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Glossary of Psych Test 4 - Chapter 8&9

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Recovering a memory is like
watching unconnected frames of a movie and figuring out what the rest of the scene was like
when sven's parents overhear him describing a birthday party from earlier in his life, they look at each other in surprise. In the middle of Sven's recollection of his own party, were details of one of his father's childhood parties. Sven's memory illust
source amnesia
Chad remembers the feelings of excitement in his house when his mother stepped throght the door with his new baby siter. He can still picture the tiny little baby witha stocking cap on her head. His parents can't convice him that he actually stayed with
confabulation
In addressing the debate regarding children's memories of sexual abuse, it has become clear that:
preschoolers are more vulnerable to suggestive questions than are school-aged children
Which of the following statements about hypnosis is correct?
hypnosis has been used successsfully in anesthetizing women during childbirth
Which memory system has a limited capacity and stores items for about 30 seconds?
Short-term memory
In the 1950s, George Miller estimated the capacity of STM to be the
magical number 7, plus or minus 2
For most Americans, which of the following is four CHUNKS of information
9214 - random 4 digit #s
Memories of personally experienced events and the contexts in which they occurred are called:
episodic memories
Margeaux is introduced to the following people when she arrives at the party: Derek, Kayla, Calvin, Debbie, Rose, Melanie, Garrett, Tom, Francis, Jane and Vincent. According to the serial-position effect, it will be most difficult to remember the names o
debbie, rose, melanie, and garrett
When you roller blade, you are relying on ____ memory
procedural
___ occurs when instead of encoding just the physical or sensory features of the information, the meaning of information is analyzed
deep processing
In order to help her music students learn the lines of the treble clef in musical notation, the teacher has them learn the sentence, "every good boy does Fine" this is an example of
mnemonics
Professor lchthtyop, who specializes in the study of the Lost River Sucker fish, complains that each semester whenever he learns the name of new student, he forgets the name of a fish. He is complaining about the problem of ____ in memory
retroactive interference
contemporary memory researchers would be most likely to agree that childhood amnesia:
occurs because the prefrontral cortex and other key brain structures aren't developed yet
Guidelines to help people remember better suggest that, n general:
if people try to encode the information in more than one way, the infomation will be more memorable
T/F-Flashbulb memories, unlike the other memories, are accurate records of the past
False
T/F-In the three-box model, all incoming inforamation must make a brief stop n sensory memory, the entryway of memory.
True
T/F-Elaborative rehearsal is defined sa the rote repetition of material in order to maintain its availability in memory.
false
When memory tests were conducted on Chinese, deaf americans, and hearing americans, which group outperformed the others?
The chinese outperformed the american deaf, who outperformed the american hearing
any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs because of experience is called
learning
When Pavlov placed meat powder or other food in the mouths of canine subjects, they began to salivate. The food acted as a/an:
unconditioned stimulus
In classical conditioning, when the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus ______ occurs
extinction
You train your dog, Milo, to salivate to teh sound of a bell. Then you ring the bell ever five minutes and don't follow the ringing with food for Milo. He salivates less and less and finally stops salivating at all when the bell rings. But the next morni
spontaneous recovery
The proverb, "he who hath been bitten by a snake fears a rope" illustrates
stimulus generalization
5 year old Samantha is watching a stor for her window. A huge bolt of lightening is followed by a tremendous thundeclap. Startled, Samantha jumps at the noise. This happens several times. As the storm moves farther away, Samantha jumps at the sight of li
thunder;lightning
Elton's mother has been nagging and nagging that he should stop fooling around with his guitar and start studying. Finally, in order to stop nagging, Elton complies and hits the books. This example illustrates _______
negative reinforcement
Watson and Rayner made a loud noise behind poor little Albert's head by striking a steel bar with a hammer and then watched as Albert jumped and feel sideways on the mattress on which he was sitting. Then they offered a live, white rat and struck the bar
conditioned response
After paying a $500 fine, an able-bodied driver is careful not to park in a space reserved for handicapped drivers. The loss of money is a:
negative punisher
When a response is first acquired, learning is usually most rapid if the response is reinforced
on a continous reinforcement schedule
The application of conditioning techniques to teach new responses or to reduce maladaptive behavior is called:
behavior modification
which of the statements below is not an explanation for why punishment fails?
the punishers chosen are usually milder forms which are less effective than stronger ones
In their study of three groups of rats in a maze, Tolman and his colleague, Honzik noted that ___ occurs without obvious reinforcement
latent learning
T/F- social-cognitive learning theories believe tha omitting mental processes from explanations of human learning is essential in maintaining a rigorous scientific approach
false
Higher-order conditioning occurs when a stimulus that resembles the conditioned stimulus elicits the conditioned response
false -In classical conditioning, a procedure by which a new stimulus comes to elicit the conditioned response (CR) by virtue of being paired with an effective conditioned stimulus (CS) (eg, first pairings of tone and food, then pairings of bell and tone, until finally the bell elicits salivation by itself).
T/F-Punishing a child's misbehavior is most effective if there is a delay between the behavior and the punishment so that the child is forced to mull over the consequences to come
false
T/F-bad grades would be examples of primary punishers
false
T/F-extrinsic rewards can sometimes reduce the intrinsic pleasure of an activity
true
______ occurs when a pigeon that has been trained to peck at a picture of a circle also pecks at a picture of an oval
stimilus generalization
Fred was accidentally hit over the head witha canoe paddle one afternoon. Ethel asked him what happened just before teh accident. He couldn't remember. Fred is experiencing
retrograde amnesia
Hypnosis
is a procedure in which a practitioner suggests changes in the sensation of behavior of the subject, who cooperates by alterng functioning in accordance with suggestions
Research on eyewitness testimony illustrates
that racial differences may increae mistakes made by eyewitness
Ambassador McKenzie was about to ask a French diplomat to repeat his last comment but then the ambassador was able to "select" what had just been said: The ambassador's ____ enabled him to do this
auditory subsystem of sensory memory
Ryan, and avid football enthusiast, and his mother, who is much less familiar with the game are waching their favorite college team attempt to score. which of the following conclusions is most likely?
the positions of the players form one chunk in Ryan's STM but 11 chunks in his mothers STM
___ could be called, "knowing that something is true memories"
declarative memories
It seems to Madison that she has always known that sea lions got their names because of their loud roars. But she was surprised on her vacation to hear baby sea lions bleat like little lambs. Madison's knowledge about the roar of sea lions is a/n ______
semantic;episodic
Maintenance rehearsal is defined as
the rote repetition of material in order to maintain its availabilit in memory
when studying a students makes a drawing to help her remember some concept for a test. the drawing is called ____-
mneumonic
research on autobiographical memory notes that the earliest age that can be recalled could be represented by the experience of
welcoming a new baby sister at 24 months of age
Human beings have been called storytelling animals, and:
our stories reveal as much or more about the present as thy do about the past

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