____, ____, ___, _____
small intestine, mouth, esophagus, rectum, stomach, and colon
The ______ is the most radiosensitive due to the nest cells at the base of the villi
small intestine
The ____, ___, and ____are the most radioresistent in the digestive system
mouth, esophagus, and rectum
The ______and _____are between 1 and 2 in sensitivity
stomach and colon
the total body response to radiation
radiation syndrome
how is radiation syndrome determined?
by the combined response of all systems in the body resulting from the different radiosensitivities of the different systems in the body
Total body radiation syndrome=_____= _____=_____
radiation sickness; radiation syndrome; acute radiation syndrome
_______is a short term somatic effect
total body radiation syndrome
ARS occurs when the whole body is expose to ____RAD
600
ARS can result from ______, ____, _____
hematopoietic syndrome, gastrointestinal syndrome, and cerebrovascular syndrome
The primary eeffect of an acute total body exposure is to what?
is to shorten the lifespan of the organism; this shortening is dose dependent
Lifespan drastically decreases with moderately high doses and thusly, moderately high doses are considered ____-
lethal
As dose ______, the number of survivors and survival times ___accordingly
increases; decreases
Approximately, ___RADs of radiation is equivalent to 100 CT scans to the total body.
100
A chest x ray equals approximately _____ of radiation
10 millirads
in hematopoietic: Whole body doses of ____to ___RADs
100 to 1000
what is death due to in hematopoietic:
bone marrow destruction

IN hemapoietic: Death is ____to ___at 200 RADs and occurs more rapidly as dose increases
6 to 8
In hematopietic: Lethal dose 50/60 for humans is approximately ___RADs
250-300RADS
In GI- death due to damage of the _____
small intestine
IN GI: LD 100 is approximately ___to ___RADs
600 to 1000
IN Gi- death will occur within ____if medically treated
2 weeks
IN GI- Death will occur untreated at about _____post expousre
3 to 10 days
IN GI- sympthoms inclued ___, ____, ____, and ____
NVD, hemorrhage, fever, and increased WBCs
In CNS: _____RADs in humans
5000
IN CNS: LD 100 with death within ____
2 days
Cerebrovascular syndrome: ____RADs
5000
Cerebrovascular syndrome: Lethal in _____to ____
a few hours to 3 days
4 stages of response
Prodromal stage
latent stage
manifest stage
death or recovery


is characerized by NVD syndrome lasing from minutes to days
prodromal
is derived from the general well appearance; no visible sign of damage but changes are taken place;
latent stage
which stage lasts hours to weeks
latent
shows obvious illness demonstrating specific signs and symptoms specific to the system involved
manifest illness stage
which stage last miniutes to weeks
manifest illness stage
symptoms of manifest illness stage
confusion, epilation, sever diarrhea, fever, infection, hemorrhage, and CV collapse
what is the equivalent dose
quanity that attempts to take into account the variation in biologic harm that is produced by different types of radiation ex. xray, gamma ect
what is the effective dose
takes into account all types of ionizing radiation to organs or tissues in the body being iradiatied and the overall harm or the weighting factor of those biologic components for developing radiation induced cancer or genetic damage
Measurable hematologic depression
25 REM
N&V
15O REM
ERYTHEMA
200-600REM
TEMPORARY STERILITY
250 TO GONADS
LD 50/50
300 REM
DEATH
600 REM
all factors that accounted for the differing bio effects of different types of radiation. Ex. irradiation to bone marrow is mroe significant than to the skin. The same dose applied to each wil present more sig. in the bone marrow
dose equivalent
dose at a particular piont in teh patient and takes into account the type of radiation that caused the dose. Replaces MPD
effective dose
supply info to ICRP
UNSCEAR AND NAS/NRC-BEIR
MAKES RECOMMENDATIONS ON OCCUPATIONAL AND PUBLIC DOSE LIMITS
ICRP
REVIEWS ICRP RECOMMENDATIONS AND IMPLEMENTS INTO US PROTECTION POLICY
NCRP
watchdog of nuclear energy industry and controls the manufacture of radioactive substances
NRC
develops and enforces policy on enviromental radiation
EPA
regulates manufacture of products in radiation industry
FDA
monitors and regulates occupational exposure
OSHA
NCRP 39
BASIC RADIATION PROTECTION CRITERIA
NCRP 91
RECOMMENDATIONS ON LIMITS OF EXPOSURE TO IONIZING RADIATION
NCRP 102
Medical x ray equipment design and use
ncrp 116
LIMITATION OF EXPOSURE TO IONIZING RADITATION
radiation protection for the patient includes:
communication;
immobilization
beam limitation
filtration
shielding



radiatino personnel protection
alara

personnel in reference to primary beam

shielding



Radiation Monitoring required for those who could receive _____of EDL
10%
Radiation monitors include:
Film badge; OSL; Pocket ionization chamber; thermoluminescent Dosimeter
The radiation monitoring device should be worn ____
at collar level
Radiation monitoring reports are given for ____, ____and ___areas of your body with the measuremtents being in ____
deep, eye, shallow; mRems
Reproducibility- none of the exposure should exceed a ___intensity charge
5%
Linearity- ___change in intensity from one mA station to adjacent one
10%
SSD- not less than ___on stationary fluoroscopes and not less than ___on mobile
15" ; 12"
Primary protective barrier- any barrier in which the exposure may be made in the direction of, must have ____lead or equivalent to ___height. Bucky slot cover- ____mmPb equivalent
1/16" ; 7' ; .25
the protective curtain is ___Pb
.25
Cumulative timer- audible signal at ____min;

x ray tube housing- radiation leakage to less than ______

5; 100 mr/hr at 1 meter
collimation- x ray beam and light beam coincide to within ___of SID
2%
PBL equipment manufactured between ___and ____accurtate to within ____of SID
1974 and 1994; 2 %
Filtration- ____above 70 kVp and _____below 70 kVp
2.5mm al; 1.5mm
Specific Safety Measure for Radiography
only perform exam from written or oral

operate equipment with man. limits

use app. technical factors

notify supervisor if equip. stops

ask female prego

only hold patients in an emergency situation

always collimate

use gonadal shielding

ensure that area is clear

stand behind the control booth

















Specific Safety Measures for Mobile:
1. wear a protective apron of at least .5 lead

2. stand out of useful beam

3. advise attending medical staff about need for safety precautions before making an exposure



Specific safety Measures for Fluoroscopy
only perform fluoro examinations under the direct supervision of a physician

be sure the room is clear of all non essential personnel before energizing the tube

all individuals in the room must wear protective app.

use gonadal shielding whenver app.

make use of protective devices such as leaded drapes ect







takes into account all types of ionizing radiation to organs or tissues in the body being irradiated and the overall harm or the weighting factor of those biologic components for developing radiation induced cancer or genetic damage
effective dose
What do you do with II with fluoro protection
place it to patient as possibe
Light? with Fluoro protection
eliminate extraneous light
Time? with Fluoro protection
keep the Beam On time to a minimum
Fluoroscopic logs that record the tube current and potential for a standard phantom shall be maintained each day that equip. is used. If the values begin to change be more than ___or ___of mA
3 kV or 10%of mA
The exposure behind the image intensifier is _____. The II assembly by law must be as attenuating as _____
negligible; 2 mm of lead
percentage of time which the beam is on and direct toward a particular barrier
use factor of barrier
area occupied primarily by radiology personnel and patients that may receive 5REM/year maximum dose
controlled area
occupied by anyone maximum exposure for general public allowed
uncontrolled area

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