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Glossary of Psych Quiz 3

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Created by nicoleshops247

cognition
the mental activities of acquiring, storing, retrieving and using knowledge
mental images
mental representations of previously stored sensory experience
concepts
mental representations of a group or category that share similar characteristics
Language
form of communication using sounds and symbols combined according to specified rules
mental images includes representations from which senses?
All!
visual
auditory
olfactory (smell)
motor
gustatory (taste)




problem solving and decision making use what part of the brain?
prefrontal cortex
Examples of concepts
cars, rivers
examples of abstract concepts
freedom, intelligence, good and evil
Concepts are essential because they
simplify and organize
artificial concepts
created from logical rules or definitions
Ex: triangle has 3 sides
Found in math and science

Natural concepts/prototypes
formed by everyday life experiences
Hierarchies
group concepts into subcategories within broader categories
(makes learning new material faster)
Problem solving involves these 3 steps
preparation
production
evaluaton

Preparation
1. identifying given facts
2. separating relevant from irrelevant facts
3. defining the ultimate goal

Production
possible solutions called hypothesis
1. Algorithms-logical step by step procedures
2. Heuristics-simple rules that dont guaranteee results but narrow down alternatives

Evaluation
Hypothesis generated in step 2 must be evaluated to see if they meet the criteria defined in step 1

evaluate if problem has been solved

Barriers to problem solving
mental sets, functional fixedness, confirmation bias
mental sets
using strategies that have worked in the past instead of trying new strategies.
Example: connecting all dots in a square in 4 lines
functional fixedness
tendency to view objects as functioning only in their usual or customary ways
Confirmation Bias
preferring info that confirms preexisting beliefs and ignore discounting contradictory evidence
Availability Heuristic
judging the likelihood an event based on how readily available other instances of the event are in memory
ex: 9/11
representative heuristic
estimating the prob of somthing based on how well the circumstanes match our previous prototype
ex: tall=bball player
Creativity
the ability to produce valued outcomes in a novel way
creativity possess these 3 characteristics
originality, fluency, flexibility
fluency
generating a large number of possible solutions
flexibility
shifting from one problem solving strategy to another
divergent thinking
a major element of creativity; thinking that produces many alternatives to a single starting point
Convergent thinking
narrowing down alternatives to converge on a single correct answer
Example of divergent thinking
how many ways you can use a paperclip
example of convergent thinking
choosing best answer in multiple choise
building blocks to language
phonemes
morphemes
grammar



phonemes
smallest unit of speech or sound
morphemes
smalles meaningful units of language
grammar
system of rules used to generate acceptable language and communication
example of phonemes
p in pansy
example of morphemes
prefixes:
un in unthinkable
example of grammar
they was in my psychology class...wrong
some believe that language development is ...
innate
present from birth
Chomsky
language acquisition device (LAD)
True or false: Culture can play a role in language development
true
Pre-linguistic stage
from birth-6 months
crying:reflexive response
cooing: vowel-like sounds
Babbling: vowel/consonant combos


Wechsler defined intelligence as...
the global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully and deal effectively with the enviroment
Intelligence is a .....concept
hypothetical, abstract
Spearman's view on intelligence
single ability or general factor called "g"
Multiple abilities
Thurstone and Guilford
Single ability with 2 types of "g"
fluid intelligence
crystallized intelligence
Fluid
education and experience, process things quickly
Crystallized
increase over life span
Intelligence Controversy
Mental Retardation
Mental Giftedness
Mental Retardation

IQ 70 and below
Mental Giftedness
IQs 135+
Explaining Intelligence Differences....2 theories
in brain
genetic or environmental influences
Developmental Psychology
study of age related changes in behavior and mental processes from conception to death
Development is a....process
ongoing, lifelong
There are .. stages of life span development
8
Prenatal
Conception-Brith
Infancy
Birth-18 Months
Early Childhood
18 mo- 6 yrs
Middle childhood
6-12 yrs
Adolescence
12-20
Young Adulthood
20-45
Middle Adulthood
45-60
Later adulthood
60+
Two Developmental Research Methods
Cross-sectional and Longitudinal
Cross-sectional Method
different participants of various ages are compared at one point in time to determine age-related differences



Longitudinal Method
measures a single individual or a group of individuals over an extended period and gives info about age related changes
True or False: Culture is an important determinant
TRUE, may be the most important
True or False: culture is largely invisible to its participant
true
Ovum
female egg produced by ovaries
zygote
the cell formed when a new organism is produced by means of sex
Germinal Period
first stage;ends with implantation in uterus
Embryonic Period
second stage; begins after uterine implantation and lasts through 8th week
Fetal Period
third stage; begins at 8 weeks until birth
Placenta
vascular organ that unites fetus to mother's uterus
link for food
link for excretion of waste

Teratogen
environmental agent that causes damage during prenatal development
EX: alcohol
Three key areas of development in early childhood
brain development
motor development
sensory/perceptual development

brian development
begins as a fluid filled neural tube
motor development
first motor abilities are limited to reflexes
sensory/perceptual development
sense of smell and hears are quite developed in newborns
Puberty
biological changes during adolescence that lead to an adult sized body and sexual maturity
most notable sign of puberty
growth spurt
Female Menopause
second most important life milestone in physical development
Male Climateric
physical and psychological changes associated with male aging
Primary Aging
gradual,inevitable changes
Secondary Aging
due to disease, misuse or neglect
Programmed Theory Aging
age is genetically controlled
-once the ovum is fertilized the program for aging and death is set and begins to run
-human cells have a built in life span
-Laboratory cultured cells cease to divid at 50 doublings (Hayflick Limit)


Hayflick Limit
lab cultured cells cease to divide at 50 doublings
Damaged Theory of Aging
an accumulation of damaged cells and organs over the years ultimately causes death
Average human being life span is
110-120 if health
Jean Piaget
Swiss developmental psychologist know for his studies of children and his subsequent theories of cognitive development
Schemas
Piaget
cognitive structures or pattens
Assimilation

Piaget
absorbing new info into existing schemas
Accomodation
Piaget
adjusting old schemas to fit new info
Piaget demonstrated that ...
a child is fundamentally different than an adult (Distinct Stages)
Sensorimotor Stage
birth-2 years
Object Permanence
objects continue to exist even when out of sight
Preoperational Stage
ages 2-7
In Preoperation Stage..thinking is
egocentric and animalistic
concrete Operational Stage
ages 7-11
In concrete operational stage, the child...
understand reversibility and conservation
Formal Operational Stage
age 11 and beyond
Formal Operational Stage is characterized by...
abstract and hypothetical thinking
T or F: All humans go through the four stages of cognitive development
TRUE
Attatchment
strong affectional bonds with others that endures over tiem
Infants are born with behaviors that encourage...
strong bonds of attachment
Most research has focused on the
mother/child relationship
Many researchers are divided along the lines of the
nature vs. nurture debate
Imprinting
innate form of learning within a critical period that involves attachment to the first large moving object seen
Three Levels of Attachment
The Strange Situation Procedure
-securely attached
-avoidant
-anxious/ambivalent


The Strange situation procedure
experiment conducted by Mary Ainsworth on attachment styles
securely attatched
child stays close to mother, shows mild distress when separated, happy when mother returns
(65%)
Avoidant
child treats mother and stranger the same and rarely cries when mother leaves (25%)
Anxious/Ambivalent
child is upset when mother leaves. when mother returns, child seeks closeness but squirms away (10%)
Baumrind's Three Parenting Styles
based upon the research of Diana Baurind
parenting syles based on degree of
control/demandingness
Permissive Parenting style
provide little discipline

passive-neglectful
Low C and Low W
Permissive Indulgent
Low C High W
Authoritarian Style
HIgh C and low W
parents are rigid and punitive, being low in warmth and responsiveness
Authoritative Style
high in C and high in W
generally set and enforce firm limits
Highly involved, tender, emotionally supportive
children do best with this type of parents
more self-reliant, self controlled, high achieving and emotianally well adjusted
goal oritented
friendly





Morality
The ability to take the perspective of, or empathize with, others and distinguish between right and wrong
the evolutionary approach says that morality is...
prewired for survival
Morality can and does have a ... component
biological
Lawrence Kohlberg
created a model of moral development based upon responses to moral dilemmas
Kohlberg had ... levels and ... stages of moral development
3 stages
6 levels
Preconventional Morality
birth-adolescence
Preconventional Morality
Stage 1
punishment-obedience orientation (no awareness of other's POV)
Preconventional morality
Stage 2


instrumental-exchange orientation (become aware of other people's POV
Children haven't yet accepted society's rule making processes
Conventional Morality
adolescence-young adulthood
conventional Morality
Stage 3
good- child orientation (nice, gaining approval)
Conventional Morality
Stage 4
Law- and order orientation (highest level attained by most adults and adolescents)
Post Conventional Morality
adults, personal standarts
Post-Conventional morality
Stage 5


social-contrat orientation
Post Conventional Morality
Stage 6


universal ethics (MLK, Ghandi, only 3%)
Criticism of Kohlberg's model
Moral Reasoning Vs. Behavior
Cultural Differences
Possible Gender Bias

Moral Reasoning vs. Behavior
positive correlation between higher stages of reasoning and higher levels of moral behavior
some feel situational factors better determine moral behavior
Cultural differences
some cultural studies support Kohlberg
Possible Gender Bias
Carol Gillian criticizes Kohlberg's model because it tends to classify females at a lower level than males
ignores common female values such as concern for others
Temperment
an individual's innate behavioral style and characteristic emotional response
Three temperment styles
Easy Children (40%)
Difficult Children (10%)
Slow to Warm Up (15%)

Temperament seemed to be ... and ... throughout life
consistent and enduring
Erikson identified ... psychosocial stages of development
8
Each stage was marked by psychosocial ..
crisis or conflict
Many psychologists agree with Erikson's theory regarding its contribution to
understanding personality development
criticism to Erikson's theory
very difficult to test scientifically
stage labels may not work for all cultures
works best with american and europeans

Individualistic Cultures
needs and goals of the individual are emphasized over the needs and goals of the group
Collectivist Culture
needs and goals of the group are emphasized over that of the individual
Research showed that martial satisfaction is associated with
greater life satisfaction
lower stress
lower depression
love maps
similarity





Important family factors that affect development are
violence and abuse
teen pregnancy and parenthood
Resiliency
the ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats
Resiliency has been studied throughout the world in
a variety of situation
most children who do well have the following characteristics
good intellectual functioning
Activity Theory of Aging
successful aging is fostered by a full and active commitment to life
Life satisfaction after retirements is linked to
good health
control over life
social support
ade


Disengagement theory
successful aging is characterized by mutual withdrawl between elderly and society
socioemotional selectivity theory
a natural decline in social contact occurs as older adults become more selective with their time
Grief is a natural reaction to
loss
First stage of grief
Numbness-dazed, shocked, denial
Second stage of grief
yearning-desire, illusions
Third stage of grief
disorganization/dispair-submissive, torn
Fourth stage of grief
resolution-put life back together and recover
Cultures interpret and respond to ... differently
death
as adults we understand death in terms of 3 concepts
permanence
universality
nonfunctionaliy

Kubler-Ross and the stage theory of death
Stage 1: denial
Stage 2: anger
Stage 3: Bargaining
Stage 4: Depression
Stage 5: Acceptance



"sex"
the BIOLOGICAL maleness or femaleness
gender
PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIOCULTURAL meanings added to biological maleness or femalness
Gender role
societal expectations for appropriate for male and female behavior
Two Theories of Gender Role Development
Social Learning Theory
Gender Schema Theory
Social Learning Theory
Passive
gender roles are acquired through rewards, punishments, etc
Gender Schema Theory
Active
gender roles are acquired through social learning and active though processes
Gender identity formation
self-identication as being either a man or woman
Transsexualim
mismatched between gender identity (who you feel you are) and what you really are (your makeup)
Transvestitism
cross dressing for emotional or sexual gratification
Sexual Orientation
gay, lesbian, straight
Androgyny
exhibiting both masculine and feminine traits
not a term for asesuality or transsexualism
Havelock Ellis
one of the first to study sex
most important person!
Alfred Kinsey
interivewed 18,000 ppl about sex life
Masters and Johnson
experimentally documented masturbation and sexual intercourse
Evolutionary Perspective of Gender and Cultural Diversity
emphasizes the adaptive value of behaviors, and suggests that sexual differences evolved from ancient mating patterns that helped species survive.
Sexual Strategies Theory
males are more interested in sex and multiple partners, sexually jealous and controlling
women seek a protector
Social Role Approach to Gender and cultural diversity
this perspective suggests that gender differences in sexual behavior result from the roles that men and woman internalize from society
Evolutionary or Social Role? What is the conflict
the conflict between evolutionary and social role perspectives may be resolved by examining the patriarchal systems that limit women's choices.
Females adapted to being controlled
Sternbery and Lubart
"Investment Theory"
creativity
"buy low/sell high"

Syntax
grammar rules that specify order
Semantics
using words to create meaning
Noam Chomsky
LAD
language ability in kids
Gardner
animal language studies
ASL
Spearman
said intelligence is a single factor
called "general intelligence"
Thurstone
said intelligence is multiple factors
Fluid intelligence
aspects of innate intelligence like reasoning, memory, info processing
tends to decline with age
Savant Syndrome
mentally retarded but gifted in something like music
Nature vs. Nurture theory
a question of whether it is in our biology (in our nature) or influenced by the enviroment
Continuity vs Stages theory
development is continuous vs. development happens in stagesf
Stabiliity vs. Change
is your temperament/personality stable and lifelong, or does it change as your grow up?
Maturation
development governed by automatic, genetically predetermined signals
Assimilation
process of absorbing new info into exisiting schemas
Kohlberg studied...
Morality
Levels of Morality
according to Kohlberg
Preconventional Morality
Concentional Morality
Post-Conventional Morality

Preconventional Morality is based on
rewards and punishment
conventional morality is based on
compliance with rules and values of society

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