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Glossary of Psych Lecture 20

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Stimulus capture: visual grasp:
gaze is suddenly grasping at something occuring in the enviornment
Antti-saccade task:
move eys in opp direction of target rather than towards target
Anti saccade task shows tension between voln control of behavior in the __ ___ and involuntary, reflexive, primative control of behavior in the __ __
frontal lobes
superior colliculous
Pts with PFC damage in the __ __ __ (Area __) will reflexively look at the target
frontal eye fields
8
2 reasons why people w/ FEF amage will look at target:
1. Motor reflexive saccades
2. inability to produce anti-saccades
What is motor reflexive saccades?
Usually the frontal lobe inhibits the superior colliculus for relfexive, take this away and SC can do whatever it wants
Why is there an inability to produce anti-saccades?
Difficulty forming rep of goals that controls behavior
frontal lobe important for planning and making goals
Without goal rep behavior is determined by what 4 things?
1. Reflexes
2. habit
3. past reward (perservation)
4. immediate stimulus condition rather than abstract goal


__ is fundamental of the PFC
WM
Rep of something in the absence of external stimulus is a fxn of __
WM
WM holds __/__ active in mind so that it __ behavior rather than behavior being driven by __ __
goal/info
guides
external stimuli

Who said WM allows behavior to be determined by cognitive goals as opposed to external stimuli?
Goldman-Rakie
Who said WM is a system for maintaining and manipulating info to perform a complex cognitive task?
Baddley and Hitch
What is the delayed response task?
get a stimulus, most hold it in mind before you can react to it
Mental rep:
stimulus no longer visible so something has to be represented in its absence
Who cannot do the delayed response task?
1. monkeys and humans with lesions in the lateral PFC
2. babies under 12 months
What was the delayed saccade task?
Electrodes place int he BA 46 of monkeys (dlPFC)
had to respond to saccade/eye movement in particular location after delay
Time 1 delayed saccade task:
Get cue where to move eyes but eyes stay focused on center dot
Time 2 delayed saccade taks:
Delay period, hold location in mind
Time 3:
center dot disappears and move eyes to where cue is
The neural recordings for delayed saccade task showed that firing was __ __
location specific
Cells retained a __ __ of firing over the course of the delay in the saccade task
high level
Receptive field of the cell:
place in the world that makes the cell fire
__ and __ _ _ __caused the cell to fire in the delayed saccade task
location and demand to be remembered
Different cells for memory and __
cue itself
If the monkey made an eye movement to the wrong location during the delayed saccade task can be infered:
the cell supposed to be holding location in memory did not fire right
If the response was __ because it wasn't __ during the delay period likely the rep was not properly held in mind
depressed, firing
If they sent a pulse through the electrode in the delayed ssaccade task what would happen?
monkey could not remember location anymore
Memory scatoma:
cannot see info, not blindness, bit of amnesia for this part of space
Memory scotoma for WM:
could see something happening in that part of space, but could not remember location, activity here essential to retain goal
Focal __ lesions impair perfomrance for specific locations
dlPFC
2 interpretations of delayed saccade task?
1. neural activity of WM corresponds to rep of a goal
2. goal is maintained "online" avaliable for us
WM:
keeps info in mind for a few seconds, after that if the reps still in mind they will be supported by other systems (STM or LTM)
2 buffers of the baddley hitch working memory model?
Phonological loop (L hemi)
visuospatial sketchpad (R hemi)
Buffers:
Hold diff types of info in mind and activate diff reps in part of brain that are symboli at holding diff things in the world
The buffers try and remember things in absence of __ __ and need to engage parts of brain that __ __ and __ __ needs to keep info active
external stimulu
store reps
Frontal lobe

Executive process controls __, __ of reps that do __ __
rehearsal, manipulation, cognitive work
Human delay response task:
Verbal: fixation point, followed by 4 letters, delay 3 seconds, repsonse if letter appeared before
Spatial: did spatial location appear before
Regions of activation for human delay response task:
verbal: Frontal lobe L hem
Spatial: frontal lobe R hemi
2 tests that increase executive demands:
1. n-back test: have to hold letters that occured several frames ago and state if match or not
2. Trail making: switch b/w 2 sets: have to hold 2 diff task sets in mind
5 deficits due to lateral PFC damage:
1. impaired WM
2. perservation
3. stimulus bound, poor response innhibition
4. poor planning and rule breaking
5. concrete thinking



Why do people w/ lateral PFC damage do concrete thinking?
Tend to fixate on info in the enviornment and cannot think abstractly,
All lateral PFC damage deficits due to maintatining __ __ goals in __
contextually appropriate, WM
5 General situations requiring Executive Control:
1. situations involving planning or decision making
2. error correction/trouble shooting
3. responses are not well-learned/contain a seq of new actions
4. situations judged dangerous of difficult
5. require overcoming strong habit or resisiting tempation



What part of the PFC controls inhibition and WM? Emiotion and cognitive interaction?
WM: lateral PFC
emotion: medial PFC

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