Glossary of Radiation
Created by mew
- Type of high energy photons
- Cosmic rays
- Types of low energy photons
- Electric and magnetic fields
- Types of intermediate energy photons
- Infrared and visible light
- Packets of energy
- Units of Electron Volts (eV)
- The energy electron acquire being accelerated across an electrical potential difference of one volt.
- Are low energy, intermediate energy, or high energy electromagnetic radiation can be detected by the human beings?
- Intermediate radiation
- Ionizing radiation
- Energy of high energy photons ionize these atoms by interacting with the orbital electrons and strip them away.
- Low frequency range
- Ultraviolet waves, infrared waves, microwaves, and radio waves.
- Electromagnetic radiation in the lower energy ranges such as the lower frequency range of ultraviolet waves, infrared waves, microwaves, radio waves
- What is the natural source of Ultraviolet radiation?
- The Sun
- What are artificial sources of ultraviolet light (UVR)?
- electric arcs in lights, welding torches, plasma jets, germicidal lamps, tanning lamps
- With dental x-rays, it is necessary to establish the correct exposure time for kilovoltage, milliamperage, and source-to-skin distance
- The energy of ionizing radiation is measured in
- electron volts
thousands of electron volts
millions of electron volts
- Common deficiencies regarding fluoroscopy units
- inadequate shielding
absence of lead aprons
timing device not functioning properly
- Exposure of the gonads (ovaries or testes) is necessary to cause genetic effects from ionizing radiation.
- One of the common types of ionizing radiation is the x-ray.
- The longer the wave length, the lower the frequency and energy.
- Many defects in x-ray units are easy to find and need no instruments.
- The absorption of how many ergs (energy-per-gram) of air represents one roentgen?
- High-level, long-lived liquid wastes are commonly concentrated by
- evaporation and filtration precipitation of a soluble material
- The siting of nuclear facilities is subject to extensive regulation and licensing by the
- nuclear regulatory commission Correct
- Radon is an alpha emitter; daughter decay products are alpha, beta, and gamma emitters.
- The shorter the wave length
- the higher the frequency and energy
- To produce thermal effects, microwave energy is converted to ______ in the body or organism
- A state radiation protection program may involve control of
- x-ray units and radioactive materials
environmental monitoring and surveillance
- The common types of radiation are
- x-rays and gamma rays
alpha and beta particles neutrons
- Which of the following is not commonly associated with the term frequency?
- Alpha particles have a negative electric charge.
- Filters will
- reduce stray radiation
- To reduce patient and practitioner exposure
- utilize proper collimation (limit x-ray beam to area needed)
use fast film
use lead aprons
- It takes ______ half-lives to reduce the radioactivity of a radionuclide to about 1% of what it was when first measured.
- The Department of Energy regulations require solidification of high-level radioactive wastes within ______ of their production.
- 5 years
- Neutrons can have
- biological effects
the ability to make other substances radioactive
- Which of the following exposures should be considered in assessing radiation hazard?
- natural background
medical or occupational
radiation ingested through air, water, and food
- Survey meters are usually read in roentgens or milliroentgens per hour.
- Background radiation cannot be eliminated.
- sources of radiation
- natural background
b. radioactive fallout from nuclear testing or use of nuclear devices
c. radiation from medical diagnosis and treatment, industrial, or other man-made sources
- The roentgen is a measure of the ionization in air produced by exposure to
- x-rays or gamma rays
- X-ray units are generally due for re-inspection
- every 2 to 3 years
- Beta particles can be stopped by a few millimeters of aluminum.
- What material has a high melting point, a high atomic number and is used as a target material to produce x-rays?
- If the radioactivity of a material is not known, the half-life cannot be determined.
- Microwave ovens use which of the following energy sources?
- non-ionizing electromagnetic
- The nature of all electromagnetic radiation is the same, and the difference lies only in the frequency and wave length.
- Regarding emergency radiation exposure, the state has a responsibility to:
- carry out training
b. evaluate and make recommendations for program improvement
c. require that a competent program can be conducted
- An unacceptable use of radiation is
- fluoroscopy for the purpose of fitting shoes
- Medical personnel involved in radium therapy can become unnecessarily exposed during handling of the source needle.
- More information is known about effects of trace amounts of chemical carcinogens than radiation effects.
- A CT scanner is a combination computer and x-ray machine.
- High radiation area(s) are posted as
- a. "Radiation Area"
b. "Radiation Zone"
c. "Restricted Area"
- Radioactive substances used in medicine are always sealed.
- A filter of 2 mm of aluminum will absorb the soft, or less penetrating, radiation.
- Plutonium 239 has a half-life of ______ years.
- 24,400 years
- An ordinary chest x-ray produces an exposure of about 0.1 rad; a very heavy diagnostic series, about 10 rads.
- Biological effects of radiation on all living organisms, including human beings, are termed somatic or genetic.
- Neutrons are charged, high-energy particles.
- Fluoroscopy exams should be done before x-rays.
- Factors that could determine the effect of radiation on the body include
- a. rate of absorption
b. individual variability
c. nutrition, oxygen tension, metabolic state
- MPD is the abbreviation for
- maximum permissible dose
- Only sperm and nerve cells can apparently replace themselves or recover, to some extent, from radiation exposure if the dose is not excessive.
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