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Glossary of Radiation

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Type of high energy photons
Cosmic rays
Types of low energy photons
Electric and magnetic fields
Types of intermediate energy photons
Infrared and visible light
Photons
Packets of energy
Units of Electron Volts (eV)
The energy electron acquire being accelerated across an electrical potential difference of one volt.
Are low energy, intermediate energy, or high energy electromagnetic radiation can be detected by the human beings?
Intermediate radiation
Ionizing radiation
Energy of high energy photons ionize these atoms by interacting with the orbital electrons and strip them away.
Low frequency range
Ultraviolet waves, infrared waves, microwaves, and radio waves.
Nonionizing
Electromagnetic radiation in the lower energy ranges such as the lower frequency range of ultraviolet waves, infrared waves, microwaves, radio waves
What is the natural source of Ultraviolet radiation?
The Sun
What are artificial sources of ultraviolet light (UVR)?
electric arcs in lights, welding torches, plasma jets, germicidal lamps, tanning lamps
With dental x-rays, it is necessary to establish the correct exposure time for kilovoltage, milliamperage, and source-to-skin distance

T/F

True
The energy of ionizing radiation is measured in
electron volts
thousands of electron volts
millions of electron volts



Common deficiencies regarding fluoroscopy units
inadequate shielding
absence of lead aprons
timing device not functioning properly

Exposure of the gonads (ovaries or testes) is necessary to cause genetic effects from ionizing radiation.
T/F
True
One of the common types of ionizing radiation is the x-ray.
T/F
True
The longer the wave length, the lower the frequency and energy.
T/F
True
Many defects in x-ray units are easy to find and need no instruments.
T/F
True
The absorption of how many ergs (energy-per-gram) of air represents one roentgen?
86
High-level, long-lived liquid wastes are commonly concentrated by
evaporation and filtration precipitation of a soluble material
ion exchange


The siting of nuclear facilities is subject to extensive regulation and licensing by the
nuclear regulatory commission Correct
Radon is an alpha emitter; daughter decay products are alpha, beta, and gamma emitters.
T/F
True
The shorter the wave length
the higher the frequency and energy
To produce thermal effects, microwave energy is converted to ______ in the body or organism
heat
A state radiation protection program may involve control of
x-ray units and radioactive materials
waste disposal
environmental monitoring and surveillance



The common types of radiation are
x-rays and gamma rays
alpha and beta particles neutrons


Which of the following is not commonly associated with the term frequency?
particles
Alpha particles have a negative electric charge.
T/F
False
Filters will
reduce stray radiation
To reduce patient and practitioner exposure
utilize proper collimation (limit x-ray beam to area needed)
use fast film
use lead aprons



It takes ______ half-lives to reduce the radioactivity of a radionuclide to about 1% of what it was when first measured.
7
The Department of Energy regulations require solidification of high-level radioactive wastes within ______ of their production.
5 years
Neutrons can have
biological effects
the ability to make other substances radioactive


Which of the following exposures should be considered in assessing radiation hazard?
natural background
medical or occupational
radiation ingested through air, water, and food



Survey meters are usually read in roentgens or milliroentgens per hour.
T/F
True
Background radiation cannot be eliminated.
T/F
True
sources of radiation
natural background
b. radioactive fallout from nuclear testing or use of nuclear devices
c. radiation from medical diagnosis and treatment, industrial, or other man-made sources



The roentgen is a measure of the ionization in air produced by exposure to
x-rays or gamma rays
X-ray units are generally due for re-inspection
every 2 to 3 years
Beta particles can be stopped by a few millimeters of aluminum.
T/F
True
What material has a high melting point, a high atomic number and is used as a target material to produce x-rays?
tungsten
If the radioactivity of a material is not known, the half-life cannot be determined.
T/F
False
Microwave ovens use which of the following energy sources?
non-ionizing electromagnetic
The nature of all electromagnetic radiation is the same, and the difference lies only in the frequency and wave length.
T/F
True
Regarding emergency radiation exposure, the state has a responsibility to:
carry out training
b. evaluate and make recommendations for program improvement
c. require that a competent program can be conducted



An unacceptable use of radiation is
fluoroscopy for the purpose of fitting shoes
Medical personnel involved in radium therapy can become unnecessarily exposed during handling of the source needle.
T/F
True
More information is known about effects of trace amounts of chemical carcinogens than radiation effects.
T/F
True
A CT scanner is a combination computer and x-ray machine.
T/F
True
High radiation area(s) are posted as
a. "Radiation Area"
b. "Radiation Zone"
c. "Restricted Area"



Radioactive substances used in medicine are always sealed.
T/F
False
A filter of 2 mm of aluminum will absorb the soft, or less penetrating, radiation.
T/F
True
Plutonium 239 has a half-life of ______ years.
24,400 years
An ordinary chest x-ray produces an exposure of about 0.1 rad; a very heavy diagnostic series, about 10 rads.
T/F
True
Biological effects of radiation on all living organisms, including human beings, are termed somatic or genetic.
T/F
True
Neutrons are charged, high-energy particles.
T/F
False
Fluoroscopy exams should be done before x-rays.
T/F
False
Factors that could determine the effect of radiation on the body include
a. rate of absorption
b. individual variability
c. nutrition, oxygen tension, metabolic state



MPD is the abbreviation for
maximum permissible dose
Only sperm and nerve cells can apparently replace themselves or recover, to some extent, from radiation exposure if the dose is not excessive.
T/F
False

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