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Glossary of Psych ch. 5 and 10

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perception
how we assemble sensations into meaningful patters
top-down processing
pre-existing knowledge leads to rapid organization of features into meaningful patterns
bottom-up processing
analyzing infor starts at the bottom and going upward to form a complete perception
divided attention
allotting mental space to various tasks or parts of taske
inability to see the event or object in view
inattentional blindness
habituation
situation when you respond less to predicatble or unchanging stimuli

Orientation response
bodily changes that prepare an organism to receive info from a particular stimulus
Perceptual expectancy
past experiences, motives, contexts, or suggestions that prepare us to perceive in a certain way
Figure ground organization
the way taht our perception organzies what we see so that part of a simulus stands out as an object against a plainer background
Gestalt Principals of Organization
closure, similarity, and nearness

Brightness constancy
apparant brightness of an object stay the same under changing light conditions
Size constancy
perveived size of an object remains constant, despite change in its retinal image size
shape constancy
shape of an object is unafftected byt change in retinal image
depth perception
ability to accurately judge distance
depth cues
feature of the environment, and messages from the boyd that supply info about distance or space

types of depth cues
binocular and monocular
retinal dispartiy
descrepancy in the images that reach the left and right eyes
convergance
using both eyes to judge distance under 50 feet
perceptual features
lines, shapes, edges, spots, and colors that provide the brian with info about what is being viewed

illusion
length, position, motion, curvature or direction is constantly misjudged
hallucination
perceiving objects or event aht have no basis in external realities
emotion
state characterized by phyciological arousal, changes in facial expression, gesture, posture, and feeling
mood
low intenstiy long lasting emotional state
autonomic nervous system
neural system that connects the brain wiht internal organs and glnds
sympathetic branch
activates body
parasympathetic
quiets body
amygdala
part of limbic system assocaited with fear response
meta-emotion
how we feel about feeling
Schachter\'s Cognitive Theory
emotions occur when physical arousal is albeled or interpreted on the basis of experience and situational cues
Cannon-Bard Theory
activity in the thalamus cuases emotional feelings and bodily arousal at the same time
James-lange Theory
emotional feelings follow bodily arousal and come from awareness of such arousal
psychoneuroimmunology
stuyd of connections among behavior, stress, disease, and immune system
progressive relaxation
produces deep relaxation by tightening all muscles in an area and then relaxing them
guided imagery
visualizing images that are calming or benefical

stress incoulation
uses positive coping statemtns to control fear and axienty

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