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Glossary of Psych Ch 10 -Intelligence, problem solving and creativity

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intelligence
a set of cognitive skills that include abstract thinking, reasoning, problem solving and the ability to acquire knowledge
who developed the first theory of intelligence and what was it?
Charlies Spearman

he proposed that human intelligence is best thought of as a single general capacity or ability

which question best illustrates the g-factor theory perspective developed by Spearman?
"how intelligent are you?"
multiple-factor theory of intelligence
idea that intelligence consists of distinct dimensions and is not just a single factor
what question best illustrates the multiple-factor theory of intelligence perspective?
"How are you intelligent?"
Raymond Cattel
broke intelligence into two parts - fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence
fluid intelligence
the ability to think through a problem one has never confronted before and recognize patterns that may lead to a solution
problems that require finding relationships, understanding implications, and drawing conclusions all require what type of intelligence?
fluid intelligence
crystallized intelligence
the kind of knowledge that one gains from experience and learning, education and practice
why is fluid intelligence culture free?
the solutions do not require culturally acquired experiences
what type of intelligence is influenced by how large your vocabulary is as well as your knowledge of your culture?
crystallized intelligence
john carroll
argued that intelligence consists of three levels arranged in a hierarchy
what are the three levels of intelligence deemed by John Carroll?
General intelligence
Broad Intelligence
Narrow Intelligence

successful intelligence
according to Sternberg, an integrated set of abilities needed to attain success in life
what three interrelated but distinct abilities make up successful intelligence?
analytic intelligence
creative intelligence
practical intelligence

analytic intelligence
involves judging, evaluating or comparing and contrasting information
creative intelligence
involved in coming up with fresh and useful ideas for solving problems
practical intelligence
the ability to solve problems of everyday life efficiently
Howard Gardner
argued that intelligence comprises at least eight distinct capacities
what eight distinct capacities did Gardner argue intelligence was comprised of?
linguistic
mathematical-logical
musical
bodily-kinesthetic
spatial
intrapersonal
interpersonal
naturalistic






linguistic intelligence
ability to learn, understand and use both spoken and written languages
logical-mathematical intelligence
ability to analyze information and problems logically and to perform mathematical operations
musical intelligence
ability in performing, composing or appreciating musical patterns
spatial intelligence
ability to think about and solve problems in three- dimensional space
who deserves the most credit for developing the first true test of intelligence?
french scholar, Alfred Biner
mental age
the equivalent chronological age a child has reached based on his or her performance on an IQ test
intelligence ratio
mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100 to determine an intelligence score
who introduced the intelligence ratio?
William Stern
intelligence quotient or IQ
the ratio of mental age over chronological age
what test did David Wechsler create to measure adult intelligence? child intelligence?
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales - WAIS

Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children - WISC

who developed the G-factor theory
spearman
what describes intelligence as a single general factor made up of specific components?
g-factor theory
mental retardation
significant limitations in the intellectual functioning as well as in everyday adaptive behavior, which start before age 18
adaptive behavior
adjustment to and coping with everyday life
what are the four levels of retardation based on?
how adaptive the behavior or thinking is on basis of IQ
what are the four levels of retardation?
mild -IQ of 50-70
moderate - IQ of 35-50
severe - IQ of 20-35
profound -IQ below 20


down syndrome
a chromosomal disorder characterized by mild to profound mental retardation
wheat lies at the high end of the intelligence spectrum?
giftedness
who are placed in "gifted" programs?
those with IQ scores of 130-140
prodigy
a young person who is extremely gifted and precocious in one area and at least average in intelligence
savant syndrome
a very rare condition in which people with serious mental handicaps also show isolated areas of ability or brilliance
what do african cultures deem to be crucial aspects of intelligence?
social skills, such as being socially responsible, cooperative, and active in family and social life
what do asain cultures deem to be crucial aspects of intelligence?
humility, awareness, doing the right thing, and mindfullness
convergent thinking problems
problems that have known solutions and require analytic thinking and crystallized intelligence to come up with the correct answer
divergent thinking problems
problems that have no known solutions and require novel solutions
what type of intelligence do divergent thinking problems require?
fluid and creative intelligence
algorithms
a step-by-step procedure or formula for solving a problem
mental set
a tendency to continue to use problem-solving strategies that have worked in the past, even if better solutions are available
Eureka insight or insight solutions
sudden solutions that come to mine in a flash
thinking outside the box
approach to problem solving that requires breaking free of self- imposed conceptual constraints and thinking about a problem differently in order to solve it
fixation
the inability to break out of a particular mind set in order to think about a problem from a fresh perspective
functional fixedness
mind set in which one is blind to unusual uses of common everyday things or procedures
creativity
thinking and or behavior that is both novel -original and useful-adaptive
who came up with the four stages of creative problem solving?
Graham Wallas
four stages of creative problem solving
preparation
incubation
insight
elaboration-verification


preparation
discovering and defining the problem and then attempting to solve it
incubation
putting the problem aside for a while and working on something else
insight
a eureka insight in which the solution comes immediately to mind
verification-elaboration
the solution, even if it has the feel of certainty, still needs to be confirmed
naturalistic
ability to recognize, classify and understand the plants and animals in ones enviornment

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