Glossary of Psych Ch 11 - Motivation and Emotion

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inherently biological states of deficiency that compel drives
the perceived states of tension that occur when our bodies are deficient in some need, creating an urge to relieve the tension
an external object or even that motivates behavior
drives come the ____. incentives come from ____.

the enviornment

what does the evolutionary theory look at?
internal drives to explain why people do what they do
what are the basic survival and reproduction needs and drives?
hunger, thirst, body-temperature regulation, oxygen and sex
the drive reduction model
argument that when our physiological systems are out of balance or depleted, we are driven to reduce this depleted state
what is central to drive reduction?
the process by which all organisms work to maintain physiological equilibrium or balance around an optimal set point
set point
the ideal fixed setting of a particular physiological system, such as internal body temperature
what are some examples of what we have set points for?
hunter, thirst, respiration and many others
the optimal arousal model
another model of motivation that proposes that we function best at optimal level of arousal
Yerkes and Dodson
researchers who showed that both low arousal and high arousal lead to poor performance, whereas moderate levels of arousal lead to optimal performance

their research was influential in the optimal arousal model

yerkes-Dodson law
the principle that moderate levels of arousal lead to optimal performance
concept describing the fact that people perform best and are most creative when they are optimally challenged relative to their abilities
hierarchical model
model of motivation which combines drives and incentives
the rate at which we consume energy
what are the four biological components of hunger?
the stomach
the blood
the brain
hormones and neurochemicals

a simple sugar that provides energy for cells throughout the body, including the brain
which part of the brain is involved in hunger?
the hypothalamus
what are the four major hormones that stimulate appetite?
neropeptide Y

neuropeptide Y
released in the hypothalamus when an animal is hungry or underfed and it stimulates appetite
sends signals of hunger to the brain and thereby stimulates hunger
what four hormones suppress appetite?
peptide YY

what effects what we eat?
external factors, including sight and smell of food, and cultural preferences or both
when do cultures shape food preferences?
when people are young
how is BMI determined?
by dividing weight by height to yield a weight-to height ratio
what is the ideal BMI?
between 20 and 25
what is going on with the gene that produces the leptin hormone in some of those that are obese?
the gene that produces the leptin hormone, which normally suppresses appetite, has suffered a mutation and therefore does not function properly
brief, acute changes in conscious experience and physiology that occur in response to a personally meaningful situation
term that refers to a variety of emotional phenomena, including emotions, mood and affective traits
what types of things can emotion impact?
memory, perception, attention and decision making
affective states that operate in the background of consciousness and tend to last longer than most emotions
affective traits
stable predispositions toward certain types of emotional responses such as anger
basic emotions
set of emotions that are common to all humans


what are the 5 self-conscious emotions?

authentic pride
the pride we feel in some sense of accomplishment in situations with controllable causes
hubristic pride
a more general sense of pride in oneself
more arrogant version of pride
organized responses
the adaptive value of negative emotions, which enables people to respond efficiently to a significant challenge or obstacle
emotions create changes in...
experience, thought, physiology and behavior
antecedent event
a situation that may lead to an emotional response

emotional regulation
the cognitive and behavioral efforts people make to modify their emotions
an emotion regulation strategy in which one reevaluates an antecedent event so that a different emotion results
a response focused strategy for regulating emotion that involves the deliberate attempt to inhibit the outward manifestation of an emotion
emotional response
the physiological, behavioral/expressive, and subjective changes that occur when emotions are generated
facial action coding system (FACS)
a widely used method for measuring all observable muscular movements that are possible in the human face
duchenne smile
a smile that expresses true enjoyment, involving both the muscles that pull up the lip corners diagonally and those that contract the band of muscles encircling the eye
james-lange theory of emotion
the idea that it is the perception of the physiological changes that accompany emotions that produces the subjective emotional experience
subjective experience of emotion
the changes in the quality of our conscious experience that occur during emotional responses

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