Glossary of Psych Ch 11 - Motivation and Emotion
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- inherently biological states of deficiency that compel drives
- the perceived states of tension that occur when our bodies are deficient in some need, creating an urge to relieve the tension
- an external object or even that motivates behavior
- drives come the ____. incentives come from ____.
- what does the evolutionary theory look at?
- internal drives to explain why people do what they do
- what are the basic survival and reproduction needs and drives?
- hunger, thirst, body-temperature regulation, oxygen and sex
- the drive reduction model
- argument that when our physiological systems are out of balance or depleted, we are driven to reduce this depleted state
- what is central to drive reduction?
- the process by which all organisms work to maintain physiological equilibrium or balance around an optimal set point
- set point
- the ideal fixed setting of a particular physiological system, such as internal body temperature
- what are some examples of what we have set points for?
- hunter, thirst, respiration and many others
- the optimal arousal model
- another model of motivation that proposes that we function best at optimal level of arousal
- Yerkes and Dodson
- researchers who showed that both low arousal and high arousal lead to poor performance, whereas moderate levels of arousal lead to optimal performance
their research was influential in the optimal arousal model
- yerkes-Dodson law
- the principle that moderate levels of arousal lead to optimal performance
- concept describing the fact that people perform best and are most creative when they are optimally challenged relative to their abilities
- hierarchical model
- model of motivation which combines drives and incentives
- the rate at which we consume energy
- what are the four biological components of hunger?
- the stomach
hormones and neurochemicals
- a simple sugar that provides energy for cells throughout the body, including the brain
- which part of the brain is involved in hunger?
- the hypothalamus
- what are the four major hormones that stimulate appetite?
- neropeptide Y
- neuropeptide Y
- released in the hypothalamus when an animal is hungry or underfed and it stimulates appetite
- sends signals of hunger to the brain and thereby stimulates hunger
- what four hormones suppress appetite?
- what effects what we eat?
- external factors, including sight and smell of food, and cultural preferences or both
- when do cultures shape food preferences?
- when people are young
- how is BMI determined?
- by dividing weight by height to yield a weight-to height ratio
- what is the ideal BMI?
- between 20 and 25
- what is going on with the gene that produces the leptin hormone in some of those that are obese?
- the gene that produces the leptin hormone, which normally suppresses appetite, has suffered a mutation and therefore does not function properly
- brief, acute changes in conscious experience and physiology that occur in response to a personally meaningful situation
- term that refers to a variety of emotional phenomena, including emotions, mood and affective traits
- what types of things can emotion impact?
- memory, perception, attention and decision making
- affective states that operate in the background of consciousness and tend to last longer than most emotions
- affective traits
- stable predispositions toward certain types of emotional responses such as anger
- basic emotions
- set of emotions that are common to all humans
- what are the 5 self-conscious emotions?
- authentic pride
- the pride we feel in some sense of accomplishment in situations with controllable causes
- hubristic pride
- a more general sense of pride in oneself
more arrogant version of pride
- organized responses
- the adaptive value of negative emotions, which enables people to respond efficiently to a significant challenge or obstacle
- emotions create changes in...
- experience, thought, physiology and behavior
- antecedent event
- a situation that may lead to an emotional response
- emotional regulation
- the cognitive and behavioral efforts people make to modify their emotions
- an emotion regulation strategy in which one reevaluates an antecedent event so that a different emotion results
- a response focused strategy for regulating emotion that involves the deliberate attempt to inhibit the outward manifestation of an emotion
- emotional response
- the physiological, behavioral/expressive, and subjective changes that occur when emotions are generated
- facial action coding system (FACS)
- a widely used method for measuring all observable muscular movements that are possible in the human face
- duchenne smile
- a smile that expresses true enjoyment, involving both the muscles that pull up the lip corners diagonally and those that contract the band of muscles encircling the eye
- james-lange theory of emotion
- the idea that it is the perception of the physiological changes that accompany emotions that produces the subjective emotional experience
- subjective experience of emotion
- the changes in the quality of our conscious experience that occur during emotional responses
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