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Glossary of Psych Ch 13- personality

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personality
the unique and relatively enduring set of behaviors, feelings, thoughts and motives that characterize an individual
consistency across situation
the notion that people behave the same way in different situation and carry who they are into almost every situation
consistency over time
the extent to which people behave the same way throughout their lives
trait
a disposition to behave consistently in a particular way
quantitative trait loci (QTL) approach
a technique in behavioral genetics that looks for the location on genes that might be associated iwth particular behaviors
NEO - Personality Inventory (PI)
measure of five major dimension of personality
who came up with psychoanalysis?
Sigmund Freud
unconscious
the level of consciousness containing all drives, urges and instincts that are outside awareness but nonetheless motivate most behavior
defense mechanism
unconscious strategies the mind uses to protect itself from anxiety by denying an distorting reality in some way
two qualities shared by all defense mechanisms.
they operate unconsciously

they deny and distort reality

most basic of all defense mechanisms
repression
repression
defense mechanism for keeping unpleasant thoughts, feelings, or impulses out of consciousness
reaction formation
a defense mechanism that turns an unpleasant idea, feeling or impulse into its opposite
what often results from reaction formation?
exaggerated or compulsive feelings or behavior
projection
a defense mechanism in which people deny particular ideas, feeling or impulses and project them onto others
sublimation
a defense mechanism in which a socially unacceptable impulse is expressed in a socially acceptable way
oedipal complex
desire for the opposite-sex parent and hostility toward the same - sex parent
who assumed that humans naturally strive to overcome their inherent inferiorities or deficiencies, both physical and psychological?
Alfred Adler
striving for superiority
according to Adler, the major drive behind all behavior, whereby humans naturally strive to overcome their physical and psychological deficiencies
inferiority complex
an unhealthy need to dominate or upstage others as a way of compensating for feelings of deficiency
whose signature idea was that the unconscious has two distinct forms: personal and collective?
Carl Jung
personal unconscious
according to Jung, all our repressed and hidden thoughts, feeling and motives
collective unconscious
according to Jung, the shared experiences of our ancestors that have been passed down from generation to generation
archetypes
ancient or archaic images that result from common ancestral experiences
anima
according to Jung, the female part of the male personality
animus
according to Jung, the male per of the female personality
who focused more on the social and cultural forces behind neurosis and the neurotic personality?
Karen Horney
basic anxiety
"a feeling of being isolated and helpless in a world conceived as potentially hostile"
the three neurotic trends
1. moving towards others (the compliant personality)

2. moving against others (the aggressive personality)

3. moving away from others (the detached personality)



humanistic approach
perspective explaining personality which is optimistic about human nature, believing that humans are naturally interested in realizing their full potential
who developed a unique form of psychotherapy based on the assumption that people naturally strive toward growth and fulfillment and need unconditional positive regard for that to happen
Carl Rogers
unconditional positive regard
acceptance of another person regardless of his or her behavior
trait approach
assumes that traits or dispositions are the major force behind personality
openness
how interested in new experiences or new ideas someone is

how imaginative, original and curious someone is

conscientiousness
how planned, organized, orderly, hard-working, controlled, persevering, punctual and ambitious someone is
extraversion
how sociable, talkative, active, outgoing, confident, and fun-loving someone is
agreeableness
how friendly, ward, trusting, generous and good -natured someone is
neuroticism
how anxious, worrying, tense, emotional, and high strung someone is
big five, or five-factor model
a theory of personality that includes five dimensions: openness to experience, conscientioiusness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism
basic tendencies
the essence of personality: the Big five personality dimensions plus talents, aptitudes, and cognitive abilities

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