Glossary of Psych Lecture 20
Created by jamiegallup
- Stimulus capture: visual grasp:
- gaze is suddenly grasping at something occuring in the enviornment
- Antti-saccade task:
- move eys in opp direction of target rather than towards target
- Anti saccade task shows tension between voln control of behavior in the __ ___ and involuntary, reflexive, primative control of behavior in the __ __
- frontal lobes
- Pts with PFC damage in the __ __ __ (Area __) will reflexively look at the target
- frontal eye fields
- 2 reasons why people w/ FEF amage will look at target:
- 1. Motor reflexive saccades
2. inability to produce anti-saccades
- What is motor reflexive saccades?
- Usually the frontal lobe inhibits the superior colliculus for relfexive, take this away and SC can do whatever it wants
- Why is there an inability to produce anti-saccades?
- Difficulty forming rep of goals that controls behavior
frontal lobe important for planning and making goals
- Without goal rep behavior is determined by what 4 things?
- 1. Reflexes
3. past reward (perservation)
4. immediate stimulus condition rather than abstract goal
- __ is fundamental of the PFC
- Rep of something in the absence of external stimulus is a fxn of __
- WM holds __/__ active in mind so that it __ behavior rather than behavior being driven by __ __
- Who said WM allows behavior to be determined by cognitive goals as opposed to external stimuli?
- Who said WM is a system for maintaining and manipulating info to perform a complex cognitive task?
- Baddley and Hitch
- What is the delayed response task?
- get a stimulus, most hold it in mind before you can react to it
- Mental rep:
- stimulus no longer visible so something has to be represented in its absence
- Who cannot do the delayed response task?
- 1. monkeys and humans with lesions in the lateral PFC
2. babies under 12 months
- What was the delayed saccade task?
- Electrodes place int he BA 46 of monkeys (dlPFC)
had to respond to saccade/eye movement in particular location after delay
- Time 1 delayed saccade task:
- Get cue where to move eyes but eyes stay focused on center dot
- Time 2 delayed saccade taks:
- Delay period, hold location in mind
- Time 3:
- center dot disappears and move eyes to where cue is
- The neural recordings for delayed saccade task showed that firing was __ __
- location specific
- Cells retained a __ __ of firing over the course of the delay in the saccade task
- high level
- Receptive field of the cell:
- place in the world that makes the cell fire
- __ and __ _ _ __caused the cell to fire in the delayed saccade task
- location and demand to be remembered
- Different cells for memory and __
- cue itself
- If the monkey made an eye movement to the wrong location during the delayed saccade task can be infered:
- the cell supposed to be holding location in memory did not fire right
- If the response was __ because it wasn't __ during the delay period likely the rep was not properly held in mind
- depressed, firing
- If they sent a pulse through the electrode in the delayed ssaccade task what would happen?
- monkey could not remember location anymore
- Memory scatoma:
- cannot see info, not blindness, bit of amnesia for this part of space
- Memory scotoma for WM:
- could see something happening in that part of space, but could not remember location, activity here essential to retain goal
- Focal __ lesions impair perfomrance for specific locations
- 2 interpretations of delayed saccade task?
- 1. neural activity of WM corresponds to rep of a goal
2. goal is maintained "online" avaliable for us
- keeps info in mind for a few seconds, after that if the reps still in mind they will be supported by other systems (STM or LTM)
- 2 buffers of the baddley hitch working memory model?
- Phonological loop (L hemi)
visuospatial sketchpad (R hemi)
- Hold diff types of info in mind and activate diff reps in part of brain that are symboli at holding diff things in the world
- The buffers try and remember things in absence of __ __ and need to engage parts of brain that __ __ and __ __ needs to keep info active
- external stimulu
- Executive process controls __, __ of reps that do __ __
- rehearsal, manipulation, cognitive work
- Human delay response task:
- Verbal: fixation point, followed by 4 letters, delay 3 seconds, repsonse if letter appeared before
Spatial: did spatial location appear before
- Regions of activation for human delay response task:
- verbal: Frontal lobe L hem
Spatial: frontal lobe R hemi
- 2 tests that increase executive demands:
- 1. n-back test: have to hold letters that occured several frames ago and state if match or not
2. Trail making: switch b/w 2 sets: have to hold 2 diff task sets in mind
- 5 deficits due to lateral PFC damage:
- 1. impaired WM
3. stimulus bound, poor response innhibition
4. poor planning and rule breaking
5. concrete thinking
- Why do people w/ lateral PFC damage do concrete thinking?
- Tend to fixate on info in the enviornment and cannot think abstractly,
- All lateral PFC damage deficits due to maintatining __ __ goals in __
- contextually appropriate, WM
- 5 General situations requiring Executive Control:
- 1. situations involving planning or decision making
2. error correction/trouble shooting
3. responses are not well-learned/contain a seq of new actions
4. situations judged dangerous of difficult
5. require overcoming strong habit or resisiting tempation
- What part of the PFC controls inhibition and WM? Emiotion and cognitive interaction?
- WM: lateral PFC
emotion: medial PFC
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