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Glossary of Psychology Test Chapters 16 & 3

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What is the endocrine system?
A system of glands that send chemicals through the blood stream to regulate growth and other internal functions
What are hormones?
the chemicals released into the blood by the endocrine glands; travel throughout the body and affect numerous target sites; help control a variety of internal regulatory functions
What are dominant traits?
mask effects of recessive genes
What are recessive traits?
these genes lay dormant
What are the devices of the brain?
EEG- monitor gross electrical activity of the brain

CT- construct detailed anatomical map of living brain

MRI- construct detailed 3-D images of the brain; used to map changes in blood oxygen use as a function of task activity

PET- measures how radioactive substances are absorbed in the brain; used to detect how specific tasks activate different areas of the living brain





What are the functions and major structures of the midbrain?
-conducting and switching center
-middle portion of the brain
-serve as neural relay station
-help coordinate reactions to sensory events

-tectum, superior colliculus, inferior colliculus, & substantia nigra




What are the functions and major structures of the forebrain?
-cerebral cortex & limbic system
-thalamus- relay center for sensory information
-hypothalamus- regulates eating and drinking, body temperature, & sexual activity
-pituitary gland, amygdala (part of limbic system; linked to motviational & emotional behaviors), hippocampus (part of limbic system; formation of memories)


What are the sections of the brain?
hindbrain

midbrain

forebrain



What are the functions and major structures of the hindbrain?
-Basic life support: breathing, heart rate, swallowing, vomitting, refelxes pertaining to seeing and hearing (startle reflex)

-oldest part of the brain

-controls sweating, blood pressure, digestion, & temperature (Autonomic Nervous System)

-sense of balance (vestibular function)

- affects level of alertness & ability to sleep

-Medulla, Pons, reticular formation, & cerebellum









What is the cerebellum?
"Little brain"

preparation, selection, & coordination of complex motor movements (ex. learning to play guitar)

muscle tone and body balance







What is the cerebral cortex?
-controls voluntary movements, sensations, learning, remembering, thinking, emotion, consciousness

-the seat of higher mental processes

-80% of brain volume

-divided into 4 lobes





What are motor neurons?
The carry information away from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands that directly produce behavioral responses
What are interneurons?
They are the most plentiful type of neurons.

They make NO direct contact with the outside world, & convey infromation from one neuron or processing site to another.

What are sensory neurons?
They make initial contact with the environment & carry the message inward toward the spinal cord & brain.
What are the four lobes of the cerebral cortex?
Frontal Lobe

Parietal Lobe

Temporal Lobe

Occipital Lobe





What is action potential? What is its typical speed?
the all or nothing electrical signal that travels down the axon

2-200 mph

What is resting potential? What is its charge?
the electrical charge that exists between the inside and outside of the cell membrane

negative charge

What is the synapse?
small gap between the terminal button of one neuron and dendrites of another neuron
What is substantia nigra?
group of neurons that produces & releases dopamine
What is the central nervous system?
consists of:
-the brain
-spinal cord

acts as:
-central executive of body
-decisions are made here
-messages are then communicated to the rest of the body






What disease is linked to an overproduction of dopamine?
schizophrenia
What is the autonomic nervous system?
controls:
-sweating
-blood pressure
-digestion
-body temperature
-heart rate
-automatic needs of the body

-part of peripheral nervous system







What is the difference between the PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM and the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM?
Sympathetic: readies the body for action (increases heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate)

Parasympathetic: calms body down by slowing heart rate & lowering blood pressure (reverses action of SNS when threat is over)

What is the limbic system?
structures involved in motivational and emotional behavior and memory
What is the amygdala?
linked to a number of motivational and emotional behaviors (for example: aggression, fear, defensive behavior, etc.)
What charges does sodium, potassium, chloride ions, & protein molecules have that are associated with the neuron?
sodium +

potassium +

chloride ions -

protein molecules -





What is stress?
the physical & psychological reactions that people have to demanding situations
What is the General Activation Syndrome (GAS)?
A general, nonspecific reaction that occurs in three phases :
1. alarm
2. resistance
3. exhaustion


What are the stages of stress?
Alarm

Resistance

Exhaustion



What is the fight or flight response?
a physiological response to the threat that mobilizes the organism for attacking or fleeing an enemy
What is type B personality?
-self-satisfied
-patient
-relaxed
-less likely to develop stres-related health disorders


What is a type A personality?
-hard driving
-ambitious
-easily annoyed
-impatient
-linked to stress-related health disorders
-twice as likely to develop coronary heart problems




What did Holmes & Rahe say about major sources of stress?
Social Adjustment Rating Scale :list of external life stressors
Why is noise stressful?
It has been linked to the appearance of such stress-related disorders as ulcers & high blood pressure, & with a decline in the percieved quality of life
What are positive ways to cope with stress?
relaxation time

find social support

find pet support

exercise

eat healthy







What does studies suggest about having strong social support during periods of stress?
Help one to cope with stress by having someone to talk to about stress.
What is Post Traumatic Stress Disorder?
an enduring psychological disturbance attributed to the experience of a major traumatic event
What is burnout?
physical & emotional exhaustion

cynicism & lowered self-efficacy that is attributable to work-related stress

What symptoms are associated with nicotine withdrawal?
insomnia
irritability
difficulty concentrating
increased apetite
weight gain



What diseases are linked to high-fat, high cholesterol foods?
heart disease
stroke
several kinds of cancer
obesity


What is the location and function of the PARIETAL LOBE?
-visual attention
-touch perception (somatosensory cortex)
-goal directed voluntary movements
-manipulation of objects
-integration of different senses that allows for understanding of a single concept

***TOP MIDDLE portion of brain





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