Glossary of Psych 401 Exam 3 Vocab

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Apparent motion
Phenomenon studied by Wertheimer in which stationary stimuli appear to move under certain circumstances
Gestalt organizing
Perpetual principles described by the gestaltists that summarize the ways in which sensory phenomena become organized into a whole, meaningful figure
Gestalt organizing principle of perception, a tendency for our perceptions to mirror reality as closely as possible
Figure ground segregation
Gestalt organizing principle stating that a fundamental perceptual tendency is to separate whole figures from their backgrounds
Gestalt organizing principle, a tendency to fill in missing gaps in our perception in order to perceive full figures
Gestalt organizing principle of perception, a tendency to perceive that objects in close proximity "belong" together
Gestalt organizing principle of perception, a tendency to perceive that objects resembling each other "belong" together
good continuation
Gestalt organizing principle, a tendency to organize perceptions in a smoothly flowing direction
geographical environment
for the gestaltists, this referred to the physical environment, as contrasted with the environment as perceived ( the behavioral environment)
Behavioral environment
for the gestaltists, this referred to the environment perceived, as contrasted with the physical environment ( the geographical environment)
psychophysical isomorphism
for the gestaltists, a sudden problem solution that occurred when the individual reorganized the elements of the problem situation into a new configuration.
functional fixedness
failure to solve a problem because of an inability to think of using some object in a manner different from its normal function
Von Restorff effect
increased recall of information that stands out in some manner from other to-be-learned information
For Lewin, term used to describe whether an object is valued by the person (postive valence) or not valued ( negative valence)
For Lewin, refers to the direction of a desired goal
Approach-approach conflict
For Lewin, a situation in which a conflict exists within a person, resulting from having to make a choice between two goals with a positive valence
Approach-avoidance conflict
For Lewin, a situation in which a conflict exists within a person, occurring when a goal elicits both approach and avoidance tendencies
Avoidance-avoidance conflict
For Lewin, a situation in which a conflict exists within a person, resulting from having to make a choice between two goals with a negative valence
Zeigarnik effect
Named for a student of Lewin, refers to a tendency to be more likely to recall unfinished tasks than finished tasks
conditioned reflexes
the outcome of Pavlovian conditioning; by pairing a conditioned stimulus ( ex: tone) with an unconditioned stimulus (ex: food), the conditioned stimulus eventually elicits a conditioned response or reflex
unconditioned reflexes
For Pavlov, any stimulus- response connection (ex: food-salivate) that does not have to be learned
In Pavlovian conditioning, the gradual elimination of a conditioned response following the repeated presentation of a conditioned stimulus in the absence of an unconditioned stimulus
The tendency for a response learned to one stimulus to occur after the presentation of a second stimulus similar to the first
systematic desensitization
Behavior therapy procedure in which fear response is replaced by an incompatible response (ex: relaxtion); pioneered by Jones and Wolpe, who named it.
behaviorist movement that emerged in the 1930s, associated with Tolman, Hull and others
logical positivism
philosophical movement associated with the Vienna Circle that extended positivist thinking; distinguished between theoretical and observable events and described ways of connecting the two through operational definitions
philosophical position that scientific concepts were to be defined in terms of a set of operations used to measure those concepts.
For Tolman, this referred to goal-directedness and was believed by him to be a universal feature of learned behavior
intervening variable
Used by Tolman and Hull; referred to hypothetical internal factors that intervened between stimulus and response
cognitive map
For Tolman, a hypothetical spacial memory of a maze, acquired simply as a result of experiencing the maze
hypothetico-deductive system
general approach taken by Hull in which hypotheses for research are deduced from the formal postulates of the theory, and the outcomes of research support the theory or lead it its modification
habit strength
for Hull, an intervening variable influencing behavior that was a direct function of the number of reinforced trials
primary reinforcers
For Hull, unlearned reinforcers (ex: food)
secondary reinforcers
For Hull, reinforcers that are learned through association with primary reinforcers (ex: money)
reaction potential
For Hull, the probability that a response will occur at a given time, depending on such factors as drive and habit strength
operant conditioning
Skinnerian conditioning in which a behavior occurs, and the immediate consequences of the behavior determine its future probability of occurrence
law of acquisition
schedules of reinforcement
Specification of the relationship btw. the number or pattern of responses and the delivery of reinforcers , whenever reinforcement does not follow each behavior
positive reinforcer
adding a positive stimulus (food, water, etc.) to increase behavior
negative reinforcer
removing a negative stimulus (loud noise, electric shock) to increase behavior
instinctive drift
Vicarious reinforcement

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