Glossary of Psych 346 Exam 2 3
Created by gallup005
- Why is sleep important for memory?
- The process recycles important (central ideas) through consolidation
- What are important characteristics of Ebbinghaus study of memory?
- - He ran carefully controlled experiments in the lab
- He ignored how memory worked in the real world
- What did Bartlett study?
- The recall of complex material
- Important takeaways from Bartlett's study as compared to Ebbinghaus?
- -Examined recall errors to understand enconding and storing processes
-used informal testing methods
-stressed participant's effort after meaning
- What does effort after meaning mean? Who came up with this?
- Bartlett: when faced with something don't understand one will try and put meaning onto it
- When does simple repetition work?
- When don't have to know the semantic structure - language learning
- What did the Glenberg, Smith, Green study find about repetition? Describe this study
- Found that maintenance didn't help memory of an already known stimulus because recall test relied on meaningful links between known words which depended on deeper semantic features
- What did the Mechanic study find on repition?
- Maintenance did help in one condition of unfamiliar stimulus that needed to be learned from scratch. Repeating an unfamiliar stimuli boosts repeition in phonological LTM
- Why do we do effort after meaning?
- We try to understand/impose meaning on the tings we precieve and experience - it's hard not to organize
- Gestalt Psych definition:
- The whole is greater than the sum of all parts
- Why will you remember numbers better in the context of letters?
- Because they stick out - gestalt psychology, distinctiveness, serial position curve
- What is incidental learning?
- Things that immediately grab attention - richer stimuli, learning w/out trying to learn
- How does semantic clustering work?
- If given a list of words, will recall them in semantic clustering - does require effort, so older adults are better - requires executive fxn
- What did the Tulving and Pearlstone experiment on learning long lists of words show?
- Memory is much better when given a category to recall - however can lead to errors
- What kind of material is easier to learn?
- pitfall of organized material for memory? What is needed as well?
- can lead to errors.
Distinctiveness needed - categories may lead you to think things are there that actually are not
- How does encoding and retrieval work for predictability processing?
- Encoding: provide structure to help organize learning, pick strategies, give cues as to what dimensions to look for...
Retrieval: serves as cue to help guide and organize memory in search
- How does distinctiveness (item-specific) processing use encoding and retrieval?
- Encoding: more attention and deeper/more elaborative processing
Retrieval: can distinguish correct item form alternative. Can help with knowing what item came from a specific episode
- When are imagery and mnemonics useful?
- Method of loci and speeches: attach specific ideas to specific locations and when want to remember mentally walk thru that location
Acroynms/other codes are good for remembering long/detailed info - imagery for vocab
- What do brain images show for imagery and mnemonics with verbal/visual?
- -No difference between if people used verbal or visual strategies.
-If people said they used verbal - used more LPFC and verbal elaboration
-If people had visual strategy - verbal activity doesn't matter, only visual
- What is the dual coding hypothesis?
- Concrete words (things we can visualize) are easier to remember/learn than abstract words because there are 2 routes of retrieval (visual/semantic)
- What are 3 characteristics of skilled memory?
- 1. encode meaningfully using preexisting knowledge
2. attach retrieval cues to the structure based on pre-existing knowledge
3. process becomes faster with practice
- Which level of processing is best and why?
- Semantic "deeper" best for memory
- What is transfer-appropriate processing?
- An idea that semantic memory is only better if you're being tested on meaning - A good match b/w how you learn the info and how you'll be tested on it
- What are the brain overlap in episodic/semantic memory?
- There's lot's of overlap but
Semantic uses: LPFC
Episodic uses: RPFC
- More activity in the ___ the more likely to remember it later on
- What did the Morris et. al. study show about LOP?
- It is important that the test match the way something is learned - encoding to match retrieval
- 2 central features of Bartlett's approach:
- 1. Effort after meaning: participant's actively work after meaning to try and capture essence of meaning
2. Schemas: representations of knowledge
- How does Bartlett's approach differ from Ebbinghaus's?
- Bartlett believed there was effort after meaning and memory lead by schemas whereas Ebbinghaus believed constricted memory into experiment and stripped pre-existing meaning to words
- Are schemas more likely to influence our memory performance after short or long delays and why?
- Longer delays because schemas represent social and cultural norms of knowledge - more likely to go with schema after delay because it's what you know
- What did the ambiguous figures study show about encoding and retrieval?
- People are influenced by a cue - if told ambiguous figure was dumbbells would draw it more like that than if said it was eyeglasses - encoding cues influence retrieval
- Depth of processing definition:
- The more deeply an item is processid, the better it'll be retained
- Why do semantic judgments lead to better recall? (time vs elaboration)
- It takes longer to do deeper processing
- Transfer appropriate meaning definition:
- Proposal that retention is best when the mode of encoding and mode of retrieval are the same
- Deep conditions (semantic processing) better for __ tests
- Shallow conditions (phonological) better for __
- maintenance reharsal definition:
- process of reharsal whereby items are "kept in mind" but not processed more deeply - continue to process an item at the same level
- Elaborative rehearsal:
- items are not simply kept in mind but are processed either morre deeply or more elaboratively
- subjective organization:
- strategy where learner attempts to organize unstructured material to enhance learning
- Why does semantic coding help?
- Deeper processing leads to richer representation for sound or printed appearnce of the word
- Hemispheric Encoding and Retrieval Asymmetry hypothesis: encoding of episodic memories involves the left front lobe whereas retrieval depends on the right frontal lobe
- visual encoding and episodic retrieval
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