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Glossary of RTVF 1310 Chapter 9

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Created by ConnorBynum

Growth Areas since 2000 has been the _________:

1. _____: voted top news source by __% of the public
2. _____: voted top news source by ___% of the public
3. _____: ____ study shows ____ as ___%, ________ as ___%, _________ as ____%



Internet

1. 1997 - 2%

2. 2006 - 24%

3. 2008 - Pew Study, TV as 70%, Internet as 40 %, Newspaper as 35%





After the ________ Assassination, _________ emerged as a _________ source of ______.

_______ of the suspect in front of _______.
__ out of ___ Americans watched the funeral which was seen ________.


Kennedy
Television
Primary
News

Killing
Millions
9 out of 10
Worldwide







6 Civil Rights moments seen on TV:
1. Integration of Central H.S., Little Rock, 1957.
2. "I have a dream" speech by M.L. King, 1963.
3. TV shows fire hoses and bullwhips in Birmingham.
4. Civil rights marches across the South.
5.1965 Watts riots, 1967 nationwide riots
6. Assassination of M.L. King, April 1968




3 Things about Television and the Vietnam War: _____-___
1. _____ years mirror ____ in ___ technology.
2. _____ serves as ______ ______ for _____ people.
3. Nightly _______ _____ brought into America's _______ ______.


1961-75
1. War, Rise, TV
2. War, Training Ground, News
3. Casualty List, Living Rooms


4 Things about Television's Growth with the U.S. Space Program:
1. Sub-Orbital Flights
2. Lunar Landing
3. Shuttle Missions/Tragedies
4. International Space Station


4 Things about News as Show Biz:
1.Sweeps
2. "Minidocs"
3. "News Consultants"
4. Increase in profits and fight for ratings.


3 Forms of Technology in News:
1. ENG - Electronic News Gathering

2. SNG - Satellite News Gathering

3. VOIP - Voice Over Internet Protocol



4 All News, All The Time Stations are:
1. C-Span

2. CNN

3. Fox NEws Channel

4. MSNBC





________ Journalism follows Celebrities and may be losing ______ as an _________ source.
Tabloid

Respect

Information



______ and ______ Cable News has ___-hour ________ versions of _____.
Regional and local Cable News has 24-hour localized versions of CNN
Cooperation is:

1. Sharing __________ between commonly _______ stations.
2. __________ which is 2 things:


1. Resources, owned

2. Coventuring which is:
1. Local affiliates re-broadcast independent stations and Cable stations (local-local news)
2. Partnerships with Newspaper and Radio.



News-On-Demand is for:
Sports, Weather, and News junkies needing up-to-the-minute scores, temperatures, and stories.
7 International News Stations:
1. BBC
2. CNN International
3. Al-Jazeera
4. Sky News
5. TFI & Canal Plus
6. CCTV
7. Telenoticias





Phase I of the News: ____________ involves these 7 people:
Preproduction

1. News Director
2. News Producer
3. Assignment Editor
4. Field Producer
5. Reporter
6. Writer
7. Editor







Phase II of the News: ___ ____ _____ involves these 2 divisions of people:
On The Air

1. Director and Production Crew

2. Anchors



In Phase I of the News,

The Director is:

The News Producer does what?



Director: The "Boss" that has overall day-to-day responsibility for the operation.

News Producer: retains editorial and content control over content within the newscast.



In Phase I of the News,

The Field Producer does these 2 things:

Field Producer: 1. Prepares Research 2. Scouts locations for pre-planned events (shuttle launch, murder trial, etc.) making them invaluable for reporters
In Phase I of the News,

The Reporter carries out these 4 orders:

1. Does initial research over phone
2. Sets up interviews
3. Teamed with a photographer
4. Supervises the editing of the stories


In Phase I of the News,

The Writer sometimes ____ the ________ gap caused by the _______ of _________ anchors who draw a good ________ but who may have _________ _______ skills.

The Editor:



Writer - fills, journalistic, hiring, attractive, audience, limited writing

Editor:
1. Is Responsible for putting together packages of news stories.
2. Inserts voice-overs and graphics collaborating with reporters.





In Phase II of the News,

The Director:

Anchors represent the _____ to the ______.
1. Must appear __________ and _________.
2. __________ continues over _________ quality of _______ anchors.





Director:
1. The Boss of the studio
2. Coordinates the anchors, cameras, reporters and personnel before and during a news broadcast in the studio

Anchors - news, public
1. Trustworthy, Authoritative
2. Controversy, Journalistic, Local





3 Forms of TV Entertainment Programming Distribution:
1. Network Programming (Broadcast): programs created and distributed by the major networks; LOST, Grey's Anatomy 2. Syndication: Programming sold by distribution companies to local TV stations and cable services. 3. Local-Origination: Programs produced by local TV and cable systems for their own communities.
3 Network Affiliates Agreements:
1. Network cash compensation the past

2. Affiliates compensated with avails within network programming.

3. Have the right to "clear" or "preempt" programming



History of Financial Interest and Syndication Rules:
Early 1970s:
1. FCC attempts to stop the networks from monopolizing entertainment production
2. networks had to begin paying "licensing fees" to production companies fro programming.
1986: Fin-Syn and the Emergence of FOX TV
1995: Fin-Syn Abolished - Networks allowed to own their own shows and sell them into syndication following network run.



6 Major Studios that Exerted Major Influence:
1. Columbia-Tri-Star (owned by SONY Corp.)
2. Twentieth Television/Fox Network (owned by Rupert Murdoch)
3. Warner Bros (owned by Time Warner)
4. Paramount (part of CBS/Viacom conglomerate)
5. NBC Universal
6. Disney Studios




5 Independent Producers and Their Shows:
1. Casey-Werner: Cosby
2. Stephen J. Cannell: Rockford Fils, 21 Jump Street, The Commish
3. Stephen Bochco: NYPD Blue
4. Aaron Spelling: Dynasty, Love Boat, Beverly Hills 90210
5. Witt-Thomas-Harris: Beauty and the Beast (TV Series)



______-______ _______ _______ (PTAR) intended to encourage _________ __________ in these 2 ways:
Prime-Time Access Rule

Program Production

1. By non-Hollywood/Independent production companies
2. Of Local programming by local TV stations especially in larger markets.




PTAR prohibited ____-___ market ________ ________ from filling ________ time with _________ off-network ___________ series. These 3 things followed:
top-50, network affiliates, access, desirable, syndicated

1. Resulted in this highly popular type of programming being more available to independent stations in those markets.
2. Enabled independent stations to compete with network affiliates during "Prime Time" hours.
3. PTAR effectively repealed by FCC in 1996.



The 2 Traditional Network Seasons are:

Fox Network Defied tradition by:
This Strategy is now followed by:

2 things about TV Production:




1. Fall Season: Sept-Oct
2. "Second Season": Jan-Feb

Running new episodes of popular shows in the summer, instead of showing Re-Runs; CW and ION

1. Dominated by a few conglomerates and major networks.
2. Some from independent producers.









6 Steps of Making a TV Program:
1. Pitch: an idea or concept may be commissioned by the network, either formally or informally.
2. Treatment: short narrative may be offered.
3. Development: process where costing and legalities are worked out.
4. Step Deal: arrangements for the program put together in specific order.
5. Network gets right of first refusal.
6. Pilot: sample productions ordered up by networks.




Cable Original Movies cost between: $ __ - __ ________.

These keep cable __________ despite __________ from _______ _______ & ________ _______.

They also address...



$4-8 million.

attractive, competition, video stores, other sources.

...more sensitive issues than films made for OTA broadcast films.



A Cable Series is a ______ of cable's ____________ __________.

They can be considered as a "_______ ______" regularly scheduled series.

sign, programming maturity

"high profile"

PBS produces a wide variety of ______ ________.

_________/__________ programming from the BBC and Independent Television (UK) also source for the ______ schedules of PBS _________.

Local Programming

Comedic/Satirical

Local

Affiliates





2 Primary Buyers or Markets for Syndication Programming:
1. Local OTA Television Stations

2. Cable Networks including USA Network, TNT, Lifetime, etc.

The _________ _________ __ ___________ _________ ___________. (N.A.P.T.E)

Created in ______.

Annual __________ - NAPTE __________ newly __________ programs to ______ and ____________ TV ________.



National Association of Television Program Executives

Created in 1963.

Convention, showcases, syndicated, local, international, stations.



3 Types of Syndicated Programming:
1. Off-Net Syndication: Programming originally produced for one of the major networks; 100 episodes is the magic number (Simpsons, Raymond)
2. First-Run: Programming developed specifically for syndication (game/talk shows, action)
3. Movie Packages: films that have completed their theatrical run and whose video and cable releases are sold to stations.

2 Kinds of Barter Syndication:

1. _______ _____ ______: __________ offer their __________ to stations at a ________ cost in exchange for the right to insert ________.
2. _______ _______: __________ offer their _________ to stations for ___ _____


1. Barter Plus Cash: Syndicators, programs, reduced, advertising.

2. Straight Barter: Syndicators, programs, no charge, local avails.

_________ ___________ (Syndex) provides ___________ in these 2 areas:
Syndicated Exclusivity

Exclusivity

1. In Market (OTA TV Markets)

2. National Rights (Cable Channels)





5 Programming Strategies:
1. Challenge Programming: (talk show vs. talk show)
2. Counter Programming (comedies vs. news, drama vs. reality).
3. Block Programming (genre groups, usually sitcoms)
4. Hammock (weak/new program scheduled between two strong entries)
5 Bridging (hour long program bridges a program change on a competing network)



In ______, ________ ________ called television a vast wasteland.

In ______, ______ ________ called television a toaster with pictures
1961, Newton Minow

1981, Mark Fowler

___ % of programming is made up of Theatrical Releases on major pay cable services.

Film studios sign ____________ Deals with pay services for specific runs.

Films are sold by distributors in ________ - a series of film titles sold to advert



80%

Exclusivity

Packages



An Anchor is a:
During the Late ___s:
1.The Anchor _________ in controversial "_______ ______"
2. Glamorous _______-__________ sometimes lack real ___________ skills.


Presenter, Reader, or Journalist

1.Engaged in Controversial "happy talk"
2. Glamorous Anchor-Journalists sometimes lack real journalism skills.


Between 1963-2005:
1. TV was named most frequently as ________ _______ of news.
2. ______ over the second choice - ___________ grew through _______,
3. __________ of people citing ______, __________, and __________ as their _________ news ______


1. TV was named most frequently as primary source of news.
2. Lead over the second choice - newspaper grew through 2000
3. Proportion of people citing radio, newspaper, and magazines as their primary news source has fallen.
4. TV seen as most credible since 1962, 1992 named most credible 2 to 1 over newspapers.


3/4 things about PBS are:
1. ________ target an "___________" audience. (not the _________ possible).
2. Charges ____________ _____ to _________ who share in the ______________.
3. In contrast to _________ ________, PBS ________ decide when to ai


1. Stations target an "underserved" audience (not the largest possible)
2. Charges membership dues to affiliates who share in the programming.
3. In contrast to Major Networks, PBS affiliates decide when to air national programs.

4th thing about PBS is?
4. It __________ no _________ itself, serves as a _________ to _________ ___________.
a. Just over _____ in _______ programs comes from one of PBS' _________ _______.
b. __% are made via ___________ ___________.


4. It produces no programs itself, serves as a conduit to program producers.
a. Just over one in four programs comes from one of PBS' member stations.
b. 7% are made via international producers.
c. Others are funded by consortiums, philanthropies, corporations, foundations and individual contributions.


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