Glossary of Psychology Test Chapters 16 & 3
Created by mowens1014
- What is the endocrine system?
- A system of glands that send chemicals through the blood stream to regulate growth and other internal functions
- What are hormones?
- the chemicals released into the blood by the endocrine glands; travel throughout the body and affect numerous target sites; help control a variety of internal regulatory functions
- What are dominant traits?
- mask effects of recessive genes
- What are recessive traits?
- these genes lay dormant
- What are the devices of the brain?
- EEG- monitor gross electrical activity of the brain
CT- construct detailed anatomical map of living brain
MRI- construct detailed 3-D images of the brain; used to map changes in blood oxygen use as a function of task activity
PET- measures how radioactive substances are absorbed in the brain; used to detect how specific tasks activate different areas of the living brain
- What are the functions and major structures of the midbrain?
- -conducting and switching center
-middle portion of the brain
-serve as neural relay station
-help coordinate reactions to sensory events
-tectum, superior colliculus, inferior colliculus, & substantia nigra
- What are the functions and major structures of the forebrain?
- -cerebral cortex & limbic system
-thalamus- relay center for sensory information
-hypothalamus- regulates eating and drinking, body temperature, & sexual activity
-pituitary gland, amygdala (part of limbic system; linked to motviational & emotional behaviors), hippocampus (part of limbic system; formation of memories)
- What are the sections of the brain?
- What are the functions and major structures of the hindbrain?
- -Basic life support: breathing, heart rate, swallowing, vomitting, refelxes pertaining to seeing and hearing (startle reflex)
-oldest part of the brain
-controls sweating, blood pressure, digestion, & temperature (Autonomic Nervous System)
-sense of balance (vestibular function)
- affects level of alertness & ability to sleep
-Medulla, Pons, reticular formation, & cerebellum
- What is the cerebellum?
- "Little brain"
preparation, selection, & coordination of complex motor movements (ex. learning to play guitar)
muscle tone and body balance
- What is the cerebral cortex?
- -controls voluntary movements, sensations, learning, remembering, thinking, emotion, consciousness
-the seat of higher mental processes
-80% of brain volume
-divided into 4 lobes
- What are motor neurons?
- The carry information away from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands that directly produce behavioral responses
- What are interneurons?
- They are the most plentiful type of neurons.
They make NO direct contact with the outside world, & convey infromation from one neuron or processing site to another.
- What are sensory neurons?
- They make initial contact with the environment & carry the message inward toward the spinal cord & brain.
- What are the four lobes of the cerebral cortex?
- Frontal Lobe
- What is action potential? What is its typical speed?
- the all or nothing electrical signal that travels down the axon
- What is resting potential? What is its charge?
- the electrical charge that exists between the inside and outside of the cell membrane
- What is the synapse?
- small gap between the terminal button of one neuron and dendrites of another neuron
- What is substantia nigra?
- group of neurons that produces & releases dopamine
- What is the central nervous system?
- consists of:
-central executive of body
-decisions are made here
-messages are then communicated to the rest of the body
- What disease is linked to an overproduction of dopamine?
- What is the autonomic nervous system?
-automatic needs of the body
-part of peripheral nervous system
- What is the difference between the PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM and the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM?
- Sympathetic: readies the body for action (increases heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate)
Parasympathetic: calms body down by slowing heart rate & lowering blood pressure (reverses action of SNS when threat is over)
- What is the limbic system?
- structures involved in motivational and emotional behavior and memory
- What is the amygdala?
- linked to a number of motivational and emotional behaviors (for example: aggression, fear, defensive behavior, etc.)
- What charges does sodium, potassium, chloride ions, & protein molecules have that are associated with the neuron?
- sodium +
chloride ions -
protein molecules -
- What is stress?
- the physical & psychological reactions that people have to demanding situations
- What is the General Activation Syndrome (GAS)?
- A general, nonspecific reaction that occurs in three phases :
- What are the stages of stress?
- What is the fight or flight response?
- a physiological response to the threat that mobilizes the organism for attacking or fleeing an enemy
- What is type B personality?
-less likely to develop stres-related health disorders
- What is a type A personality?
- -hard driving
-linked to stress-related health disorders
-twice as likely to develop coronary heart problems
- What did Holmes & Rahe say about major sources of stress?
- Social Adjustment Rating Scale :list of external life stressors
- Why is noise stressful?
- It has been linked to the appearance of such stress-related disorders as ulcers & high blood pressure, & with a decline in the percieved quality of life
- What are positive ways to cope with stress?
- relaxation time
find social support
find pet support
- What does studies suggest about having strong social support during periods of stress?
- Help one to cope with stress by having someone to talk to about stress.
- What is Post Traumatic Stress Disorder?
- an enduring psychological disturbance attributed to the experience of a major traumatic event
- What is burnout?
- physical & emotional exhaustion
cynicism & lowered self-efficacy that is attributable to work-related stress
- What symptoms are associated with nicotine withdrawal?
- What diseases are linked to high-fat, high cholesterol foods?
- heart disease
several kinds of cancer
- What is the location and function of the PARIETAL LOBE?
- -visual attention
-touch perception (somatosensory cortex)
-goal directed voluntary movements
-manipulation of objects
-integration of different senses that allows for understanding of a single concept
***TOP MIDDLE portion of brain
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