Glossary of Q Bank Immuno, Micro, Biostat, Genetics, other
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- A latex allergy elicits what type of hypersensitivity?
- Type 1- immediate, IgE
Type 4- Delayed type, Cell-mediated- contact dermatitis
- What organism would likely cause a perforated peptic ulcer?
- H. Pylori
- What does Cryptosporidium parvum cause?
- severe diarrhea in the immunocomprimised
- What does Entamoeba histolytica cause?
- Dysentary like symptoms or liver abcess
- What does E. Coli cause?
- Many diarrheal diseases, and can infect soft tissues and bladder
- What organism causes fever, severe headache, confusion, swelling of the ankles and wrists and a macupapular rash in the same areas?
- Rickettsia Ricketsii
- infects endothelial cells causing vasculitis
- more common in the east
- What does Bacillus anthracis cause?
- Anthrax, inhalation causes a fatal hemorrhagic mediastinal lymphadenitis
- What does Brucella abortis cause?
- Brucellosis- chronic disease manifested by fever, night sweats, and weight loss
- What does Franscisella tularensis cause?
- Tularemia- Arkansas, Missouri; necrotic ulcerative lesion, fevers chills malaise
- What does Yersinia Pestis cause?
- the plague, Southwest US, from rodents. Enlarged hemorrhagic lymph node near the site of the bite; tightness in the chest.
- What organism causes hypotension, confusion, and a bullous rash on the lower extremities after eating oysters?
- Oysters- think vibrio
Those with liver disease, renal disease, heme disorders, and a past history of alcoholism are the most at risk for septicemia
- What does Aspergillus fumigatus cause?
- Mold that attacks wounds and burns of immunocomprimised. Can invade visceral organs like the lung
- What does Campylobacter Jejuni cause?
- Curved G- rods that cause enterocolitis w/ diarrhea and chronic gastritis (less common)
- What does Candida albicans cause?
- Opportunistic yeast that is normal flora or resp, gi, and lungs. Causes thrush and vulvovaginitis. May disseminate in the immunocomprimised
- What is necrotizing enterocolitis?
- Happens often at first feeding of oral food.
in the first few months of life.
Premature, low birth-weight, formula users are more likely due to decreased immunity.
Presents as abdominal distension and tenderness, with sepsis, hypotension, and neutrophilia. Causes gangrene of the terminal ileum and ascending colon. Will pass meconium before being fed.
- When would you see a thickening of the pylorus?
- Congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, vomiting and regurgitation in an older infant.
- What is Hirschsprung's Disease?
- Congenital megacolon from lack of enteric nervous plexus in segment on biopsy from failure of neural crest cell migration. Chronic constipatioin early in life. Dilated portion of the is proximal to aganglionic segment resulting in a transistion zone.
Can be differentiated from necrotizing enterocolitis by lack of meconium
- What would be the clinical sequelae of bowel loops in the chest cavity?
- from a congenital diaphragmatic hernia.
Resp distress and death in neonates
- What is involved in uridylic acid synthesis?
- Aspartate- releases CO2
- What Gram + cocci is most likely to cause meningitis in a neonate?
- Group B strep
- forms in chains
- What cell causes pruritis, urticaria, and mild wheezing w/in 5 min after a bee sting?
- Mast cells- type I hypersensitivity early phase. IgE triggers them. (IL 4 causes release of IgE)
Eosinophils (the first thought) enter when brought in by eotaxin. They are late phase.
- What is the mechanism of cefuroxime?
- cephalosporin- bind to penicillin binding protein
2nd generation - treats resp, uti, otitis media
- What infections are common in those with no spleen?
- S. pneumoniae, H. influenza, N. Meningitidis. They are encapsulated, and the spleen helps kill them.
- What trisomies can you live with?
- 8, 13, 18, 21
trisomy 16 is not viable
- What would a serum marker of c-ANCA indicate?
- Wegner's granulomatosis- kidney, lung involvement
anemia, thrombocytosis, leukocytosis, increased IgA, RF, and ESR
- When disease is likely to have anti-centromere Abs in the serum?
- When disease is likely to have anti-Ro Abs in the serum?
- Also called SS-A Sjorgen's Syndrome
Xerophthalmia (dry eyes), xerostomia (dry mouth), arthritis. Parotid enlargement. Increased risk of B-Cell lymphoma.
- When disease is likely to have anti-SS-B Abs in the serum?
- Sjorgen's syndrome
Xerophthalmia (dry eyes), xerostomia (dry mouth), arthritis. Parotid enlargement. Increased risk of B-Cell lymphoma.
- How does an organism that causes diffuse petechial rash, swollen ankle and knees, tender tendon sheaths, - blood cultures, + chocolate agar culture, keep reinfecting up?
- N. Gonorrhea- Pili undergo antigenic and phase variation
- What class of drugs cause arthropathy, myalgias, and leg cramps in under 18?
- What are the side effects of Azithromycin?
- mild nausea and ab pain
- What are the side effects of Metronidazole?
- seizure, peripheral neuropathy
should not be taken with alcohol
- What are the side effects of Rifampin?
- TB drug
hepatotoxicity, hyperbilirubinemia, porphyria, and cancer.
- What are the side effects of Tetracycline?
- photosensitivity, pseudotumor cerebri, macupapular rash
- What organisms are most likely to cause PID in young women?
- Neisseria gonorrhea
Both cause endocytosis by endothelial cells
Chlamydia is an obligate intracellular, cell-mediated immunity, resistant to B-lactams.
Gonorrhea is penicillin resistant due to penicillinase, killed by ceftriaxone
- What type of organism is Borrelia burgdorferi?
- what are the symptoms of 3ry syphalis?
- caused by treponema pallidum
Neuro symps ataxia, wide-based, slapping gate, loss of proprioception.
Degeneration of the dorsal root of the spinal cord
- When does E. Coli cause orchitis and epididymitis
- kids with congenital genitourinary abnlties and older men.
sexually active - n. gonorrhoeae
- What are the associations of the following and the male reproductive tract:
- M. tb- can cause tb of epididymus and teste, granulatioin
Pseudomonas- older men, nospecific cause of epididymitis and orchitis
Treponema- syphilis, testicular involvment with gumma formation, endarteritis, and a prominent plasma cell infiltrate
- When would you see a high titer of anti-RNP?
- Mixed CT disease
- What antibody is high in drug-induced lupus?
- What is Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome? What labs would you find?
- X-linked defect in the ability to mount an IgM response to capsular polysaccharides.
Labs- low platelets and Elevated IgA, normal IgE, low IgM
Triad of Sx- WIPE
Purpura of thrombocytopenia
- What bacterial pneumonia is common and dangerous in Cystic Fibrosis?
- P. Aeruginosa
- What the crap is brucella abortus?
- chronic granulotmatous disease with caseating granulomas. 4 states- Texas, Cali, Virginia, and Florida
Can cause abortions.
Presents as sweats, fatigue, weakness, and can involve the aortic valve
Veterinarians, ranchers, and carcass handlers
- At what T. Cell level is M. Avium common in AIDS patients?
- Which of the following can be replicated without a nucleus: Adenovirus, CMV, Influenza, JC virus, Polio
Adeno, CMV, JC are double stranded DNA viruses
Influenza- is RNA but is replicated in the nucleus
- What hepatitis virus has a high mortality among pregnant women?
- Hep E.
- What is the Arnold-Chiari malformation?
- Congenital herniation of hindbrain
Type I- cerebellar tonsils,
Type II- hindbrain, cerebellar vermis, 4th ventricle herniation. meningomyeloceles.
- What is a Dandy-Walker malformation?
- hypoplasia of cerebellum, enlarged 4th ventricle
- What is Holoprosencephaly, Lissencephaly, and Porencephaly?
- a complex malformation of the brain so that only a monoventricular hemisphere exists
Smooth brain, no sulci, severe neuro impairment
severe cleft allows communication with the subarachnoid space
- Why would Erythromycin and Theophylline be hard to administer together?
- Erythromycin blocks CYP450, so Theo is not metabolized as rapidly. OD causes Tachycardia, insomnia, and agitation
- What are the roles of the following bacterial enzymes:
- Catalase- turns OH into H2O, protects from phagocytosing
Hylauronidase- splits hylauronic acid, Group A strep
Hemolysin- lyse erythrocytes
Tetanospasmin- neurotoxin, inhibs GABA and glycine
- What is the etiology of Duchenne's?
- Frame-shift mutation-> deletion of dystrophin gene.
- What drug is one of the worst for anaerobes?
- What blood values are different in women vs. men?
things with iron
- What foods lack folate?
- Overcooked and old
Folate is very heat labile
- What organism causes gas gangrene?
- Clostridium perfringens- spore forming anaerobe- necrotic vascular tissue
- What is consanguinity
- elevates the incidence of a disease in a family, not a community
- What factor provides the best explanation for sickle cell in the african american community?
- natural selection.
advantage to have sickle cell since it prevents malaria.
- What does Spirillium minus cause?
- rat-bite fever
- What deficiency would increase the risk of infection of encapsulated organisms?
- C3 deficiency
appears later in age
- When does hyper-IgM present? Old or young?
- young, susceptible to pyogenic infections
- What is the role of IFN-alpha in infection?
- Leukocytes produce to inhibit viral replication
- What is the role of IFN-beta in infection?
- Product of fibroblasts to inhibit viral replication.
- What is the role of IL-2 in infection?
- IL-2 is a product of TH cells to cause prolif of other cells.
- What is the role of TNF-Alpha in infection?
- product of macrophages and nk cells, cytotoxic for tumor cells, causes cachexia.
- What is the role of IFN-gamma in infection?
- Product of TH1 cells that enhances the killing ablity of Macrophages.
- What bacteria cause pneumonia on top of the flu?
- S. Aureus- can cause an abscess
S. Pneumoniae- lung abscess is RARE
- Who are more likely to get an infection of Klebsiella pneumonia?
- alcoholic, diabetic, COPD
- What is a heterotopia?
- small areas of tissue in an abnormal site. A gastric heterotopia can occur in the small intestine and can cause peptic ulcer through acid production- one of the few clinically signifcant heterotopias.
- Where do you find GLUT 1?
- RBCs, kidney, brain microvessels, colon
part of the BBB
- Where do you find GLUT 2?
- liver, pancreatic beta cells, basolateral small intestine
- Where do you find GLUT 3?
- Neurons, placenta, testes
- Where do you find GLUT 4?
- fat, muscle.
Insulin makes it come to the surface
- Where do you find GLUT 5?
- fructose transporter found in small intestine, sperm, testes.
low levels in kidney, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and brain.
- What cells don't need insulin?
- What are 3 organisms that are not very effectively treated by penicillins and cephalosporins that can cause post-gonococcal urethritis?
- What organism would cause thick erythematous lesions on the ear and nose, sensory loss, but would not have many acid-fast bacilli?
- Tuberculoid leprosy- focused on the face, cooler parts of the body
Lepromatous leprosy- many bacteria, non-granulomatous
- What is onchocerciasis?
- river blindness, roundworm infection
- What is rhinoscleroma?
- destructive granulomatous infection of the nasopharynx caused by Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis. G- rods can be cultured
- Where is the smallpox rash seen?
- face and distal extremities
- Which lupus antigen can predict nephropathy?
- What is Ascaris lumbricoides?
- helminth- cylindrical white worm that is LARGE. Fecal-oral, eggs
- What worms are capable of autoinfection?
- Strongyloides stercoralis and Taenia solium- pork tapeworm
- What is transmitted via cysts in water?
- intestinal protozoa
- What worm is transmitted via pets?
- larva migrans
- what worm is transmitted via mosquito?
- filarial nematodes (not in US)
- What worm is transmitted via skin penetration?
- hookworms, threadworms and schistosomes
- What are the side effects of Cefaclor?
- Serum-sickness in kids and young adults urticaria, pruritis, morbilliform eruptions, eosinophilia, joint pain, swelling, fever
- What are the side effects of Chloramphenicol?
- Gray-baby syndrome
- What are the side effects of Doxycycline?
- fetal bone retardation
fetal liver malfunction
- What are the side effects of Procainamide?
- drug-induced lupus
- What are the side effects of Sulfamethoxazole-Trimeth?
- blood dyscrasias especially in elderly, and those with immunosuppression
- What is heteroplasmy?
- Mitochondria- # of mutated molecules-> severity
- What are the effects of AIDS on the brain
- multifocal leukoencephalopathy- demylenating disorder by the JC virus (eosinophilic inclusions)
- What is a case series study?
- detailed info gathered about people believed to have the same illness. for new diseases
- A cell in metaphase has how many chromosomes and how many chromatids?
- 46 chromosomes, 92 chromatids
- What virus gives the slapped cheek appearance?
- Parvovirus. Adults get arthritis
- What differentiates Staph? Biatracin or Novobiocin?
- What type of disease presents with hypoglycemia and hyperlipidemia?
- glycogen storage disease- von Gierkes
- What does hexosaminidase A go with?
- What is the only way to confirm HCV infection?
serum antibodies are not enough
- What removes immune complexes from the serum?
- What is chemotactic for neutrophils?
- What does the primitive streak give rise to?
- Notochord and mesoderm
- What HLA goes with lyme disease arthritis?
- What is the function of hammerhead ribozymes?
- cleave mRNA
catalyze the sequence specific cleavage of RNA phosphodiesters
- Deficiency of what AA results in NH3 buildup?
- Arginine- part of the urea cycle
- What are the phases of bacterial growth?
- Lag- metabolic w/o division
acceleration- cell numbers begin to increase
Log- rapid cell division
Stationary- nutrient depletion slows growth
death- prolonged nutrient depletion and buildup of waste products lead to death.
- What IL is high in Type I hypersensitivity?
- IL 4
- What is the role of IL 1?
- endogenous pyrogen, acute phase reaction of systemic inflammation
- What is the role of IL 2?
- cytokine of T-cell proliferation
- What is the role of IL 3?
- hemopoietic colony stimulating factor
- What is the role of IL 5?
- eosinophil stimulating factor
- What is the role of IL 6?
- endogenous pyrogen, stims b-cells, not IgE
- What bug likes V and X?
- H. Influenza
- What bug is visible in dark light?
- What bug has a waxy envelope?
- Mycobaterium- makes it acid fast
- What type of receptor is Alpha1?
- Gq-protein- PIP2, protein kinase C
- What type of receptor is Beta1?
- Gs-cAMP, protein kinase A
- What type of receptor is D2?
- Gi- decreases cAMP, Protein Kinase A
- What type of receptor is GABAa?
- What type of receptor is nicotinic?
- What bug is associatd with colon cancer?
- S. bovis
- What cancer is associated with HHV 8?
- Kaposi's sarcoma
- What are buzz words for CMV in a newborn
- periventricular calcifications and moms with the flu
- Which bug is associated with upper lobar pneumonia?
- What G- bacteria are lactose fermenters?
- What G- bacteria do not ferment lactose?
- What is Lancefield grouping used for?
- Strep classification
- What is the most common manifestation of Toxoplasmosis?
- It is usually aquired at a young age and reactivates.
- what group of strep grows in bile?
- S. agalactiae
- What tumor is associated with 22q?
- What tumor is associated with 5q?
- APC tumor suppressor gene of familial colon cancer
- What tumor is associated with 13q?
- Rb tumor suppressor gene
retinoblastoma and osteosarcoma
- What tumor is associated with 17q?
- NF-1- p53- many cancers
- What tumor is associated with 18q?
- DCC gene- colon and gastric carcinomas
DPC gene- pancreatic carcinomas
- True or False- there is vomiting associated with E. Coli food poisoning?
- What is the genetics of G6PD deficiency
- Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy:
What is the disease?
How is it inherited?
- acute or subacute vision loss in young men.
- How is neurofibromatosis inherited?
- Autosomal Dominant
Other ADs are:
- How is Tay Sachs inherited?
- Autosomal recessive
- Describe the zona occludens
- the tight junction
characterized by sealing strands. interconnecting ridges between two cells. Seal the intercellular clefts from contact with the outside environment.
- The toxin of botulism is created in what way?
- It is from a viral phage infecting the organism.
The O antigen of Salmonella, Exotoxins of S. pyogenes, and diptheria toxin are also contracted this way
- What type of virus is RSV?
- - ssRNA
- What bacterial toxins are chromosomally encoded?
- How do you differentiate Rotavirus from Norwalk?
- Rota <2
- What has oocysts of 5-7 microns and has watery diarrhea?
- cryptosporidiosis- sex phase in the epithelium of intestine of humans
Cyclospora- in jejunal epithelium
- When does S. epidermidis cause endocarditis?
- prosthetic valves
- What immune disorder would present with tetany?
- DiGeorge- hypocalcemia
- What is decreased alpha-fetoprotein a marker for?
What immune implications does this have?
- Downs syndrome
more susceptible to lung infections
- What would present with telangiectasias around the eyes?
- ataxia-telengiectasia syndrome
T-Cell receptor loci
- What part of the duodenum does the pancreas evolve from?
- 2nd part
- What TORCH virus causes seizure, cranial nerve palsies, and lethargy?
- What immune response would be characterized by atopic disease?
- Type I hypersensitivity
- What immune response would be characterized by cytotoxic disease?
- Type II hypersensitivity
- has 3
- has 4, so GOOD it has twice than it should, but working so hard it gets tired and numb.
Goodpasture, MS, nacrolepsy, allergy
- has less than it should, probably because it's duped up on sugar, vulgar, and has joint pain.
DM type I
- Has even less than it should probably because it's losing it all as it loses intenstinal cells. And the kids are hindered with arthritis
- the largest DR cause it takes steroids, but has nephrotic syndrome
- What is common variable immunodeficiency?
- heterogeneous complex of disease- aquired.
comes on with decreased Ab levels.
X-linked will have decreased B-cells
- What is adenosine deaminase deficiency?
- combined immunodeficiency
will present early in life
- When would you see single AA substitutions, what kind of genetic disorder?
- Autosomal Recessive
- What is a common example of a large gene deletion?
- What is Hungtington's
- deteriorating memory
loss of volume of neostriatum and cortex
- What is a substrate for glycoprotein (albumin) synthesis?
- What is Arachadonic Acid a precursor for?
- Prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes
- What is Ceramide a precursor for?
- gangliosides, galactocerebrosides
- What is Dermatan sulfate a precursor for?
- What is hylauronic acid a precursor for?
- What cells kill RBCs?
- NK cells
they have no MHCs, so T-cells can't do jack
look for CD56
- What CD receptor is on macrophages?
- many, but CD14 is an endotoxin receptor
- what is the role of CD16?
- receptor for IgG
- Lymphocytes in the CSF: viral or bacterial?
- Neutrophils in the CSF: bacterial or viral?
- What Dx procedures can be done for Cryptococcus?
- India Ink
latex particle agglutination test
- What bug grows on blood agar next to S. aureus?
- H. flu
- What is Thayer-Martin agar used for?
- When do you see owl's eye inclusions on urine exam?
- What is the ELEK test?
- Corynebacterium diptheria
looks for toxin
- What is the role of Long-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase?
- 1st step in B-ox of fatty acids
leads to muscle weakness
- What does hypoglycemia and hypoketosis indicate?
- block in fatty ox
- What happens in an alpha-L-Iduronidase deficiency?
- deficiency is Hurler disease
lysosomal storage disease- results in cardiomyopathy, valvular defects, occulsion of coronary arteries. Corneal clouding, retard, skeletal abnlties
- What happens in a acid maltase deficiency?
- acid maltase is a lysosomal enzyme (pompe disease)
glycogen fragments accumulate
- What happens in glycogen phosphorylase deficiency?
- Mcardle disease
- What type of virus is CMV?
- Double-stranded DNA, enveloped, Icosahedral virus
- What genetic anomaly gives rocker bottom feet/clubbed feet
- trisomy 18 Edwards
- What genetic anomaly has cleft palate, scalp defects, and more?
- Trisomy 13 Patau
- what is the role of DNA gyrase?
- negative supercoils to stabalize DNA
- What type of virus is Adenovirus?
- non-enveloped, icosohedral, DNA virus
cause watery, non-bloody diarrhea
- What other virus, other than influenza has segmented RNA?
- What is the FTA-ABS a test for?
- what are the symptoms of neurosyphilis?
e- eye (Argyll Robertson)
i- intellectual decline
- True or False: Pneumococcal pneumonia is resistant to Penicillin.
- What is caused by a deficiency in HGPRT?
- Lesch-Nyhan- excessive uric acid production
- What happens in a deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase?
- classic phenylketonuria
phenylpyruvate, phenylacetate, phenyllactate accumulate
musty odor, mental retard
- What is pleiotropy?
- the multiple effects of a gene mutation.
- What is the difference between allelic and locus heterogeneity?
- locus can be two different chromosomes causing the same thing.
Allelic- happens on the same chromosome
- What is a common cause of food poisoning?
- campylobacter jejuni
- What is the difference between Fructokinase and Fructose-1,6-bisphos deficiency
- Fructokinase is mild
F-1,6-bisphos is seen with exposure
- What is C-reactive protein?
- acute-phase reactant in any inflamm process
- What type of infection is someone with a defective chemotactic response be susceptible to?
- Chediak-Higashi syndrome
staph and strep
- What type of infection is someone with a defective NADPH oxidase be susceptible to?
- S. aureus
- What type of infection is someone with a defective C5 be susceptible to?
- What type of infection is someone with a defective IgA be susceptible to?
- What type of infection is someone with a defective thymic dysplasia be susceptible to?
- What part of the ear does pseudomonas usually infect?
- What is the function of Cromolyn Na?
- stabalizes mast cell membranes
- What is the function of theophylline?
- inhib phosphodiesterase
increases mast cell cAMP (like epinephrine)
- What immune condition is characterized by eczema, thrombocytopenia and repeated infections
- What is the confirmation test for HIV?
- Western blot
ELISA raises the suspicion
- What is the second most likely group for Pneumocystis carinii infection?
- Premature infants
- What is the mechanism of the 1ry Rx for Candida Albicans causing oral thrush?
- Nyastatin- for oral thrush
forms complexes with ergosterol-> membrane leakage
- What do you fight to keep chronic rejection from occuring?
- What fungus can cause fungus balls in the lung?
- What are the symptoms of an aminoacidopathy?
- first few days of life
isovaleric acidemia- ketoacidosis, hyperglycemia, hyperammonemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia
odor of sweaty feet
- What are the common symptoms of carbohydrate metabolism disorder?
- hypoglycemia, hepatosplenomegaly, and lactic acidosis
galactosemia- caused by:
inability to metabolize sugars, glycogen synthesis disorders, or disorders of gluconeogenesis
- What are the common symptoms of a fatty-ox defect?
- hypoketotic hypoglycemia, hyperammonia, and cardiomyopathy
- What are the common symptoms of an organic acidemia?
- metabolic acidosis
mild to moderate hyperammonemia
vomiting, encephalopathy, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia
- What are the common symptoms of a urea cycle defect?
at 24 hrs
- What is california encephalitis?
- caused by a mosquito.
- How do measles cause neuronal damage?
- perivenous microglial encephalitis with demyelination
causes convulsions and loss of conciousness
- What virus would cause phagocytosis of the motor spinal cord?
- what virus would cause abnormal giant oligodendrocytes?
- JC virus- multifocal leukoencephalopathy
- What virus would cause severe hemorrhagic and necrotizing encephalitis of temporal lobe with eosinophilic Cowdry type A inclusions?
- What diabetes drug can cause metabolic acidosis and an anion gap?
- Metformin- causes latic acidosis in renally comprimised pts.
- What kind of food poisoining does bacillus cereus cause?
- quick onset
ab cramps, nausea, vomiting
normal bp, temp, WBCs
- What is the drug interaction between tetracyclines and antacids?
- they bind together and tetracycline is not absorbed.
as will Ofloxacine and other fluoroquinolones
- What are some common findings in an ectopic pregnancy?
what bugs predispose?
- mass lesion on an adnexa
bulging of the cul-de-sac
- What is Wiskott-Aldrich?
What malignancy does it predispose you for?
- X-linked combined immunodeficiency disorder
presents with purpura, eczema, and recurrant opportunistic infections of polyssacharide capsuled organisms like strep. Decreased IgM and T-cells
Develop non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
- What is the Ab found in primary biliary sclerosis?
- What is anti-self IgG also known as?
- Rheumatoid factor
- What autoimmune disease is strongly associated with scleroderma?
- Primary biliary sclerosis
- What Ab is autoimmune hepatitis associated with?
- anti-smooth muscle
- What is cyclobenzaprine?
What are it's SEs?
what other drug has those SEs?
- centrally acting muscle relaxant
dry mouth, drowsiness, dizziness, weakness, fatigue, tachycardia, urinary retention, and abdominal cramping
similar to TCAs (amitriptyline
- What is the mechanims of action of Dantrolene?
- prevents the release of calcium
- What would candidiasis result in when grown in animal serum?
- What lipid storage disease is X-linked?
- What lipid storage diseases are more common in ashkenazi jews?
- gaucher, niemann-pick, tay-sachs
- what lipid storage disease does not always cause neurodegeneration?
- What type of cells are found in Krabbe's?
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